International Journal of Energy and Environment

E-ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 10, 2016

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 10, 2016

Title of the Paper: Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Dimethyl Ether in Single Use of Copper Alumina-Silica Catalysts Prepared by Using Sol-Gel Methods


Authors: Kaoru Takeishi

Pages: 248-252

Abstract: Several copper alumina-silica catalysts prepared by using sol-gel methods were examined to produce hydrogen from dimethyl ether (DME) by DME steam reforming. In order to obtain hydrogen by DME steam reforming, the mixed catalysts with DME hydrolysis catalysts, and methanol steam reforming catalysts are used, based on the reaction mechanism of DME steam reforming. However, each catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method is used for DME steam reforming individually without mixing of DME hydrolysis catalysts. Acidity for DME hydrolysis is important, and then copper catalysts were prepared by using sol-gel methods for alumina and silica. Mixture of alumina and silica has high acidity including Brönsted acid. However, the most hydrogen produced catalyst was copper alumina catalyst, not with silica. We concluded that Lewis acid is more important for DME hydrolysis to produce methanol than Brönsted acid, and hydrogen will be more produced on Cu/Al2O3 catalysts that have much amount of Lewis acid sites than on Cu/Al2O3-SiO2 catalysts that have much amount of Brönsted acid sites and less amount of Lewis acid sites.

Title of the Paper: Real Time Thermal Analysis of an Exterior Wall Solution Used as Envelope for an Energy Efficient Building


Authors: I. Boros, K. Schmiedt, C. Tanasa, T. Nagy-Gyorgy, D. Dan, V. Stoian

Pages: 243-247

Abstract: Energy efficiency of buildings is a topic of wide interest nowadays. Current local legislation and research is still underdeveloped and needs improvement. This paper contributes in reducing the gap between theory and practice, by gathering real time data through a complex monitoring system. To determine the theoretical data, the ANTHERM software was used, and then compared to the values obtained from practice. Numerous sensors were introduced in various locations along the envelope to present the realistic temperature distribution through detail stratifications. Results show that there are certain differences between calculated and measured data and in order to obtain the best insulation solutions, a detailed dynamic approach is needed. Resource efficiency and higher interior comfort can be achieved by buildings designed according to methodology adapted to real-time data measurements.

Title of the Paper: Dimethyl Ether (DME): a Clean Fuel/energy for the 21st Century and the Low Carbon Society


Authors: Kaoru Takeishi

Pages: 238-242

Abstract: Dimethyl ether (DME) is the smallest ether, and its chemical formula is CH3OCH3. DME usually exists as gas, but it is easy to liquefy by cooling at -25 oC at atmospheric pressure and by pressurizing under 0.5 MPa at room temperature. Therefore, DME is easy to handle like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). DME will be used as a fuel of substitute of LPG. Cetane number of DME is 55-60, so DME will be used as a diesel fuel. DME does not contain poisonous substances, and it burns with no particulate matters (PM), no sulphur oxides (SOx), and less nitrogen oxides (NOx). Therefore, DME is expected as a clean fuel/energy for the 21st century. DME is able to replace light oil and LPG, and its physical properties are similar to those of LPG. It is possible that DME infrastructures will be settled more rapidly than hydrogen, because existing LPG infrastructures can be used for DME. DME is expected as excellent hydrogen/energy carrier and hydrogen storage. It is expected that fuel cell is one of the methods for restraint of global warming and air pollution. For saving our earth and realization of the Low Carbon Society, we should use DME and hydrogen widely.

Title of the Paper: The Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis (CFD) in Studying River-Type Systems


Authors: Galina Marusic, Calin Ciufudean, Viorel Bostan

Pages: 234-237

Abstract: This paper discusses the use of the CFD technique in studying river-type systems. The problem of water quality is addressed. The advantages of using CFD to determine the spatial-temporal evolution of transport and dispersion of pollutants are analyzed. A case study of accidental pollution on the sector of the Prut River from the Giurgiulesti locality is presented. The results of numerical simulation are discussed.

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Sourcing and Innovative Use of Building Materials: Case Study of Energy Plus House, Hieron's Wood, Derbyshire UK


Authors: B. Ceranic, D. Latham, A. Dean

Pages: 225-233

Abstract: In this paper research on sustainable sourcing and innovative use of building materials is explored, through the prism of a complex case study of real building project. In particular, a novel use of sycamore as a structural material is investigated and reported. This includes methods and standards of its grading and classification, service classes and resistance to decay, in addition to results of its laboratory and in situ testing. A research method of longitudinal study is adopted, concentrating on the monitoring and assessment of its structural performance and conditions in which it might deteriorate. The study comprised of extensive desktop research on the sycamore properties, its standards and classification, followed by laboratory testing of its mechanical properties, namely bending strength and compression parallel to grain. In addition, an experimental build with half sycamore-half softwood structural timber frame was designed and constructed and early monitoring and assessment results reported. Finally, the in situ testing on the main building was undertaken, including visual observations, measurements of moisture content and wood decay detection. The latter was undertaken using digital micro probe to identify potential soft wood and cavities in sycamore and determine the extent of problems. So far research has established that sycamore can be applied to the structural and constructional aspects of building design and assembly, as long as due attention is paid to its detailing and resistance to decay and insect attack, moisture control, ventilation provision and service class uses. However, it has to be noted that the research findings of this project cannot be statistically extrapolated to a broader geographical extents, due to the locality of sycamore sourcing limited to within the site boundaries.

Title of the Paper: Thermoelectric Generator: An Electronic Device for the Reduction of CO2 Emissions in Commercial Vehicles


Authors: Eleni Avaritsioti

Pages: 219-224

Abstract: Exhaust heat recovery using Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) is investigated as a cost effective approach for Hybrid Commercial Vehicles which use regenerative braking systems. Recent research has shown that conversion of 10% of this waste heat into electricity may result to an increase of fuel efficiency of up to 20%. Particularly, in the case of heavy duty vehicles there is evidence in the literature that assuming certain designs and manufacturing costs, a heat recovery system can increase the total powertrain efficiency by almost 30%. This paper examines the application of TEG in commercial vehicles and it describes the environmental an economic benefits which are expected in view of the new EU policies for Heavy Duty Vehicles CO2 emissions reduction.

Title of the Paper: Heavy Metal Contamination in Surface Water and Impacts in Public Health. The Case of Kifissos River, Athens, Greece


Authors: Aikaterini-Sofia Partsinevelou, Levkothea Evrenoglou

Pages: 213-218

Abstract: The Kifissos river in Attiki prefecture in Greece, has a length of 22km (14 km in a residential area and 8 km outside) and a basin of 360,7 km². It is the largest river in Attica and flows through the Metropolitan Athens area from the mountains of Parnitha and Penteli until the Egaleo Mountain collecting simultaneously waters from them. The aim of this study is to establish and evaluate the current situation of Kifissos river in Attica by studying the existing physicochemical parameters in the northern part of Kifissos river, in order to determine if the river is polluted by the already recorded anthropogenic activities. For determining the degree of pollution of the river Kifissos, a key role is played by the estimate of the total pollution load, with sampling at regular intervals. In particular, the study area concerns the open section of the river, from Philadelphia to Kryoneri including the municipality of Kifisia. 30 water samples were conducted at three different points of the river. Physicochemical characteristics and concentrations of heavy metals were determined by standard methodologies. Recordings of sampling points and anthropogenic activities were introduced into a GIS database. The results showed that the concentrations of lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand BOD5, suspended solids (SS), total dry solids (TDS), total volatile solids (TVS) and the conductivity was increased in samples of Philadelphia and Kifissia compared with samples Kryoneriou, with a lowest concentration of DO. By analyzing the results, it is showed that the river’s contamination comes from urban and industrial activities. This fact shows that the limited groundwater resources of the study area are endangered by the heavy metal contamination, as the basin is consisted mainly by loose deposits, but most important, there are some severe impacts in public health caused by the continuous exposure to heavy metals.

Title of the Paper: Building a Public Awareness on Solid Waste Segregation at Source. A Management Scenario in Craiova City, Romania


Authors: Nicoleta Bumbac, Oana M. Rosca, Philippe Dondon, Cornelia A. Bulucea

Pages: 206-212

Abstract: This paper is focusing on solid waste segregation at source as the main component of an integrated waste management system. Within the framework of Industrial Ecology the solid waste must be seen as secondary resources that should become through recycling processes the raw materials for distinct manufacturing organizations. Aiming to build a public awareness on this important issue the paper encompasses a management scenario for solid waste segregation at source within an area of Craiova city in Romania. There are estimated the types and quantities of solid waste collected separately in order to be further recycled. It is carried out a questionnaire with respect to the public willingness for implementing a sustainable waste management mainly based on the separate collection of solid waste at source.

Title of the Paper: An Adapted Organic Rankine Cycle - ORC in Gaziantep Municipal Solid Waste Power Plant


Authors: Emrah Özahi, Alperen Tozlu, Ayşegül Abuşoğlu

Pages: 201-205

Abstract: In recent years, municipal solid waste (MSW) management has drawn an attention due to the increasing risk of its environmental pollution and becoming energy source potential. Municipal solid waste can be reused efficiently in an energy recovery systems if a proper method is selected in a power plant. Up to now, the typical disposal and energy recovery method of MSW is sanitary landfill and currently there are some developments on MSW incineration systems. As an energy recovery system, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be an alternative technique in order to increase an overall energetic efficiency of a MSW power plant using excessive energy of exhaust gas sent to atmosphere. In this respect, a proper fluid that operates in ORC should be determined for satisfying maximum amount of energy recovery. In this study, a model in which ORC system is used for energy production from the exhaust gas is proposed for an existing MSW power plant located in Gaziantep city. The thermodynamic analyses were carried out for the adapted ORC system using pentafluoropropane, R245fa as a working considering the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the system.

Title of the Paper: A Portrait of Sewage Sludge Use for Sustainable Energy Recovery Potential in Turkey in the Frame of EU Environmental Legislations


Authors: Ayşegül Abuşoğlu, Emrah Özahi, Alperen Tozlu

Pages: 195-200

Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive portrait of municipal sewage sludge use for renewable and sustainable energy recovery potential in Turkey. A brief information is given on the currently established and instructing municipal wastewater treatment plants in the country for a realistic estimation of total amount of sewage sludge generated and therefore energy recovery potential. Environmental Policy Chapter within the EU negotiations, as one of the most important issues regarding adaptation to the international legislation in Turkey's agenda, is discussed taking the sewage sludge elimination into consideration. Using an existing municipal wastewater treatment plant operating data, biogas production via anaerobic digestion process, cogenerating of electricity and hot water using biogas as fuel are described and also, three different hydrogen production methods are developed using a modest amount of power produced by the existing cogeneration system.

Title of the Paper: A Study of Sorption Heavy Metals by Natural Organic Sorbents


Authors: Magdalena Balintova, Stefan Demcak, Barbora Pagacova

Pages: 189-194

Abstract: The use of low cost natural sorbents as a replacement of current costly methods heavy metals removal from solution is increasing in recent years. Natural organic materials or waste products from industry with a high capacity for heavy metals removal can be obtained, employed, and disposed of with a little cost. The aim of this article is cooper, zinc and iron cations removal from acidic solutions by the peat and the various kinds of wood sawdust (poplar, hornbeam, spruce, pine, cherry, ash, and oak). The presence of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin in structure of natural sorbents was studied by infrared spectrometry. Peat and poplar wood sawdust had efficiency of metal cations removal from aquatic model solutions approximately of 80.0 %. Hornbeam and poplar wood sawdust had 45.0 % efficiency of Cu, Zn and Fe removal at five times higher concentration of these metal cations. Peat adsorbed more than 50 % of metal ions from solutions with higher concentration.

Title of the Paper: Hard Coal in Power Industry and Coking Coal Production – Global and European Perspective


Authors: Izabela Jonek-Kowalska

Pages: 181-188

Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to present the previous and current trends in hard coal production and consumption in the world, in Europe and Eurasia. In the paper statistical data analysis was used concerning hard coal and legal acts analysis that regulate hard coal production in Europe. Main research techniques are: literature and legislation review as well statistical analysis. In conclusion it is stated that despite the existing possibilities of coal utilization in European power industry, in future it is hard to expect a significant excavation and consumption volume increase due to environmental restrictions and financial problems in European hard coal mining.

Title of the Paper: Ultra-Low-Energy House and Indoor Environmental Quality: a Case Study


Authors: S. Vilčeková, A. Sedláková, P. Turcsányi, L. Mečiarová, E. Krídlová Burdová, J. Varga, P. Rošková

Pages: 171-180

Abstract: In times of minimizing energy performance of buildings to save as much energy as possible while producing minimum harmful greenhouse gas emissions is more than ever essential to understand the concept of "low-energy" design. Design of transparent and non transparent building constructions, application of passive and active systems for using of renewable energy sources and energy demand as well as their balance are the most important to achieve both the goal of the low energy buildings with a healthy indoor environment. This statement led us to investigate an ultra-low-energy house from energy and social aspects. Thermo-physical properties of external wall, roof and floor as well as openings are presented in terms of requirements for ultra-low-energy houses. There is illustrated an importance of house orientation in order to maximize solar gains as well as showed course of isotherms in the details of constructions. The quality of indoor environment directly affects the healthy and comfortable wellbeing of occupants, thus it is important fact that we cannot forget during designing process. Therefore, measurements of indoor environmental quality factors were carried out in selected family house in pre-occupation stage. Correlation analysis was used for finding the relationship between measured factors.

Title of the Paper: The Use of Matlab/Simulink for Modeling of Photovoltaic Module


Authors: Mourad Talbi, Nejib Hamrouni, Fehri Krout, Radhouane Chtourou, Adnane Cherif

Pages: 162-170

Abstract: This paper describes a modeling method of a photovoltaic (PV) module, using Matlab Simulink. This method is inspired from a PV panel model presented in Matworks. It consists in using a series resistance (Rs) computing algorithm introduced in previous research works. This algorithm permits to reduce the value of Rs compared to the series resistance used in the PV panel model presented in Matworks. Consequently, the losses power is reduced, the PV module efficiency is increased and the maximum power (MP) is increased.

Title of the Paper: Multicriteria Solutions for Environmental and Waste Management


Authors: S.Opricovic, M. Miloradov

Pages: 154-161

Abstract: The decision making methodology for sustainable environmental management should include estimation of cumulative, interactive effects over time caused by current and foreseeable actions, and searching for a balance of the ecological, social and economic dimensions. The main aim is to capture all relevant foreseeable impacts in their most appropriate and representative units. Practical decision problems are often characterized by several noncommensurable and competing (conflicting) criteria, with no solution satisfying all criteria simultaneously. The multicriteria decision making method VIKOR could be applied for ranking alternatives and selecting compromise solution from the set of alternatives. The increasing public concern about environmental quality forces the development of evaluation models and the implementation of improvement strategies. Air, water and land pollution, and particularly waste management, are considered in this paper as the issues related to environmental protection. Several solutions are mentioned showing the complexity of solving environmental protection tasks. Multicriteria decision making for municipal solid waste management in the region of Novi Sad is presented as an illustrating example.

Title of the Paper: New Approach for Assessing Urban Regeneration Performance in Egypt


Authors: Usama A. Nassar, Shimaa A. Ali, Rasha M. Shaban

Pages: 142-153

Abstract: Urban regeneration (UR) is defined as a comprehensive and integrated vision and action to address urban problems through lasting improvements in the economic, physical, social, and environmental condition of an area. The paper has taken this definition as its point of departure in the subsequent formulation of research objectives and approach to the study. It focuses on the evaluation of the Egyptian Experience of urban regeneration projects (URP) in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR) and its limited perspectives that have contributed to its failure in some projects in Egypt. Also, it aims to explore the Egyptian regeneration outcomes using evidence from two local experiences, namely, al-Darb al-Ahmar, Cairo, and Imbaba Airport, Giza. Finally, the paper proposed a scale evaluation model to evaluate and control the process of UR to achieve the urban renaissance in existing urban areas to change the face of the GCR. The paper ends up with a “sustainable framework” for the UR process and lists “valuable suitable locations” that present an opportunity to apply the UR strategy, which must be used and activated to achieve sustainability.

Title of the Paper: Storing Asphalt Energy into Bedrock Heat Battery System


Authors: Hafiz M. K. U. Haq, Birgitta Martinkauppi, Erkki Hiltunen

Pages: 137-141

Abstract: The potential of the ground is very well attested to be a generator of geothermal energy. Though, it varies in terms of magnitude of heat in asphalt or sediment layers depending on the location of the ground. In Northern areas, environmental conditions necessitate to study and develop novel techniques and use every bit of renewable energy sources in order to provide heating system for buildings and houses. This study intended partially to find out the effectiveness and efficiency of a small scale renewable source called Asphalt energy. Plan is to store this small scale asphalt energy into an already developed model of bedrock heat battery system. Arrangement of this model and simulation includes two important parts. First part is to simulate the ground containing asphalt energy and find out the thermal response which is the inlet or the input of the bedrock heat battery. Second part includes simulating model of the bedrock heat battery in which the respective asphalt energy is to be stored. This study uses Comsol software for all simulation and modeling purposes and reports thermal response of the ground.

Title of the Paper: Torrefaction is a Promising Technology of Poultry (Chicken) Litter Conversion into a Solid Fuel


Authors: Ekaterina Artiukhina, Panagiotis Grammelis, Vladimir Kosov, Vladimir Sinelschikov, Dmitry Klimov

Pages: 132-136

Abstract: Effect of torrefaction on thermochemical properties of chicken litter pellets was investigated. Untreated pellets were subjected to torrefaction at temperatures Tt= 230, 250 and 270 °? during 1 hour in the nitrogen or oxidizing atmospheric conditions. Thethermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses of chicken litter pellets undergoing torrefaction at different temperatures in the nitrogen or oxidizing atmospheric conditions were performed. The original and torrefied chicken litter pellets were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses. As a result, the data on the influence of torrefaction on volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon content and combustion value of the chicken litter pellets were obtained. In addition, hygroscopic properties of initial and torrefied material were measured. It was observed that pellets torrefied at temperature of 270 °C remained stable and hydrophobic after 140 hours presence in a desiccator. This simplifies the storage and transportation of torrefied pellets and increase its shelf life. The aforementioned characteristics of chicken litter pellets are compared with similar characteristics of the wood pellets. Torrefaction of chicken litter pellets is considered as a promising technology for its conversion into a solid fuel. It was shown that the torrefied chicken litter pellets can be used as a solid fuel for autonomous heating systems.

Title of the Paper: The Use of Radar Data Mining for Forecasting of Convective Precipitation


Authors: D. Šaur, R. Žák, J. Švejda

Pages: 124-131

Abstract: This article is focused on the use of radar data mining for the prediction of convective precipitation on the the Zl?n Region. The first chapter describes the principle of radar precipitation measurements implemented through a network CZRAD. The next chapter describes the program on mining radar data from the network CZRAD, including schematics software algorithm and its use for processing statistics of historical weather events. Subsequently, an example of selected meteorological situation is shown in terms of practical use of software tool intended for radar data mining. The last chapter presented a proposal of a prediction system of convective precipitation, the outputs of which are validated with real measured data. The aim of this chapter was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of radar data mining on the selected weather situation for forecast of the locations of convective precipitation in the Zlin region.

Title of the Paper: Using Behaviour Mapping to Explore People’s Occupation Patterns: the Study of Mondego Park


Authors: Frederico Meireles Rodrigues, Luís Loures, Laura Roldão e Costa

Pages: 117-123

Abstract: People’s place attachment and well-being is commonly related to better and more adapted public outdoor environments. Urban parks adapted to people’s needs and preferences, incorporating cultural and ecological realities, and well connected to the city, become exceptional places of freedom, recreation and restoration. Mondego park, in Coimbra, Portugal, serves as case study to look at people’s patterns of occupation, applying the method using behaviour mapping. How does Mondego park is being used and what are the preferred settings? Findings show that although the use of paths is the most frequent setting to promote physical activity and meeting opportunities, in the five case-studies across Portugal, shady meadows and lawns seem to be very important both to active and sedentary use. On the other hand, and contrasting with northern and central European studies, open clearings appear to be under-occupied, yet considered to be important to maintain prospect capacity. Playgrounds are one of the most used features and proved to enhance social interaction between user groups.

Title of the Paper: Energy requirements of common light sources


Authors: Jiří Vincenec, Martin Zálešák, Pavel Chrobák, Stanislav Sehnálek

Pages: 112-116

Abstract: The paper focuses on energy requirements of light sources generally used in administrative and residential buildings. In buildings for which are properly treated thermally insulating properties, constitute heat gains from light sources proportion of the total heat gains. With the expansion of new technologies, there are new light sources, which could lead to a reduction in energy requirements for lighting. Energy requirements for lighting are not only requirement. There are also demands for the quality of the luminous environment. These parameters mean the color rendering respectively color temperature and glare requirements. These parameters may not be meet when the lighting design is wrong. This paper summarizes the basic requirements for lighting in buildings, means a requirement for environmental quality and energy requirements.

Title of the Paper: Overview of Solutions for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles


Authors: Michał Sierszyński, Michał Pikula, Paweł Fuć, Piotr Lijewski, Maciej Siedlecki, Marta Galant

Pages: 105-111

Abstract: The development of civilization brings a continuous increase in energy demand. Fuel consumption increases, which causes an increase in environmental pollution with harmful exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The development of vehicle propulsion systems so focused on the search for alternative drivetrains, which include primarily hybrid and electric. Such drives are characterized by a favorable ecological and economical performances. The problem is the performance of used batteries, which differ significantly from the large-scale use of fossil fuels such as petrol and diesel. The subject of this study concerns the analysis of the concept of the world's existing lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. The study contains a presentation of innovative solutions that can improve the performance characteristics of alternative drives. The article presents 8 latest solution for lithium-ion batteries: LTO batteries, LFP batteries, NMC batteries, LMO batteries, Lithium-ion KOKAM batteries, A123 batteries, Li-Tec lithium-ion batteries, Nano-Li4Ti5O12 batteries from Altairnano. Also presented is a case study in the use of batteries as a storage of energy for an electric bus. In view of their favorable properties LFP and LTO type batteries were analyzed. Simulations were carried out using an 18 meter bus on the selected route. Use of different chargers was simulated on the actual travel route for a city bus. The entire route of the bus covered more than 150 km.

Title of the Paper: Catalytic Co-Pyrolysis of Polymeric Waste and Biomass as the Method for Energy and Ecology Problems Solution


Authors: Esfir M. Sulman, Yury Yu. Kosivtsov, Alexander I. Sidorov, Antonina A. Stepacheva, Yury V. Lugovoy

Pages: 100-104

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the processing of solid domestic wastes by thermotreatment methods. It was revealed that the use of iron subgroup metal chlorides as a catalyst for co-pyrolysis of polymers and biomass allowed decreasing the apparent activation energy in 30 kJs/mol compared to a non-catalytic process. The application of chlorides of iron subgroup metals can lead to the increase in the yield (up to 25%) of gaseous products with high calorific value. The addition of cobalt chloride with the concentration of 2% (wt.) at the process temperature 450 ?? was an optimum concerning the substrate conversion.

Title of the Paper: Assessing the Influence of Public Transport in Public Green Space Evolution in Porto and Matosinhos Region since the 19th Century


Authors: Laura Costa, Frederico Meireles, Luís Loures

Pages: 93-99

Abstract: Public transportation and mobility typologies are conditioners of the urban space design and consequently of the general urban green structure. Since the 19th century green structure and urban space in Porto and Matosinhos have been undergoing profound changes, largely as a result of the mobility typologies implemented in these regions. It is largely acknowledged that public rail transport contributed to promote the emergence and preservation of gardens, parks, squares and allées enabling the development of green corridors/greenways along the rail infrastructure. The study of the evolution of green public spaces in two municipalities - Porto and Matosinhos - allowed to relate the implementation of the railroad transport with the appearance and preservation of different green spaces. Three different periods are identified in this study: 19th century – the arrival of public rail transport; 20th century – rethinking public rail transport; and 21st century – back to public rail transport. The study area focuses on municipalities of north of Portugal where the harbor, the airport, and other significant infrastructures and industries is located, and area densely populated 237.591 (Porto) and 175.478 (Matosinhos), respectively [1].

Title of the Paper: Accumulation Elements and their Possibilities of Use for Accumulation of Energy from Photovoltaic Systems


Authors: Pavel Chrobak, Martin Zalesak

Pages: 88-92

Abstract: The paper deals with accumulative materials with high the specific heat capacity. Such materials allow to accumulate energy from photovoltaic panels in thermally accumulation devices both in the form of heat or cold. Due to the increasing demands to reduce energy intensity building are important substances that have a high specific heat capacity. Special position in this have thermally accumulation panels (PCP), which appeared on the market recently and are capable of accumulating large amounts of power compared to other commonly used substances. The efficiency of energy production and use of photovoltaic panels is affected by many factors and it climatic conditions, energy storage properties and more. In the paper are presented and evaluated the usability of balance in any particular case, based on real meteorological data for the winter season

Title of the Paper: Climate Change Mitigations Measures and Road Transport: a Review


Authors: F. Kehagia

Pages: 82-87

Abstract: Climate change is almost considered as issue of global interest. As it described by the projections from global and regional models will bring many weather changes. The transport sector is responsible for about 23% of world energy related greenhouse gas emissions and road vehicles account for more than three quarters of total transport energy use. In this context, road infrastructure will have to face many challenges: insufficient drainage capacity, landslide risk and its consequences on traffic safety, deterioration of roads and consequently higher demand for repair measures, environmental effects of precipitation increase. This paper reviews the impact of road transport with respect to climate change inducing greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, it analyses the main mitigation practices and policies that road transport is expected to be decarbonised through road transport research review.

Title of the Paper: Integrated Approach in Neutralization of the Polluted Soils and Oil-Slime


Authors: Esfir M. Sulman, Ekaterina A. Prutenskaya, Anna Yu. Kosivtsova, Mikhail G. Sulman, Antonina A. Stepacheva

Pages: 77-81

Abstract: In the course of oil extracting on oilfield, and also at oil transportation inevitably there are oil spills leading to ecological balance disruption and bringing a doubtless loss to natural ecosystems. Complex method of neutralization of spills and wastes polluted by oil hydrocarbons allows converting more than 85 % of oil hydrocarbons from the initial concentration in samples within two weeks. Developed scientific and technical production has advantage in comparison with analogs and includes the use of ultrasonic pretreatment. The basic advantage of ultrasonic processing is its sufficient quickness, profitability and ecological harmlessness, and possibility to destroy ?-? bonds in paraffin molecules.

Title of the Paper: Socio-Cultural Factors of Industrial Symbiosis – Conceptualization and Research Approach


Authors: U. Fric

Pages: 70-76

Abstract: Industrial symbiosis represents a relationship between three or more social actors, involved in exchange of waste as material, water or energy sources, whereas the resource exchange represents synergies between these actors. All actors, involved in exchange of resources, achieve their own benefits, help achieve other actor's benefits and at the same time increase the benefits of society in general – it is therefore a winning move for social and natural environment at the same time. Industrial symbiosis networks are therefore a subject of multi-disciplinary research, most in the field of waste management, ecology, industrial ecology, logistics, supply chain management, and economy. The emphasis of this article is on embeddedness and role of socio-cultural factors in industrial symbiosis networks. It identifies the key socio-cultural factors and potential obstacles in the formation of an industrial symbiosis network and provides in-depth information on the study of its social milieu. Social actors, which are involved in industrial symbiosis networks, should be familiar with different socio-cultural, ecological and economic factors of industrial symbiosis networks in order to be able to recognize them. This knowledge would benefit social actors in terms of a good foundation for adopting decisions regarding their own performance within industrial symbiosis network, as well as conceptualize policies for its realization.

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Built Cultural Heritage Conservation with Cradle to Cradle


Authors: L. Cazacova

Pages: 61-69

Abstract: Built cultural heritage is represented by the tangible resources that reflect past lived experiences and diversity of communities. These precious resources belong not only to past and present generations but also to the future ones. Such resources cannot be replenished, therefore should be protected and conserved. Moreover, since they should be handed over to the future generations, the conservation process should also address sustainability concerns. Therefore, besides taking care of built physical conditions of cultural heritage and its maintenance the conservation process should satisfy environmental, economical and social sustainability. This research aims to suggest a built cultural heritage conservation method by integrating Cradle to Cradle concept into ICOMOS requirements, wherein ICOMOS legislations promote vernacular architecture and built cultural heritage conservation, while Cradle to Cradle concept takes care of the sustainability aspects of the conservation process. Let by the given aim, significance of sustainable conservation is studied, ICOMOS legislations and Cradle to Cradle concepts are highlighted, an integrated sustainable built cultural heritage conservation method is suggested and the guidelines for sustainable conservation are designed.

Title of the Paper: Neo-Sol Productivity Models for Disturbed Lands in Wisconsin and Georgia, USA


Authors: Yanping Bai, Qing Chang, Chunhua Guo, Jon Bryan Burley, Shawn Partin

Pages: 52-60

Abstract: Planners, designers, scientists, government agencies, and concerned citizens are interested in reliable and predictable methods to reconstruct soil resources disturbed by surface mining. In our study, we developed a predictive model to assess neo-soil reconstruction for Chippewa County, Wisconsin, USA, an area being mined for silica sand in glass production. We were developing a model to predict plant growth based upon soil characteristics for corn (Zea mays L.), corn silage, oats (Avena sativa L. (1753)), alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.), red clover hay (Trifolium pretense L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), soybeans (Glycine max (L.)Merr.), northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), American cranberry bush (Viburnum trilobum Marshall), amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.), gray dogwood (Cornus recemosa Lam.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Sol. Ex Aiton), jack pine (Pinus banksianna Lamb.), nannyberry viburnum (Vibrunum lentago L.), and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), all plants and crops commonly grown in the county. Our results indicated that potentially four dimensions of plant growth could produce a predictive model, explaining 87.24% of the variance; however, only the first dimensions produced a viable model explaining 41.08% of the variance. This first dimension predicted plant growth across all plant types, containing all positive eigenvector coefficients. The regression model employed the variables: soil reaction, percent organic matter, percent slope, hydraulic conductivity, topographic position, percent rock fragments, and percent clay, each with a p-value less than 0.05. The equation explained 77.55% of the variance in the first dimension and was significant at a value less than p<0.0001). This equation can be relied upon to predict vegetation plant growth correctly 9999 times in 10,000 attempts. Such equations reduce the need for costly reference areas and the need to grow vegetation on the reclaimed land to assess soil reconstruction which can take up to 10 years to determine. We repeated a similar study for three agricultural counties in Georgia, USA: Bleckley, Dodge, and Telfair counties. Mining in this area is primarily comprised of local sand and gravel mines. A prediction model was developed based upon plant growth for twelve vegetation types: corn (Zea mays L.), soybeans (Glycine max (L.)Merr.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) L., sweetgum (Liguidamabar styraciflua L.) and tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). An equation derived from the first dimension explained almost 80% of the variance with ten regressors plus an intercept as significant (p<0.05). For this first dimension, sweetgum did not covary with the other plant materials in the study.

Title of the Paper: Thermal Performance of Outdoor Tropical Environment


Authors: Aniza Abu Bakar, Nurhayati Abdul Malek

Pages: 41-51

Abstract: The landscape setting very much shapes the thermal performance of the outdoor environment. The influencing variables are vegetation and ground surface materials among others. This paper presents the impact of landscape settings on the microclimate of three sites with different landscape environment. The investigation was conducted during the wet and dry monsoon seasons of the tropical environment of Malaysia. The study involves field measurement of air temperature, relative humidity and wind environment from 0900hr to 1600hr, conducted on several days of the said monsoon regimes. Significant results in terms of the magnitude of differences of air temperature and relative humidity between the studied sites were observed. The wind environment seems to be also affected by the landscape settings.

Title of the Paper: Pertuso Spring Discharge Assessment in the Upper Valley of Aniene River (Central Italy)


Authors: G. Sappa, F. Ferranti

Pages: 33-40

Abstract: Sustainable management of karst aquifers is an important tool for the protection of these strategic water resources. Assessing water balance in a karst aquifer can be very difficult, due to the complex interactions and exchanges between groundwater and surface water. Therefore, measurements of streamflow and spring discharges are useful to assess karst aquifers available budget. Water balance calculation requires the estimation of two main parameters: recharge (precipitation, agriculture water, surface runoff, etc.) and discharge (underground outflow) which are affected by the highly heterogeneous distribution of permeability due to conduits and voids developed by the dissolution of carbonate rocks. This paper deals with the preliminary results of Pertuso Spring groundwater discharge assessment, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River (Central Italy), where the complex hydrogeological characteristics, related to the high heterogeneity of hydraulic properties, make difficult to set up a reliable methodology of measurement. To achieve this objective, an integrated approach based on the streamflow measurements and geochemical modeling, applied to groundwater and surface water was carried out. Because no continuous discharge measurements of Pertuso Spring were available, different methods (velocity–area using current meter and geochemical assessment) were applied to evaluate the discharge of the spring and the stream flow during the monitoring period from July 2014 to May 2015. Aniene River streamflow measurements were carried out by using the conventional current-method and the salt dilution method. For the evaluation of the Pertuso Spring discharge, as a support for traditional discharge methodology, various groundwater and surface water monitoring campaigns have been made along the Aniene River, upstream and downstream the Pertuso Spring, for the acquisition of geochemical data. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results of an indirect method for the estimation of the Pertuso Spring discharge, based on Magnesium concentration changes in groundwater and surface water.

Title of the Paper: Aggregated Indicator of Environmental Damage Caused by Air Pollution


Authors: Bohuslav Sekerka, Ilona Obršálová, Petra Lešáková

Pages: 23-32

Abstract: Searching for synthetic information in the form of aggregated indicators for decision-making is very topical. In the article attention is paid to selected air quality data which is assigned about monetary terms of damage to the environment. Mathematical expression is based on the scalar representation of comparative indicators. In the literary sources misinterpretations can be found, e.g. the price level is defined by the basic price index. The base has an associated unit level but in principle, indices indicate a change. An indicator of pollution is possible to separate into two different aspects. It is possible to define pollution indices and the indices for quantity and indices for prices. The article presents the process and outcome on real data of air pollution in the Czech Republic.

Title of the Paper: Thermodynamic Analysis of Solar Assisted LNG Power Conversion Plant


Authors: Asad Salem, Faisal Al-Balooshi

Pages: 17-22

Abstract: In this study a thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid renewable power generation system is presented. The scope of research is to utilize LNG to increase the overall efficiency of Concentrated Solar Thermal Power generation systems (CSP). A cryogenic Rankine bottoming cycle is incorporated within the CSP power standard vapor Rankine cycle named as topping cycle. A thermodynamic analysis is carried out for the two different models, the first model is the simple cycle from the Concentrated Solar Power technology, and the second model which includes the cryogenic cycle named as combined cycle. The analysis showed the power out of the combined cycle can be increased by 66% of the original power produced by steam cycle, while, the efficiency of the combined cycle can be increased by 45% over the original simple cycle.

Title of the Paper: Contribution in Reducing Energy Consumption of Telecom Shelter


Authors: Boubekeur Dokkar, Nasreddine Chennouf, Abdelghani Dokkar, Abderrahmane Gouareh, Madjed Dokkar

Pages: 1-9

Abstract: This paper presents different modes of power supply for base transceiver stations (BTS) situated in South-eastern Algeria, mainly at neighboring of Ouargla province. In order to reduce energy consumption, passive cooling techniques are being increasingly proposed as alternative systems. They are profitable in terms of cost, energy requirement and carbon dioxide emission, so, passive cooling system for BTS is examined. There are many cooling techniques, in the present study; solar chimney with earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) is introduced. During the whole year, Shelter audit energy has been examined using Trynsis 16 software. Then, CFD code (Fluent 6.3) is used to predict thermal performance for chimney and underground pipe. This simulation shows that increasing inlet flow causes significant cooling improvement which indicates that some shelters can be designed without conventional air conditioning. In order to extend the analysis on wide area, three cooling modes are examined. The first is insured by mono-bloc air conditioning supplied by diesel driven generator where energy consumption is calculated from energy bills. In the second mode, cooling energy evaluation is based on degree-days method and the net transceiver consumption is added. For the last approach, according to station type, photovoltaic (PV) system, EAHE and solar chimney are introduced. The obtained results show significant energy consumption fall due essentially to cooling energy decrease. Indeed, during all year, pylon station operating needs small capacity of PV panel. In addition, prospection study with trend and voluntary models indicates that investment payback is relatively short.