International Journal of Geology

ISSN: 1998-4499
Volume 7, 2013

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Issue 1, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Landslide Hazard Assessment of the Cilento Rocky Coasts (Southern Italy)


Authors: P. Budetta

Pages: 1-8

Abstract: This paper deals with natural and human causes giving rise to the erosion of the Cilento rocky coasts. It is predictable that, in 2100, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea a sea level rise varying between 9 and 30 cm will be attained. This increase will also cause a marked rise in the erosion of rocky coasts because a wide extension of highly erodible rock masses characterizes the studied area. Data regarding failure mechanisms, landslide mobility as well as run out distances of about 228 landslides directly or indirectly triggered by the wave motion were collected. Using these data and the IFFI Catalogue (“Inventario Fenomeni Franosi Italiani”), a Coastal Landslide Density Map was drawn that displays landslide density areas varying between 2 and 10 landslides per km2. In addition to climatic, geomorphological and geological causes, coastal erosion is worsened by a poor supply of sediments providing beaches, coming from the nine main rivers of the area. Furthermore, these sediments show a granulometric sorting mainly towards fine sands and silts which are not suitable for the beach-nourishment. In order to obtain a relative estimate of net erosion and deposition along the bed rivers, the USPED (Unit Stream Power - based Erosion Deposition) model was applied that allowed to calculate a value of solid discharge, from the rivers of the area, of about 11 millions of T/year. An assessment of the potential degree of landslide hazard and rockfall mobility was performed by means of heuristic approaches based on the “Rock Engineering System” and “Reach Probability” methods. In spite of inevitable approximations, employed methods revealed that almost 56% of the coastal area displays high landslide hazard, 27% is characterized by medium landslide hazard, whereas only 17% is characterized by low landslide hazard.

Title of the Paper: Prediction of Strength Development in Stabilized Sandy Clay at High Water Contents


Authors: P. C. Naveena, K. H. Mamatha, S. V. Dinesh

Pages: 9-23

Abstract: Construction on soft ground poses many problems due to low shear strength, differential settlement, construction pore pressure development etc. It has been challenging task to improve the soft grounds. The increased land use pattern has put pressure to develop techniques for ground improvement of soft soil deposits. The ground improvement techniques are generally based on densification, inclusion of reinforcement, cementation and provision of drainage etc. Generally lime and cement are widely used to improve soft clays having high water content and compressibility. In this paper, an attempt is made to identify the critical factors governing the strength development of sandy clay soil stabilized with additives. It is found that the clay-water/additive ratio i.e., Wc/A is the prime parameter controlling the strength development when the liquidity index varies between 1 and 2. Based on this parameter and Abram’s law, the strength prediction equation for various curing times and combinations of clay water content & additive content is proposed and verified. This will help to minimize the number of trials necessary to arrive at the quantity of cement to be admixed.

Title of the Paper: Contributions above the Influence of the Strong Vrancea Earthquakes in Oltenia Region by Processing the Seismic Recording During Seismic Motions from 1986 and 1990


Authors: M. Calbureanu, R. Malciu, E. Albota, A. Ionescu, M. Lungu

Pages: 24-31

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of the accelerographic records, the processing the data obtained by the seismic station from Craiova for the earthquakes of August 30, 1986, May 30 and May 31, 1990. Strong Vrancea earthquakes are analyzed in order to present conclusions regarding seismic zoning for Craiova and Oltenia region.

Title of the Paper: Deformation and Metamorphism in the Central Part of the Ngovayang Massif (South Cameroon)


Authors: François B. Ndong, Sylvestre M. Ntomba, Divine B. Okia, Joseph O. Mvondo

Pages: 32-37

Abstract: The Ngovayang massif is part of the major tectonic formations in the Nyong Series in southern Cameroon. Its tectonic history is characterized by three deformation phases that developed during the Archean to early Pan-African period. The D1 phase is responsible for the S1 foliation and the P1 fold. Phase D2, considered as the major phase of deformation, is syntectonic. It generated S2 schistosity with a general NE-SW direction and NW dip. The S2 schistosity has an axial fold plane P2 and bears a lineation L2. The D3 deformation on the other hand is post tectonic and discontinuous. The main metamorphic imprint is related to the D2 deformation phase, characterized by a high grade of metamorphism (amphibolite facies superior to granulite facies).

Issue 2, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: A Novel Approach of Structural Health Monitoring by the Application of FFT and Wavelet Transform using an Index of Frequency Dispersion


Authors: Fragkiskos P. Pentaris, John Stonham, John P. Makris

Pages: 39-48

Abstract: Monitoring the state of a structure provides the ability to anticipate structural failures and secure the safe use of a structure. The ability to reveal valuable information from the monitoring data is many times difficult and without result due to the fact that there are many limitations in terms of defining when a structure becomes inappropriate for use, when the data reveal damage, when the structural response of a structure has non-linear characteristics which could hide damage. This work suggests a novel approach in structural health monitoring by measuring the dispersion of the fundamental frequency of a structure. We apply fast furrier transform and wavelet transform in SHM data and proposed a novel index, which measures the dispersion of the building’s fundamental frequency. This approach focuses on the frequency dispersion and presents its variability with and without structural damage and try to reveal non-linear characteristics of SHM data from a building under seismic or man-made excitation in order to work as an index of a probable structural damage. The suggested approach is applied in recorded accelerometer data, from a wired SHM network established in two neighbouring buildings of different age in the city of Chania, in Crete. The recording data were created by seismic activity, weather conditions and man-made activity.

Title of the Paper: Lime to Improve the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Acid Contaminated Soil


Authors: T. S. Umesha, S. V.Dinesh, P. V. Sivapullaiah

Pages: 49-57

Abstract: The relatively low strength of compacted dispersive silty soil (locally called Suddha soil) further reduces when contaminated with 2.5-15 percent hydrochloric, phosphoric and sulphuric acid solution. Addition of lime of about 3 percent which generally increases the unconfined compression strength of the soil is found to be ineffective to enhance the strength of contaminated soil. This has been attributed as due to non dissolution of reactive silica from soil and participates in pozzolanic reactions at low pH. Hence addition of lime is considered after neutralization of contaminated soil with addition of lime. Addition of 3 percent lime after neutralization of acid contaminated soil to different extents is considered. The soil then developed considerable strength on par with uncontaminated soil after curing. The improvement in Young’s modulus of stabilized soils is better for lime treated soil than contaminated soil.

Title of the Paper: Assessment of Evapotranspiration in Ecosystems


Authors: M. Hofreiter, P. Trnka

Pages: 58-62

Abstract: This paper deals with the online and offline assessment of evapotranspiration using mathematical models instead of direct measurement. The evapotranspiration was estimated using the Penman-Monteith Method and the Bowen Ratio Method on data obtained from 14 ground meteorological stations deployed around the landscape of South Bohemia in the Třeboň region. These data were recorded in 10-minute intervals and transferred via the GPRSS network to a server where they were accessed through Internet. Several times a year, these data were complemented by infrared images captured by aerial photography. The thermographic screening was done with an airship and by an aircraft for different altitudes. These infrared images helped to improve the evapotranspiration estimate in the vicinity of the meteorological stations. The data processing and modeling of the evapotranspiration of the selected ecosystem was done using the Matlab programming environment and its toolboxes. This paper also describes the method for the assessment of the soil heat flux which can be used for the online evapotranspiration estimation.

Issue 4, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: The Stability Analysis of the Civil Engineering from Oltenia Mining Area


Authors: Victor Arad, Susana Arad, Oana Bărăiac, Ladislau Radermacher

Pages: 63-71

Abstract: The incidents produced in the mining area, Oltenia, the subsidence and damage caused to buildings and roads located in this area, involved a survey on surface stability in this area. The land affected and occupied by mining, waste dumps, buildings represents over 9500 hectares. Because of the excavation nearby areas, the biodiversity is destroyed, the groundwater regime is changed, a natural geochemical transformation of soil elements is taken place and intense erosion processes and landslides are manifested. The paper analyzes the stability of the foundation soil and of the embankments of terrestrial communications routes (DJ 675A and DC 29) which were affected by the exploitation of lignite in the area. Slope sliding phenomenon is being analysed through methods of edge state analysis using continuum or FEA approaches.

Title of the Paper: Geological Investigation of Rahatgarh Waterfall of Sagar (M. P.) through the Field Survey and Satellite Remote Sensing Techniques


Authors: Kuldeep Pareta, Upasana Pareta

Pages: 72-79

Abstract: Satellite remote sensing technology and field survey methods have been used for geological investigation of Rahatgarh Waterfall of Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh (India). A reconnaissance survey is undertaken in geological study and mapping of the area. During the course of geological mapping various methods are adopted while depends upon the shape and nature of the terrain as well as on the outcrop pattern. LandSat-7 ETM+, IRS ResourceSAT-2 LISS-III satellite imageries and IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM were used to classify the various geological units found in the study area, and discriminate the1 lithology and structure of this area. A wide variety of digital image processing techniques were applied such as principal components analysis, and ratioing analysis. After the DIP, visual image interpretation, and comprehensive field survey, a geological map has been prepared. The author has also presented the stratigraphy, lithology, and structural aspect of the area in detail.

Title of the Paper: Expert System for Appropriate Actions to be Taken Before, During and After a Seismic Event in Venezuela


Authors: Francklin Rivas-Pérez, Astrid Dos Santos, Víctor Pardo, Francklin Rivas-Echeverría

Pages: 80-87

Abstract: In this paper it is presented a methodological framework created for Expert systems design and development for selecting the appropriate actions to be taken before, during and after a seismic event or earthquake. This expert system is implemented in a web site in order to let the users to present their own personal and familiar situation to the system and find accurate information about the consideration and safety actions that the users and their families should take. For building the system it was used a set of experts with more than 25 years of experience in diverse areas including engineering, safety, security, geophysics, medical, among others.

Title of the Paper: Efficiency of Two Types of Activated Carbon Columns to Treat Industrial Wastewater: A Case Study


Authors: S. A. Mirbagheri, N. Biglarijoo, S. Ahmadi

Pages: 88-93

Abstract: Heavy metals are hazardous elements in aqueous solutions which threaten the living thing organisms. Steel making plant is among the industries which may generate high amounts of pollutants and can possess high values of heavy metals. In this research granular activated carbon material is used in two different types: 1) column made of separate layers of activated carbon and sand 2) column made of mixed layers of activated carbon and sand. Then the removal efficiency of TDS, Turbidity, Fe Concentration, Zn Concentration and Mn Concentration are considered. Based on the results, both systems can efficiently remove heavy metals from this wastewater while they have some minor differences. In the end, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms are evaluated for both adsorption columns. These models showed that they can match with experimental results efficiently.