International Journal of Energy and Environment

E-ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 15, 2021

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 15, 2021

Title of the Paper:  Practical Implementation of New Algorithm for Restricting Data Fusion in Cloud Computing with Use of Information Kalman Filtering


Authors:  Mohamadreza Mohamadzadeh

Pages: 115-121

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.19     XML

Abstract: These days’ lots of technologies migrate from traditional systems into cloud and similar technologies; also we should note that cloud can be used for military and civilian purposes [3]. On the other hand, in such a large scale networks we should consider the reliability and powerfulness of such networks in facing with events such as high amount of users that may login to their profiles simultaneously, or for example if we have the ability to predict about what times that we would have the most crowd in network, or even users prefer to use which part of the Cloud Computing more than other parts – which software or hardware configuration. With knowing such information, we can avoid accidental crashing or hanging of the network that may be cause by logging of too much users. In this paper we propose Kalman Filter that can be used for estimating the amounts of users and software’s that run on cloud computing or other similar platforms at a certain time. After introducing this filter, at the end of paper, we talk about some potentials of this filter in cloud computing platform. In this paper we demonstrate about how we can use Kalman filter in estimating and predicting of our target, by the means of several examples on Kalman filter. Also at the end of paper we propose information filter for estimation and prediction about cloud computing resources.

Title of the Paper:  Synchronization and Power Unit Controller for CO2 Laser Cable Marking System


Authors:  S. Messaoud, F. Siserir, Y. Boucetta, M. Traiche, L. Henni, B. Guedouar, H. Okay

Pages: 111-114

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.18     XML

Abstract: In this paper, we describe the design of the synchronization and power unit controller (SPUC) for CO2 laser cable marking system inline-processing. It is mainly composed of a synchronization and modulation control circuits. Power control of output laser beam is achieved by pulse width modulation (PWM). The synchronization between the CO2 laser, the rotating mask disk and the pivoting mirror is performed by a Lab VIEW based program and National Instruments (NI).

Title of the Paper:  Enhancing the Security of Cloud Computing via Unscented Kalman Filter; with Statistical Analysis About Power Consumption


Authors:  Mohamadreza Mohamadzadeh

Pages: 103-110

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.17     XML

Abstract: To migrate to cloud computing or other new generation of computational and communicational network we should making some laws about limitations on such networks. We should clarify clearly the level of accessions to resources and/or the ability to sending or receiving files through such network. We can avoid unpredicted and undesired works by using of law makings. Furthermore, besides of law making we can use evolutionary and/or intelligence techniques for estimation and prediction about parameters that deal with controlling of our network – for example in this paper we introduce one type of such intelligence algorithms which named as unscented Kalman filter. By giving some raw inputs about treatments and resources of such networks we’re able to estimate and predict about lots of different conditions of these networks. For example, we should have an estimation and prediction algorithm to be able to track and trace the hackers or crackers, if they’re permeating to our network. Or we should estimate the amount of users that will use particular software or application on a specific hour through such network. Also, if we study users treatment on a specific network, like cloud computing, we’re able to estimate and predict their keen and eagerness about new released software or application; because if we know how people treat and face and react with new emerging software we’re able to construct and program our applications more precisely. In this paper, at first we tell about cloud computing – we define it completely and discuss about all aspects of this new generation of internet – also in the first section we discuss about efficiency of cloud computing in saving of energy and tell differences between the amount of energy that cloud resources use and the amount of energy that other computerized frames were use. We proof our suggestions and ideas by the means of analytical and mathematical analysis; after that when we understand about all of its concepts, a brief review about Microsoft decisions on cloud computing were present, we review new systems and software’s of Microsoft that equipped with cloud computing and study the advantages and disadvantages of these new services which are equipped with cloud computing. In the next section by the knowing of whole concepts and key features of this network and also by knowing the critical uses of this network on different industries we introduce fixedinterval smoothers; which can be used for estimation and prediction of different parameters in such network. For example, we can use this for estimation and prediction about permeating of hackers or for predicting the amount of users that will use special part of our network in a particular period of time or by tracking and tracing the packets or even users. By performing such activities we’re able to eliminate malicious and spyware treatments from the beginning points of our network. Also by the means of mathematical analysis in this paper, we demonstrate all of our suggestions and according to these proofs we conclude about workability and liability of such network.

Title of the Paper:  Meteorological reports in the Perspective Automated Artillery Fire Support Control System


Authors:  Martin Blaha, Ladislav Potužák

Pages: 96-102

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.16     XML

Abstract: The Czech Republic, as a member of international organizations (NATO, EU, UNO), with respect to current global security environment, employs the units of the army both at its own state territory and outside the Czech Republic in multinational forces operations. The article focuses on preparation of meteorological reports of future Automated Command, Control, and Information system (C2I) in conditions of the Army of the Czech Republic. The issue of automated command, control, and information systems is of high importance in the solving of asymmetrical operations tasks today and in the upcoming future. Define the basic resources for creation of meteorological reports of NATO standards in Network Enabled Capabilities (NEC) conditions. The authors define group of meteorological report for designing a new and by the Army of the Czech Republic required sophisticated Automated Fire Support Control System of Artillery meeting NATO standards in Network Enabled Capabilities (NEC) conditions. The article represents section of a huge defensive research project of Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic and the Army of the Czech Republic solved by leading scientists of the University of Defence in Brno.

Title of the Paper:  Enterprise Development with P Systems


Authors:  Xiuting Li, Laisheng Xiang, Xiyu Liu

Pages: 90-95

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.15     XML

Abstract: Enterprises are both an emerging force in national reform and a major force in its future economic development. The professors in China and on abroad have do much research on enterprise development and put forward lots of valuable theories. P systems have been proposed for about 14 years, and its applications refer to numbers of areas. However, to investigate the survival and development of firms in the aspect of P systems is rarely. In this study, it makes analysis on the survival and development of small and medium-sized enterprises in an aspect of bionics, trying to find out the origin which makes the enterprise exuberant and everlasting. Have the enterprises compare to biological cells and construct a membrane framework in order to interpret an enterprise’s survival. At the same time it also highlights the irreplaceable role of enterprise DNA in the inheritance of the enterprise entity.

Title of the Paper:  Pi Power System Controller: Eigenstructure – Based Design and Sensitivities


Authors:  A. El kashlan, Shady El kashlan

Pages: 84-89

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.14     XML

Abstract: Significant advances in power system control design techniques that can take into consideration plants linearized around a number of operating conditions. Most of these techniques are based on eigenspectrum analysis which has numerous advantages. A wealth of applications of eigenstructure assignment are available in the literature and showed that new applications have been found and parametric solution of eigenspectrum assignment can be used successfully to design feedback controllers. The use of supplementary controller added to the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is a practical effective way to supply additional positive damping to system oscillations via power system stabilizers. The present paper utilizes eigenspectrum analysis in the practical design of proportional integral (PI) type power system stabilizers, in order to achieve good steady state as well as transient response characteristics. Eigenspectrum analysis is attractive since it takes into account freedom in determining feedback gains and provides the frequencies and the damping at each frequency for the entire system in a single calculation. Moreover sensitivity of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to parameter variations are assessed so as to provide information to improve setting parameters for power system damping and stability, without ignoring the operating conditions. The results of eigenvalue/eigenvector sensitivity are tangible for analysis with a wide range of parameter variations and is presented through the right and left eigenvectors of the system matrix and also through Taylor series analysis.

Title of the Paper:  Road-rail intermodality and the Clean Development Mechanism


Authors:  Rodrigo Galbieri, André Felipe Simões

Pages: 77-83

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.13     XML

Abstract: The approval of methodologies involving the transportation sector confronts methodological concepts that hinder the eligibility of such projects as Clean Development Mechanism, mainly because it is a segment whose emissions come from mobile sources. The verification of additionality and monitoring of emissions, in principle, can be regarded as some of the key barriers to fit transportation sector projects into the CDM framework. This paper discusses these issues and examines, in particular, the road-rail intermodality. Since the partial replacement of cargo transport via trucks by wagon trains presents a great potential for mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases, this paper also analyzes the characteristics that a project involving road-rail intermodality must possess in order to be approved by the Executive Board of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also analyzes the main difficulties that such a project might face.

Title of the Paper:  The Case Study of the Big Latvian Energy Companies’ Compliance with the Principles of Sustainable Development


Authors:  Raja Kočanova, Ineta Geipele, Kārlis Ketners

Pages: 72-76

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.12     XML

Abstract: The rationale of the study is connected with the fact that society has increasingly begun to discuss its responsibility to the generation to come. Without economic aspects, social and environmental issues have become increasingly apparent because there is more and more relevant question whether the natural system will be able to withstand the increasing loading associated with human activities. In Latvia there have been made attempts to promote the principle of sustainable development, its adoption and implementation. On the basis of the above stated rationale of the subject, the objective of the study is to estimate the big Latvian energy companies’ compliance with the principles of sustainable development. The reduction of energy sources and their capacity, greenhouse gas emission caused by energy production, and features of the energy market put forward branch enterprises in front of the principle of sustainable development and the idea of its implementation. To determine the big Latvian energy companies’ contribution to sustainable development, in the survey of representatives of the business environment there have been included questions about the big Latvian energy companies’ compliance with the principles of sustainable development. In the research paper there have been used the statistical analysis of data and the processing method.

Title of the Paper:  Recent Case Law of The Romanian Courts of Law And The European Court of Justice Related To The Objective Environmental Liability


Authors:  Cristian Mares, Constanta Mătusescu

Pages: 66-71

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.11     XML

Abstract: Although the economic interests have played a major political role in the recent period, in a number of litigations the courts applied the “polluter pays” principle and rendered favorably judgments to the claimants which suffered a damage caused by pollution. In this respect, it is worth analyzing the case law of the European Court of Justice which has recently provided the presumption of liability for pollution of the operators which operates installations on land adjacent to a polluted area. As the Romanian case law is concerned, given the novelty of the framework of an objective environmental liability and the low number of cases related to this issue, it is to be developed a constant jurisprudence as the decision rendered by the Romanian Court of Appeal as of March 9, 2009, which forced a polluter to remedy totally and in kind the damage caused to an individual’s house.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Multi-Model Hindcasts of Overland Precipitation for Georgia


Authors: T. Davitashvili, N. Kutaladze, R. Kvatadze, L. Megrelidze, G. Mikuchadze, I. Samkharadze

Pages: 56-65

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.10     XML

Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of several Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to simulate rainfall patterns in the South Caucasus region. In total, 8 RCM simulations were assessed against the CRU observational database over different domains, among them two from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). Seasonal climatology, annual rainfall cycles and interannual variability in RCM outputs were estimated for 8 homogeneous sub-regions against several observational datasets. Different metrics covering from monthly and seasonal to annual time scales are analyzed over the region of interest. The results confirm the distinct capabilities of climate models in capturing the local features of the climatic conditions of the South Caucasus region. At the same time, the analysis shows significant deviations in individual models depending on the sub-region and season; however, the ensemble mean is in better agreement with observations than individual models. Overall, the analysis presented here demonstrates that, the multi-model ensemble mean adequately simulates rainfall in the South Caucasus and, therefore, it can be used to assess future climate predictions for the region. This work promotes the selection of RCM runs with reasonable performance in the South Caucasus region, from which, for the first time, a high-resolution bias-adjusted climate database can be generated for future risk assessment and impact studies.

Title of the Paper: Effects of Parameters on Solvent Extraction of Oil from Sandbox (Hura Crepitans) Seed Oil using 24 Factorial Design


Authors: Owhor Sampson Chisa, Amine J. D., Abdul Gambo Alim, Luka Bobby Shakarau, Isaiah Kehinde Ogbobame, Samaila Yohanna Adidauki

Pages: 48-55

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.9     XML

Abstract: The present work deals with the production of biodiesel from Sandbox (Hura crepitans) seed oil and the optimization of the parameters that influence the transesterification of Sandbox (Hura crepitans) seed oil into biodiesel using Response Surface Methodology. Hura crepitans oil was obtained from by using hydraulic press for Mechanical and n-hexane for solvent extraction. Esterification was done using methanol and sodium hydroxide. A total of 48 experiments using Central Composite Design were carried out. The R-Squared, Adequate Precision, Predicted and Adjusted R-Squared values were 0.9367, 19.219, 0.8576 and 0.9070 respectively. The result of the extraction of oil, physiochemical properties, and optimization process shows that sandbox (Hura crepitans) seed oil has characteristics that are more favorable to biodiesel production. The optimal conditions for extraction of oil from sandbox seed oil were given as alcohol/ oil ratio of 5.0, catalyst amount of 20 g/ml, extraction temperature of 60 ºC, and extraction time of 45.01 minutes, with the predicted oil yield as 97.33% respectively which shows that the experimental values are in good agreement with predicted values.

Title of the Paper: A New Consideration about Floating Storage and Regasification Unit for Liquid Natural Gas


Authors: Mihai Sagau, Mariana Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu, Scupi Alexandru-Andrei

Pages: 43-47

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.8     XML

Abstract: In this paper we want to present the details of new project about floating liquid natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal based on conversion of an existing LNG carrier . LNG is sent from the tanks to the regasification skid fwd. The regasification skid essentially comprises booster pumps and vaporizers This project can boost both transport and economy sector of Central European countries by introducing a less expensive fuel, more environmental friendly and with a good perspective in the future. The project consists in building a LNG import terminal in Constanta, harbor from where the merchandise (LNG in this situation) can easily be delivered on Danube’s basin and reach central European countries.

Title of the Paper: Municipal Waste Water Toxicity Evaluation with Vibrio Fisheri


Authors: Helena Raclavska, Jarmila Drozdova, Silvie Hartmann

Pages: 39-42

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.7     XML

Abstract: Toxicity of municipal waste water observed by means of Vibrio fischeri proved a primary dependence between the content of organics and inhibition. A linear dependence between COD and inhibition determined by means of Vibrio fischeri was established. In 30 days following sampling organic matter was degraded and the value of inhibition fell from 80 % to 27.67 %. This value corresponds to the real impact of micropollutants (risk elements, organic micropollutants) on inhibition. The content of risk elements in municipal waste water implies that the values are significantly higher than EC50 defined for Daphnia magna. Risk element ecotoxicity is affected by the form of occurrence and it is thus probable that there are risk elements predominantly in the form of complexes in sewage water.

Title of the Paper: The Impact of Climate Change on Farm Business Performance in Western Australia. Understanding Farmer’s Adaptation Responses and Their Key Characteristics in Response to a Changing and Variable Climate


Authors: L. Anderton, R. Kingwell, D. Feldman, J. Speijers, N. Islam, V. Xayavong, A. Wardell-Johnson

Pages: 32-38

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.6     XML

Abstract: This study examines ten years of financial and production data of 249 farm businesses operating in southwestern Australia. It also identifies the behavioural characteristics of the farm operators through a comprehensive socio-managerial survey of each farm business. The study area has a Mediterranean climate, where three quarters of the rainfall is received during the growing season from April and October. Growers have learned to produce 2 tonnes per hectare of wheat on less than 200 ml of growing season rainfall. Australia is the driest continent in the world and is renowned for its climate variability. In addition, evidence is emerging that its southern parts, like south-western Australia, are experiencing a warming, drying trend in their climate. Average annual rainfall over the last thirty years in the study area has declined and average minimum and maximum temperatures have risen. Moreover, in the last ten years a number of droughts have occurred. This multidisciplinary study examines the business performance of 249 farms from 2002 to 2011 and identifies the strategies farm managers have adopted to adapt to a drying, warming environment. Farms are categorised according to their performance. Their characteristics are compared and contrasted. We find many significant differences between farm performance categories and the adaptation strategies used by the farmers in each category. There are also different socio-managerial and behavioural characteristics between the groups of farmers identified.

Title of the Paper: The Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Environmental Responsibility of the Companies


Authors: M. M. Miras, B. Escobar, A. Carrasco

Pages: 27-31

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.5     XML

Abstract: The severe economic crisis is affecting significantly to the environment in which companies have to continue with their business. Consequently, academicians and managers are worried about what is going to happen with the Social Responsibility and particularly with the Environmental Responsibility, due to the decrease in the financial performance of the companies. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the crisis on the environmental behavior of the Spanish companies through an explicative study, deepening in the comparison between the years 2006 and 2010. As a result, Spanish companies continue carrying out behaving in an environmentally friendly way because their Environmental Scores are growing, despite the decline of the Financial Performance. Moreover, it is identified a change in the factors that affect to the environmental behavior due to the identification of less dependence on corporate financial performance.

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Pneumatic Transport Systems of Cereals


Authors: Mariana Panaitescu, Gabriela Simona Dumitrescu, Andrei Alexandru Scupi

Pages: 21-26

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.4     XML

Abstract: Technological pneumatic transport installations are designed to move materials from one place to another in various phases of the production process. For example: loadingunloading materials (cereals) using rail and marine transport, air tunnel container transport, supplying combustion installations with burning coal dust. The main parameter in pneumatic transport installations is the velocity of air. For the regime of motion with material particles in suspension, for a given flow material, the higher the velocity is the greater the pressure loss will be and thus the energy consumption for transportation will increase. In horizontal pipes at the beginning of motion flow we have a compact regime, and then due to decrease air velocity a continuous layer regime is forming. This is the apparent motion in wich the pressure losses increase with the decrease of velocity. By reducing the air velocity the thickness of the deposited material increases and the real air passage section decreases and therefore the real air velocity increases, which explains the increase in pressure loss. In vertical pipes if the air velocity decreases below the lower limit of volant transport, after a critical area of instability, a transportation fluidized bed is established, the pressure losses being much larger than the particles in suspension mode. If the velocity further decreases the particles can not be entrained in the air.

Title of the Paper: Modeling of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Sludge Waste using Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1)


Authors: Taekjun Lee, Young Haeng Lee

Pages: 18-20

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.3     XML

Abstract: Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) model of international water association was applied to a lab-scale thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for the treatment of activated sludge wastes originating from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The aim of the present study is to compare the results obtained from the simulation with the experimental values. The simulated results showed a good fit for cumulative produced methane gas volume and the concentration profile of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs).

Title of the Paper: Monitoring System of Environment Noise and Pattern Recognition


Authors: Luis Pastor Sánchez Fernández, Luis A. Sánchez Pérez, José J. Carbajal Hernández

Pages: 10-17

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.2     XML

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the wireless monitoring system of environment noise, placed throughout Historical Centre of México City which represents an attractive technological innovation. It takes permanent measurements of noise levels and stream the data back to the main monitoring station every five minutes and the measurements of noise produced during the take-off in a location of the International Airport. The data acquisition is made at 25 KHz at 24 bits resolution. This work allows analyzing the urban noise level and its frequency range. Additionally, a computational model for aircraft recognition using take-off noise spectral features is analyzed based on other previous results. Eight aircraft categories with all signals acquired in real environments are used. The model has an identification level between 65 and 70% of success. These spectral features are used to allow comparison with other aircraft recognition methods using speech processing techniques in real environments. This system type helps to foresee potential effects to health of environment noise.

Title of the Paper: Air Quality in East Asia during the Heavy Haze Event Period of 10 to 15 January 2013


Authors: Soon-Ung Park, Jeong Hoon Cho

Pages: 1-9

DOI: 10.46300/91012.2021.15.1     XML

Abstract: A prolonged heavy haze event that has caused for the Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) in Beijing to take emergency measures for the protection of the public health and the reduction of air pollution damages in China has been analyzed with the use of the Aerosol modeling System (AMS) to identify causes of this event. It is found that the heavy haze event is associated with high aerosols and water droplets concentrations. These high aerosol concentrations are mainly composed of anthropogenic aerosols, especially secondary inorganic aerosols formed by gas-to-particle conversion of gaseous pollutants in the eastern part of China whereas those in the northeastern parts of China are composed of the mixture of the anthropogenic aerosols and the Asian dust aerosol originated from the dust source regions of northern China and Mongolia. These high aerosol concentrations are found to be subsequently transported to the downwind regions of the Korean Peninsula and Japan causing a prolonged haze event there. It is also found that the Asian dust aerosol originated from northern China and Mongolia and the anthropogenic aerosols produced by chemical reactions of pollutants in the high emissions region of eastern China can cause significantly adverse environmental impacts in the whole Asian region by increased atmospheric aerosol loadings that may cause respiration diseases and visibility reduction and by excess deposition of aerosols causing adverse impacts on terrestrial and marine eco-systems.