International Journal of Energy and Environment

E-ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 12, 2018

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 12, 2018

Title of the Paper: Capture of CO2 Emissions by Reforestation with Energy Crops in Closured Mining Areas


Authors: Javier Menéndez, Jorge Loredo

Pages: 92-97

Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary, if we are to achieve the changes required to address the impacts of global warming. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world but until recently, less so in the Western world. Latterly much attention has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The type of biomass required is largely determined by the energy conversion process and the form in which the energy is required. The potential of reclaimed land of mines to act as a biofuel source, providing fuel to supplement conventional power stations, is examined, together with the replacement of fuels in gas or diesel boilers for the production of thermal energy.

Title of the Paper: Thermal Behavior of Flows in a Tube and Grille Exchanger by Solar Energy


Authors: Laarej Merad, Mama Bouchaour, Abdel Karim Ferouani, Mohamed Fayçal Bendaoud

Pages: 87-91

Abstract: The objective of this work is to study the shell and tube heat exchanger for the cooling of oil by sea water. We examine the energy balance for two flow modes (parallel current and counter current) using two calculation methods (LMTD (Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference) and NTU (Number of Transfer Unit). The first method “LMTD” is used to size the shell and tube heat exchanger. The second method “NTU method” is used to calculate the efficiency of heat exchanger. We present, also, the sizing of the shell and tube heat exchanger including thermal resistances of fluids, metal, conductivities due to the boundary layers and fouling.

Title of the Paper: On Some Aspects of Climate Change in Georgia


Authors: Teimuraz Davitashvili

Pages: 80-86

Abstract: In the present paper some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources on the background of regional climate change are presented. Some results of extreme precipitation numerical calculations and Georgian’s glaciers melting are given. The specific properties of regional climate warming process in the eastern Georgia is studied by statistical methods. Water resources alteration on the background of climate change is presented. The effect of the eastern Georgian climate change upon water resources is investigated.

Title of the Paper: Structural Health Monitoring for the Advanced Maintenance of Wind Turbines: A Review


Authors: K. Kalkanis, S. D. Kaminaris, C. S. Psomopoulos, G. C. Ioannidis, G. Kanderakis

Pages: 69-79

Abstract: Wind energy has been developed rapidly throughout the world. However, as more wind parks are built worldwide, the number of accidents recorded regarding wind turbines increases as well. As the most critical and expensive components of the wind turbine system, wind turbine blades often suffer damage. Presently in situ blade inspection is carried out every 3 to 6 month visually or with manual operatives involved in dangerous abseiling. Only limited, crude repairs are performed in situ. In most cases a damaged blade is dismantled & transported to a factory with specialized composite repair facilities, making the operation downtime very high, especially with the increasing trend towards remote offshore location of turbines. These factors generate very high maintenance costs, amounting to over 30% of overall operating costs when allowing for lost revenue. The trend is for turbines to grow in size and number to the globally set targets and their deployment becomes more widespread and remote, maintenance costs will escalate. The ideal solution is for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of blades so as to minimize the need for extensive repairs, thus eliminating all transport costs and associated downtime. This review will underline the most promising emerging and established technologies on the topic.

Title of the Paper: Maximizing the Output Power of Advanced Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Devices Through Novel Optimization Algorithm


Authors: Sherif Michael

Pages: 65-68

Abstract: In this paper, a novel solar cell structure using 2-Terminal, 3-Cell, Stack (2T3CS) is designed and modeled in Silvaco Atlas to overcome intrinsic limitations of state-of-the-art designs. the primary goal of series connected solar cell design is to maximize the output power for a given solar spectrum. the construction of such tandem cells places the individual cell layers in series, thereby limiting the overall output current to that of the junction layer producing the lowest current. the solution to optimizing a tandem design involves both the design of individual junction layers which produce an optimum output power and the design of a series-stacked configuration of these junction layers which yields the highest possible overall output current and voltage. Genetic search algorithm was introduced to achieve this task. An Indium-Gallium-Phosphide, Gallium-Arsenide and Germanium back-contact solar cells are designed and optimized for current-matching to achieve more than 32 percent power conversion efficiency at AM1.5G (300K) are presented. Two-terminal operation permits a variety of series and/or parallel-connection topologies for module operation. Research is underway to improve efficiency through the use of optimal bandgap materials.

Title of the Paper: Spatial Architecture Impact in Mediation Open Circuit Voltage Control of Quantum Solar Cell Recovery Systems


Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed

Pages: 58-64

Abstract: These photocurrent generations are influencing ultra-high efficiency solar cells based on self-assembled quantum dot (QD) nanostructures. Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) provide a great enhancement toward solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum enabled multi-exciton generation. Based on theoretical predictions, QD solar cells have potential for efficiencies greater than 50%. In solar cell devices, an intermediate band formed by the electron levels in quantum dot systems. Spatial architecture is exploring how can solar cell integrate to produce not only high open circuit voltages (> 1.7 eV) but also large short-circuit currents due to the efficient absorption of sub band gap photons. In the proposed QD system, the structure allows barrier material to absorb wavelengths below 700 nm while multi-photon processes in the used quantum dots to absorb wavelengths up to 2 μm. The structure and material compositions are flexible to tune the energy bandgap of the barrier material and quantum dot to their respective optimum values. This structure is expected to outperform single or multi-junction solar cells in terms of energy virtual conversion efficiency and cost. A key milestone towards achieving the claimed high-efficiency solar cell device is flexibly tuning the energy bandgap between the barrier material and QD according to the designed limits. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. Comparing experimental Voc variation with the theoretical upper-limit obtained from one diode modeling of the cells with different bandgap (Eg), the proposed architecture is clearly demonstrated that there is a tremendous opportunity for improvement of Voc to values greater than 1 V by using smaller QDs through QD solar cells confined states with other nano operation systems.

Title of the Paper: Experimental Comparative Study of FeedBack Linearized Controller and Proportional Integral (PI) Controller of the DC Bus Voltage of Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter


Authors: Ismail Ghadbane, Mohamed Toufik Benchouia

Pages: 51-57

Abstract: In This paper we present experimental comparative study of FeedBack Linearized and Proportional Integral (PI) Controller of the DC bus voltage of three phase shunt Active Power Filter (APF). The FeedBack Linearized and PI controllers are introduced to improve tracking performance characteristics, power quality and minimized consumption of the reactive power. The algorithm used to identify the reference currents is based on the Self Tuning Filter (STF). The firing pulses of the IGBTs inverter are generated using a hysteresis current controller; which is implemented on an analogue card. Finally, the above study, under steady state and transient conditions, is illustrated with signal-flow graphs and corresponding analysis. This study was verified by experimental tests on hardware prototype based on dSPACE-1104. The experimental results show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the designed active filter, associated with FeedBack Linearized and PI controllers and are capability in meeting the IEEE 519-1992 recommended harmonic standard limits.

Title of the Paper: An Overview of PM Formation Mechanisms from Residential Biomass Combustion and Instruments Using in PM Measurements


Authors: M. Obaidullah, S. Bram, J. De Ruyck

Pages: 41-50

Abstract: Residential biomass combustion produces huge amounts of fine particles that may lead to high flue gas emissions and consequent adverse health effects. Emissions of pollutants from residential biomass combustion appliances vary over a wide range depending on the combustion technology and on the quality of the combustion and fuels used. This review discusses an overview of particulate matter (PM) formation mechanisms from residential biomass combustion. It includes classification of particles with different categories and their formation pathways. Formation mechanisms of soot, organic and ash particles are discussed elaborately. Characteristics of biomass fuels and their chemical compositions which lead to PM formation are also discussed. Widely used particle sampling methods, state of the art instruments, full flow and partial flow dilution systems related to PM measurements are also discussed here. Advantages and disadvantages of PM measuring instruments are compared. From the review, it is observed that PM emission is not only closely related to the fuel properties but also to the combustion circumstances in the furnace and operating conditions. The measurement done by each instrument has its own principle and technique. Therefore, the selection of the particle measuring instruments is very important because different instruments have different advantages and disadvantages. This review can help the academicians and the researchers to choose the most appropriate instruments in particle sampling and measurements from residential biomass combustion.

Title of the Paper: Non-Linear Static Analyses on an Italian Masonry Housing Building Through Different Calculation Software Packages


Authors: Antonio Formisano, Nicola Chieffo

Pages: 30-40

Abstract: This paper aims at assessing the seismic response of a typical residential masonry building located in Mirabello, a district of Ferrara damaged by the earthquake that in 2012 hit the Emilia Romagna Region of Italy. The selected case study is a masonry building representative of the class B typology, namely ordinary masonry buildings equipped with seismic protection systems. After the geometrical and mechanical characterization of the building, non-linear static analyses are carried out by using different calculation programs (Pro_Sap, 3Muri and 3D Macro) to assess the most probable seismic response of the investigated housing construction. Finally, analytical and empirical fragility curves are defined in order to obtain a synthetic parameter of the seismic damage suffered by the building under different earthquakes.

Title of the Paper: 24 Sectors DTC Control of IM Drive Using ANFIS Controller for Minimize Torque Ripple


Authors: Habib Benbouhenni

Pages: 24-29

Abstract: Direct torque control (DTC) is a control technique in AC drive systems to obtain high-performance torque control. Three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters are very appropriate for high-power adjustable-speed drive applications. In this paper DTC control is applied for three-level NPC inverter fed induction machine (IM) drives. DTC drives utilizing hysteresis comparators suffer from high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. The most common solution to those problems is to use the intelligent techniques. In this paper, the ANFIS technique is applied to three-level inverter control in the proposed DTC-based IM drive system, thereby dramatically reducing the torque ripple and stator flux ripple. The validity of the proposed control scheme is verified by simulation tests of an IM drive. The THD value of stator current, stator flux ripple and torque ripple are determined and compared with the above techniques using Matlab-Simulink environment.

Title of the Paper: Procedures for Recovering the Residual Coal from Bottom Ash


Authors: Mihai Cruceru, Bruno Valentim, Bogdan Diaconu, Lucica Anghelescu

Pages: 18-23

Abstract: The carbon content in ash differs depending on the quality of the coal, the efficiency of the combustion plant, the combustion parameters and so on. The separation of unburned coal from ash can be done for various purposes - to reduce the unburned coal content before its use (eg for cement production), to collect uncharged coal to further study its characteristics or to prepare some absorbents, graphite materials, etc. The choice of the separation procedure is therefore given by the purpose of the separation, the properties required for unburned carbon, or by the subsequent intended use. The UCB research team analyzed twelve pre-concentration procedures for residual carbon from bottom ash. The procedures and the methodology used for comparison are pointed out.

Title of the Paper: Recharging Stations Implemantation for Electric Vehicles


Authors: Mujde Erol Genevois, Michele Cedolin

Pages: 10-17

Abstract: Fluctuating oil prices and concerns over earth oil resources, with the advancement of battery technology, encourage the use of the electric vehicles in a cost-effective way. Furthermore, the widespread use of electric vehicles would result with a significant reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions. Due to these environmental and economic motivations, it is expected that the use of electric vehicles will become increasingly important in the coming decades. However, these benefits can be offset by a single important factor called range anxiety, which is the fear that the electric vehicle is not loaded enough to make his trip (s) and thus would be unsuccessful. Thus, charging infrastructure can be crucial in the wider adoption of electric vehicles. In this study, the benefits and adaptation scenarios of electric vehicles are discussed. Then, studies of the literature on the implementation of charging station infrastructure to increase accessibility were reviewed. Finally, a feasibility study is conducted for charging stations in Turkey.

Title of the Paper: Conservation Practices on Ukrainian Mollisols : A Mini Review


Authors: Yuriy Kravchenko, Anatoliy Balayev, Veaceslav Maz─âre, Xingyi Zhang, Xiaobing Liu, Stephen J. Herbert

Pages: 1-9

Abstract: Mollisols are the primary soils in Ukraine. In order to maintain continued increases in grain production, Ukraine needs to implement conservation tillage and other sustainable land management to reduce soil degradation. The paper discusses the problem of Mollisols degradation and summarizes the influences of conservation tillage, cropping systems, fertilization, crop residue management, strip-cropping and contour farming on soil physical, chemical, and biological soil properties in Ukraine Mollisols for the past 50 years. Policies and relevant legislation in Ukraine are also outlined with an aim of providing guidelines and strategies in further implementing appropriate practices for sustainable use of Mollisol resources in the region.