Prof. Valeri Mladenov Techn.Univ. of Sofia, Bulgaria

Nikos Mastorakis
Techn.Univ. of Sofia, Bulgaria

Editorial Board
Prof. Joseph Sifakis, CNRS/Verimag, FRANCE

Prof. Lotfi A. Zadeh,
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Prof. Leon O. Chua, |
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Prof. K. R. Rao,
University of Texas at
Arlington, TX, USA

Prof. Biswa N. Datta, Northern Illinois University, USA

Prof. Irwin Sandberg, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

Prof. P. Pardalos, University of Florida, USA

Prof. A. Manikas, Imperial College, UK

Prof. T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology, POLAND

Prof. Wlodzislaw Duch,
Nicolaus Copernicus
University, POLAND

Prof. Sidney Burrus, Rice University, USA

Prof. Leonid G. Kazovsky, Stanford University,

Prof. Georgios B. Giannakis, University of Minnesota,

Prof. Nikolaos G. Bourbakis, Wright State University,

Prof. Ryszard S. Choras, University of Technology &
Life Sciences, POLAND

Prof. Wasfy B. Mikhael, University of Central Florida, USA

Prof. M. Kostic,
Northern Illinois University,

Prof. A. Venetsanopoulos, University of Toronto, Canada

Prof. K. Benra,
University of Duisburg-Essen,

Prof. S. Sohrab,
Northwestern University,

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Control Theory
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ISSN: 1998-0159
FORMAT: Format (.doc)  or  Format (LaTeX)



Year 2012

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

Previous Volumes: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 6, 2012)


RRTs Review and Statistical Analysis
Ahmad Abbadi, Radomil Matousek

Abstract: Path planning is one of the important issues in robotics area. There are many ideas to deal with this issue one of them is RRT (Rapidly Exploring Random Tree). This method is not optimal but it reduces the time needed for obtaining solutions. This algorithm is based on portability, the result of this algorithm is a tortuous path which has a lot of useless points. In this paper we introduce some variants of RRTs and a method for reduce a degree of tortuous, making the path shorter and omitting useless points. Also because of RRT’s randomizes we make some statistical test on many variations of RRT, to make decisions about the best variations.


An Idea for Finding the Shortest Driving Time Using Genetic Algorithm Based Routing Approach on Mobile Devices
Umit Atila, Ismail Rakip Karas, Cevdet Gologlu, Beyza Yaman, Ilhami Muharrem Orak

Abstract: People‘s orientation to the mobile devices all over the world have made the using of route guidance systems that assist drivers on the traffic widespread in daily life. For an effective routing, these systems should take into account the effectual factors of traffic flow such as allowable velocity limits of the roads and density. The computational cost of the system is up to the amount of nodes in road network and effectual factors. When we consider the road networks with excessive number of nodes, finding the exact routes in real time using some well known deterministic methods such as Dijkstra‘s algorithm on such routing systems may not be accurate using mobile devices with limited memory capacity and processing speed. In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach applied on a route guidance system for finding the shortest driving time is proposed. A different gene search approach on crossover operation named ―first-match-genes‖ had been introduced. A mobile application for the traffic network of Ankara and the performance of the genetic algorithm tested on networks with 10, 50, 250, 1000 nodes was presented.


Measuring IT Governance Performance: A Research Study on CobiT- Based Regulation Framework Usage
Mario Spremic

Abstract: After explaining the Information Technology (IT) governance concept and external and national regulation, in this paper we investigate if the prescribed regulatory requirements and regular information system (IS) audits affect the IT Governance initiatives and foster strategic business/IT alignment. External and especially national IT Governance regulation framework in the Republic of Croatia was explained in further details. We constructed the research model around IT Governance components and conducted the research by the series of long-lasting comprehensive in-depth interviews with responsible employees. On the sample of selected Croatian small banks, the organizational position and the role of IT in the business has been investigated, while specific research interest was to get the clear view of the maturity level of IT usage. We hoped that such approach could be useful when trying to answer the posed research question: can national IT Governance regulatory framework help to start to measure IT Governance maturity and are such initiatives helpful in aligning IT and business?


A New Standard Uptake Values (SUV) Calculation based on Pixel Intensity Values
Somphob Soongsathitanon, Pawitra Masa-Ah, Malulee Tuntawiroon

Abstract: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is one of the major cancer imaging tools for both diagnosis and staging. The prognostic significant parameter for PET scan is Standard Uptake Values (SUV). The SUV can be used as a tool to supplement the visual interpretation for physician. However the SUV can not be calculated without the vendor’s application software. In order to calculate the SUV without the vendor’s application software, a new standard uptake values (SUV) calculation scheme based on image intensity has been introduced. This new scheme is tested by using 108 slices of DICOM files obtained from 11 patients (8 men, 3 women). The comparative study between this scheme and the GE Xeleris workstation has been done and the results showed that the correlation between the two systems is statistically significant with a 99% confidence interval. The average percentage of accuracy is 85% for the report at a 95% confidence interval. So this scheme can be used as an alternative tool to calculate the SUV and it can be installed in any computers.


Rectification Column - Mathematical Modeled and Computer Simulated Real System
S. Hubalovsky

Abstract: One of the most important methods in current scientific and technological research is process of modeling and simulation of real experiment as well as modeling and simulation of real experimental device. System approach, modeling and simulation are discipline with its own theory and research methodology. The paper focuses to the theory of the process of modeling and simulation, visualization and model validation and verification of real experiment and experimental device. Multidisciplinary approach is point out too. Step by step there will be shown the process of creation of static and dynamic mathematical model of the real experimental device – seven storey rectification column. Mathematical model is supplemented the simulation model written in Visual Basic for Excel. Visualization is a part of the simulation model. Validation of the mathematic model as well as verification of the simulation model is shown in the paper too.


Mixing of Two Different Temperature Water Flows as Feedback Controlled System Mathematically Modeled and Simulated in MS Excel Spreadsheet
S. Hubalovsky

Abstract: One of the most important methods in current scientific and technological research is process of modeling and simulation of real experiment as well as modeling and simulation of of feedback regulated systems. System approach, modeling and simulation are discipline with its own theory and research methodology. The paper focuses to the theory of the process of modeling and simulation, visualization of feedback controlled system. Multidisciplinary approach is point out too. Step by step there will be shown the process of creation of static, dynamic and feedback controlled mathematical model. Mathematical model is supplemented by the simulation model realized in MS Excel spreadsheet. Visualization of the simulation model is realized in MS Excel XY chart.


The Averaging Model of a Six-Pulse Diode Rectifier Feeding Paralleled Buck Converters
T. Sopaprim, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak

Abstract: Power converter models are time-varying in nature because of their switching behaviors. This paper presents the averaging methods called DQ and generalized state-space averaging modeling methods that are used to eliminate the switching actions to achieve the time-invariant models. The DQ modeling method is used to analyze the dynamic model of a three-phase rectifier including the transmission line on AC side, while the generalized state-space averaging modeling method is applied to derive the dynamic model of a buck converter. Intensive time-domain simulations via the wellknown software packages with the exact topology models are used to validate the proposed models. The simulation results show that the proposed mathematical models provide high accuracies in both transient and steady-state responses. The reported models require the very fast simulation time compared with the full topology model of commercial software packages. Therefore, the averaging model is suitable for the system design via the searching algorithms in which the repeating calculation is needed during the searching process.


Using NARX Model with Wavelet Network to Inferring the Polished Rod Position
Emanuel Cajueiro, Ricardo Kalid, Leizer Schnitman

Abstract: Although several studies have been conducted on the sucker-rod pumping system, even today, the acquisition of the polished rod position is carried out by using position transducers. In this paper, we present experimental results showing that the dynamic position of the polished rod can be inferred from the torque current ofa three-phase induction motor (which is given by sensorless vector AC-drive) using nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) with wavelet network (wavenet). The results obtained in the validation stage show that, on the basis of the experimental set used in this work, the best estimated model is suitable to represent the dynamic behavior of the polished-rod of the pumping unit.


Influence of Raster Data Quality on Spatial Modelling and Analyses
Jitka Komarkova, Pavel Sedlak, Martin Jedlicka, Lucie Horakova, Petr Sramek, Jana Hejlova

Abstract: A good decision making is partially based on a good quality of data and/or information provided by information systems. Without input data at an appropriate level of quality, information systems cannot provide quality information. Therefore, many standards and data quality models have been developed. Later on, spatially oriented decision-making have become more important, so attention was focused on spatial data too. Quality evaluation of spatial data requires special standards because of the special properties of spatial data. The contribution is mainly focused on raster data models. At first, a brief description of spatial data quality evaluation is provided. Then, a set of quality characteristics and parameters for raster data within the framework of existing ISO standards is proposed. Finally, the proposed set is used to evaluate two example data sets and several practical examples connected to the raster data quality and its influence on spatial modelling are described.


A Software for Calculation of Optimum Conditions for Cotton, Viscose, Polyester and Wool Based Yarn Bobbins in a Hot-Air Bobbin Dryer
H. Kuşçu, K. Kahveci, U. Akyol, A. Cihan

Abstract: In this study, a software has been developed to predict the optimum drying conditions of viscose, wool, polyester and cotton based yarn bobbins for drying in a pressurized hot air dryer. For this purpose, firstly, a suitable drying model has been found in defining the drying behavior of bobbins using the experimental drying behavior. After that, additional regression analyses have been made to take into account the effect of the drying parameters on drying. Then, a software has been developed using Visual Basic programming language. With the aid of this software, optimum drying conditions for drying time and energy consumption can be obtained for the cotton, viscose, polyester and wool based yarn bobbins.


Optimization of Digital Image Watermarking Scheme Using Artificial Intelligent Technique
P. Kumsawat, K. Pasitwilitham, K. Attakitmongcol, A. Srikaew

Abstract: In this paper, a robust image watermarking scheme for copyright protection of electron microscope image is proposed. The watermark insertion and watermark extraction are based on quantization index modulation technique and does not need the original image in the watermark extraction process. We have developed an optimization technique using the genetic algorithms to search for optimal quantization steps to improve the quality of watermarked image and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we construct a prediction model based on image moments and back propagation neural network to correct an attacked image geometrically before the watermark extraction process begins. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve good perceptual invisibility and security, and it is also robust against various image processing attacks.


Planning Algorithm and its Modifications for Tactical Decision Support Systems
Petr Stodola, Jan Mazal

Abstract: This paper is divided into the two main parts. The first part deals with a planning algorithm being used in tactical decision support systems, which has been developed at the University of Defence in Brno. In the first part, there is presented improved versions of the original algorithm which are demonstrated while searching for an optimal path for a ground autonomous robot in a general environment. The article shows two different approaches for the algorithm improvement, along with their basic principles. The possibilities of the improvement are analyzed on two particular examples and the results of the new versions are compared with the original algorithm. In the second part, the article presents the issue of tactical decision support systems. The state of development of these systems is presented here, along with an example of their utilization.


Modeling and Computer Simulation of Real Process – Solution of Mastermind Board Game
Stepan Hubalovsky

Abstract: One of the most important methods in current scientific and technological research as well as in research of strategy algorithm and programming is modeling and computer simulation of real systems and real processes. System approach, modeling and simulation are discipline with its own theory and research methodology. The paper focuses to the theory of modeling, simulation, visualization, model validation and verification of feedback controlled real process – solution of the Mastermind board game. Multidisciplinary approach is point out too. Step by step there will be shown the process of system identification, mathematical analysis and strategy of the solution. Conceptual model of the process is realized by process chart. Conceptual model is supplemented by the simulation model realized in Visual Basic for Excel. Visualization is a part of the simulation model. Validation of the conceptual model as well as verification of the simulation model is shown in the paper too.


Robust Autocorrelation Testing in Multiple Linear Regression
Lim Hock Ann, Habshah Midi

Abstract: It is very essential to detect the autocorrelation problem due to its responsibility for ruining the important properties of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimates. The Breusch-Godfrey test is the most commonly used method for autocorrelation detection. However, not many statistics practitioners aware that this test is easily affected by high leverage points. In this paper, we proposed a new robust Breusch-Godfrey test which is resistant to the high leverage points. The results of the study signify that the robustified Breusch-Godfrey test is very powerful in the detection of autocorrelation problem with and without the presence of high leverage points.


Algoritmization of the Information Concept of the Complex Logistic System
Robert Bucki, Bronislav Chramcov, Roman Jašek

Abstract: The paper highlights the vital problem of information mathematical modelling of the logistic system. The complex system itself consists of identical parallel manufacturing subsystems in which there is a manufacturing route arranged in a series of stands. Each stand is equipped with a machine with the dedicated tool. There are interoperation buffer stores between subsequent production stands. After getting worn out, certain tools require regeneration. Used tools from the identical production stands share the same regeneration plant. Irreplaceable tools need to be exchanged for new ones. The replaceable tool can be regenerated a certain number of times. The production process is optimized by means of the stated criteria respecting defined bounds. There is a set of control approaches of which the most effective one is to be chosen in order to either maximize the production output or minimize the lost flow capacity or, finally, minimize the total tool replacement time. The logistic system is controlled by a determined heuristic algorithm. There are also given sub-line heuristic algorithms. Equations of state illustrate the flow of charge material and changes of the order vector elements. Manufacturing strategies allow us to decide which approach will be implemented. Moreover, optimization issues are discussed by means of introducing the multi-stage process model.


Characterization of Electronic Circuit Elements by Exclusive and Corrective Artificial Neural Networks
Ladislav Pospisil, Josef Dobes, Abhimanyu Yadav

Abstract: At present, there are many novel electronic circuit elements for which their nonlinear models for CAD are necessary, especially for microwave ones. However, in the PSpice-family programs, only a class of several classic types of the MESFET model is available for the microwave area. In the paper, a novel reliable way is suggested for modeling various electronic structures by exclusive neural networks, or by corrective neural networks working attached to a modified analytic model. The accuracy of the proposed modification of the analytic model is assessed by extracting the model parameters of GaAs MESFET, AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs pHEMT, and GaAs microwave varactors. First, a precise approximation of the pHEMT output characteristics is carried out by means of both exclusive and corrective artificial neural networks; and second, an approximation of the capacitance (C-V) function of the SACM InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode is performed by the exclusive neural network. Further, the Pt−TiO2−x −Pt memristor characteristic with an extraordinary (but typical) hysteresis is approximated by a set of cooperative artificial neural networks, because a single network is unable to characterize this especial element. Last, a sequence of systematic experiments is performed, which shows that the optimal structure of the network can be found relatively easily, and it should not be too complicated.


Simulation of Molecular Ring Emission Spectra: Localization of Exciton States and Dynamics
David Zapletal, Pavel Herman

Abstract: Computer simulation of steady state fluorescence spectra of the ring molecular system is presented in this paper. The cyclic antenna unit LH2 of the bacterial photosystem from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila can be modeled by such system. Three different models of uncorrelated static disorder are taking into account in our simulations: Gaussian disorder in local excitation energies, Gaussian disorder in nearest neighbour transfer integrals and Gaussian disorder in radial positions of molecules in the ring. Dynamic disorder, interaction with a bath, is also included in Markovian approximation. The cumulant-expansion method of Mukamel et al. is used for the calculation of spectral responses of the system with exciton-phonon coupling. The peak position of single ring spectra and localization of exciton states depend on realization of static disorder and is also influenced by dynamic disorder. We discuss different types of exciton dynamics too, that are coupled to above mentioned effects and compare the results in that the dynamic disorder is taken into account with the results without dynamic disorder.


Does the Higher Order Mean the Better Internal Delay Rational Approximation?
Libor Pekař, Eva Kurečková

Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to test by simulations whether the higher order rational approximation for exponential elements in linear time-invariant time-delay systems (LTI-TDS) automatically means the better (i.e. more accurate) finite dimensional approximating model. The presented approximations are utilized to the Laplace transfer function model in the form of fractions of so-called quasipolynomials and the methods are chosen so that they are easy to handle with. Namely, Padé approximation, shift operator approximations – Laguerre and Kautz shift - and Fourier analysis based method are introduced and benchmarked. The work is motivated i.a. by the fact that direct controller design for LTI-TDS based on such models is mostly rather intricate and there are no theoretical results for internal delays. Moreover, the authors intend to use the results for rationalization of so-called anisochronic controllers when their discretization. The quality of approximation is measured by the well known H2 and H∞ norms instead of exact analytic calculations since it is sufficient for practical engineering problems. Some simulation examples for anisochronic controllers by means of a developed program testing interface in Matlab-Simulink environment are presented as well.


Various Approaches to Solving an Industrially Motivated Control Problem: Software Implementation and Simulation
Radek Matušů, Roman Prokop

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to present various approaches to solving an industrially motivated control problem, especially from the viewpoint of implementation of control algorithms into the Matlab and Pascal environment. The motivation and basic conditions of the application have been based on real technical assignment of a manufacturer of aluminium-based rolled products and packaging materials. The primary part of the work deals with selected digital self-tuning controllers where the applied methods comprise a polynomial approach to discrete-time control design and recursive least-squares identification algorithm LDDIF. Subsequently, two alternative approaches were analyzed, namely control using continuous-time regulator with fixed parameters and usage of delta approach in self-tuning control.


Prediction of Heat Consumption Parameters in Distribution Network
Lubomir Vasek, Viliam Dolinay, Erik Kral

Abstract: This article analyses methods used typically for controlling the processes in the distribution system of heat energy in the urban agglomeration (SHDC - System of Heat Distribution and Consumption). The key problem in this controlling mechanism consists in transport delay of transferring heat media. Therefore the control mechanism must operate in prediction kind of mode. The two control parameters, or control variables, are temperature of heat carrier and its flow rate. Their time behavior must be predicted for efficient control of the whole heat energy supply. There are many methods used for this prediction. They are briefly described, classified and analyzed in this paper. In more details there are described the methods, developed by authors, which combined procedures for mathematical analysis of historical production data and procedures for modeling of physical features in SHDC. For modeling simulation models are used. Further the results of practical experiments reached with described methods in the concrete real heat distribution system are presented.


DoS Attacks Targeting SIP Server and Improvements of Robustness
M. Voznak, J. Safarik

Abstract: The paper describes the vulnerability of SIP servers to DoS attacks and methods for server protection. For each attack, this paper describes their impact on a SIP server, evaluation of the threat and the way in which they are executed. Attacks are described in detail, and a security precaution is made to prevent each of them. The proposed solution of the protection is based on a specific topology of an intrusion protection systems components consisting of a combination of Snort, SnortSam and Iptables applications, the solution was verified in experiments. The contribution of this paper includes the performed comparison of the DoS attacks’ efficiency which were tested both without any protection and then with implemented Snort and SnortSam applications as proposed in our solution.


Implementation and Performance of an Object-Oriented Software System for Cuckoo Search Algorithm
Nebojsa Bacanin

Abstract: Evolutionary computation (EC) algorithms have been successfully applied to hard optimization problems. In this very active research area one of the newest EC algorithms is a cuckoo search (CS) metaheuristic for unconstrained optimization problems which was developed by Yang and Deb in MATLAB software. This paper presents our software implementation of CS algorithm which we called CSApp. CSApp is an object-oriented system which is fast, robust, scalable and error prone. User friendly graphical user interface (GUI) enables simple adjustment of algorithm’s control parameters. The system was successfully tested on standard benchmark functions for unconstrained problems with various number of parameters. CSApp software, as well as experimental results are presented in this paper.


Hybridizing Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm with Differential Evolution for Large Scale Optimization Problems
Nadezda Stanarevic

Abstract: Artificial bee colony (ABC) and differential evolution (DE) are two metaheuristics used for hard optimization problems. In this paper, a novel method called DEM-ABC is proposed to improve the exploitation process in ABC algorithm. The method combines differential evolution mutation strategies with original ABC algorithm for improving its convergence and performance. The proposed approach was tested by using a set of well-known large-scale unconstrained benchmarks problems. Comparisons show that DEM-ABC outperforms or performs similarly as the original ABC algorithms in terms of the quality of the resulting solutions.


Assessing User Acceptance toward Blog Technology Using the UTAUT Model
Bens Pardamean, Mario Susanto

Abstract: Blogs are among the many commonly used technologies for education and learning. They are also both conversational technologies and constructivist learning tools. Their interactive, collaborative, user-friendly, and instant archival features have transformed blogs into effective tools for enhancing case-based teaching methods in the asynchronous nature of the online environment. This study investigated the student populace’s acceptance of the blog technology through the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) framework. UTAUT integrates eight theories from social psychology and sociology in order to examine the effects of major factors on behavioral intention and actual use of blog to learn e-business course materials and topic discussions. The results showed that both social influence and performance expectancy had a significant relationship with behavioral intention, whereas effort expectancy did not. In this study, behavioral intention did not have a significant relationship with actual usage level of blogs as a learning tool.


Calculation and Visualisation of Radar Protection Zone
Jan Hovad, Jitka Komarkova, Pavel Sedlak, Martin Tulacka

Abstract: Radar is a very important device, e.g. for flight control. In the case, the airport is located close to the settlement, it can influence people living there. Identification of radar protection zone and its intersection with surrounding buildings are useful spatial analyses which can support decision-making both in public administration and personal life of people. Proper visualization of analyses results is a very important step which helps people to understand the results. A possible way how to model radar protection zone, surrounding buildings and how to identify their intersection is described in the article. A strong attention is paid to the final visualisation of obtained results. ArcGIS Desktop, ArcScene, Google SketchUp and 3ds Max were used as software tools.


About Fibonacci Numbers and Functions
Alina Bărbulescu

Abstract: Fibonacci numbers and functions are topics of major interest in mathematics, due to the importance of their applications in many sciences. In the first part of this article we present some congruences involving Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. In the second one we discuss the dimensions of the Fibonacci numbers, defined on different closed intervals, starting with the evaluation of the Box dimension of this function defined on [0, 1].


Mathematical Foundations and Principles in Practice of Computer Aided Design Simulation
J. Sedivy, S. Hubalovsky

Abstract: Today, programs for technical modeling are used in almost every field or industry. We see them in technical industries as well as in our everyday life and even in areas where we would never expect to see them. It generally replaces the creativity and imagination of the designer, and in many cases it helps determine collision situations and points during the creation of new products. As these programs recently became less expensive and therefore may be obtained more easily, computer graphic design is also being used in practical training, during regular classes as well as for the preparation of studying materials.




Previous Volumes: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
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