International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

E-ISSN: 1998-4464
Volume 8, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 8, 2014

Title of the Paper: Sufficient Conditions for Controllability and Observability of Serial and Parallel Concatenated Linear Systems


Authors: M. I. Garcıa-Planas, J. L. Domınguez-Garcıa, L. E. Um

Pages: 622-630

Abstract: This paper deals with the sufficient conditionsfor controllability and observability characters of finitedimensionallinear continuous-time-invariant systems of serialand parallel concatenated systems. The obtained conditionsdepend on the controllability and observability of the systemsand in some cases, the functional output-controllability of thefirst one.

Title of the Paper: An Efficient Method for Representing the Lightning Base Current in the Frequency-Domain by Means of Orthogonal Polynomials


Authors: Dario Assante, Clemente Cesarano

Pages: 616-621

Abstract: An efficient procedure to express the lightning base current in the frequency domain is presented. The method is based on a decomposition of the time-domain lightning base current expression in a part that can be analytically transformed and in another part that is efficiently approximated by a series of orthogonal polynomial. The method allows to easily compute the coefficients of the series so to have a semi-analytical expression of the lightning base current in the frequency domain. The presented procedure is fast and general, since it can be used with different kinds of current waveshapes.

Title of the Paper: The Wii Balance Board as a Tool for Evaluation of the Static Computed Posturography


Authors: L. Pivnickova, V. Dolinay, V. Vasek

Pages: 607-615

Abstract: In this article is presented using the Wii Balance Board in the evaluation of static computed posturography. Posturography is a general term that covers all the techniques used to quantify postural control in upright stance in either static or dynamic conditions. This study focused on static posturography only. Static posturography is carried out by placing the patient in a standing posture on a fixed instrumented platform connected to sensitive detectors, which are able to detect the tiny oscillations of the body. Though the Wii Balance Board was originally designed as a video game controller, obtained results show that Wii Balance Board can become a device useful for assessing center of pressure displacement in medical examinations. The considerable benefits of using the Wii Balance Board are also its portability and low price.

Title of the Paper: Mathematical and Physical Modelling of the Dynamic Electrical Bioimpedance


Authors: Georgios Giannoukos, Mart Min

Pages: 600-606

Abstract: In this overview a mathematical and physical model of the dynamic electrical bioimpedance is presented. The properties of dielectric materials, the dependence of dielectric permittivity on frequency as well as the expression of the complex permittivity for different theory approaches such as Debye, Cole – Cole, Cole – Davidson and Havriliak – Negami are also given. In addition the Fricke–Morse model, the Cole impedance model and the Debye model for biological tissue are analyzed

Title of the Paper: Optimization of FSS Filters


Authors: P. Tomasek

Pages: 594-599

Abstract: This work aims at description of the optimization process of frequency selective surfaces. The method of moments is used to analyze the planar periodic structure and thus to estimate the corresponding transmission coefficients. The algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt is chosen as a local optimization method. The approach of combination of the method of moments and optimization allows to automate the whole process of the filter design and frees the users from the detailed knowledge of the filter design theory. This work also contains an example of a band-stop filter which is optimized to reflect the Wi-Fi signal. S-parameters of the initial and optimized filters are presented in the paper. This work compares three possible geometries made of simple elements, rectangles. It is a simple cross, a Jerusalem-cross and an H-element. Whole process of automation was implemented in Matlab.

Title of the Paper: Low-Cost Access System Application Based on Educational Microprocessor Development Kit


Authors: Tomas Sysala, Petr Neumann, Filip Zanka, Lubomir Vasek

Pages: 586-593

Abstract: Article is reporting on a cheap access system optionimplemented within an educational microprocessor development kitenvironment. That development kit serves generally forprogramming skills training aimed at microprocessor and PLCapplication for real processes control in our faculty curriculum. Thebasic system takes advantage of Atmel microprocessor. The useridentification is accomplished with iButtons by Maxim Integrated.That iButton represents a computer chip encapsulated in a steel case.

Title of the Paper: Changes in IPTV Users’ Needs: Model of User’s Behaviour and Preferences on Channel Change Process


Authors: R. Bruzgiene, L. Narbutaite, T. Adomkus

Pages: 577-585

Abstract: The each user behaviour and preferences for the television channels transmission at anytime and anywhere makes changes in broadcast of the digital Internet Protocol Television. These changes are affected by the different users’ behaviour for the channel search and selection during the channel change process. It affects on the quantity of requests for the channel change and its processing time in the network. Due to this, the authors proposed a method that modifies the process of the channel change in order to reduce the processing time of the requests. This method was created according the authors’ proposed model of users’ behaviour for television channel change process. The results of experiments showed, that it also increase the user’s perceived quality assessment for Internet Protocol Television service.

Title of the Paper: Aspects of Input Part of Embedded Systems


Authors: F. Hruska

Pages: 569-576

Abstract: In the standard routines there is not used a elimination of all problem from disturbances of the way of signal from sensor to intern input of microcontroller. Regularly the primary (the first) signal form sensor has a small level of voltage. Environment of the way of signal includes some different sort of noises, it has influences of interferences. It can degrade the signal up to level without a possibility of using. During process of signal condition any technical and program means have to use. The basic technical means perform a verification range, limits effects of disturbing interference of external environment and makes filtration. Other way there are software methods where value or signal is tested according to real range or after existent model, speed of change of rising or dropping, does statistical balancing values, verification of uncertainties and errors of measurement and next operations. Significant application of those areas is used by precise and professional embedded units.

Title of the Paper: Multi Bands Antenna for Wireless Communication and Mobile System


Authors: Evizal Abdul Kadir, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin, Eko Supriyanto, Tharek Abd Rahman, Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim, Sri Listia Rosa

Pages: 563-568

Abstract: Wireless and mobile communication is common trendin this era, everyone need internet access to check email, replymessage and others that need internet to access it. Frequency bands isnatural resource with limited spectrum and cannot create, thus utilizeof spectrum and maximize user is required to serve for many users.This letter propose a new antenna design with slots that coveredmultiple bands common used in mobile communication and longtermevolutions (LTE) system. A single patch antenna operating at2.6 GHz for LTE band was first designed and then optimization byintroducing slots on antenna patch has been done to improve theantenna’s bandwidth (BW). As a transmitter antenna requires highgain for effective transmission, air gap and aluminum plate are usedas ground element in order to achieve high gain performance. Thereflection coefficient of initially designed single patch antenna givesa single band response. However some slots and array elements areintroduced into the antenna to obtain multi band response, whichcovers a few bands. The results obtained from reflection coefficienthave shown that the proposed patch antenna is suitable in suchtelecommunication system applications as GSM, UMTS, LTE,WLAN and WiMAX. The result of simulation reflection coefficientis -34 dB at centre frequency 2.6 GHz and antenna gain is 8.21 dBi.Proposed antenna also made from inexpensive material FR4 that canbe found in normal supplier, beside that with ground element madefrom aluminum material also easy to get with reasonable price.

Title of the Paper: Application of Self-Tuning Polynomial Controller and Comparison with Standard Controller


Authors: Stanislav Plšek, Vladimír Vašek

Pages: 555-562

Abstract: The article deals an implementation of a numericaladaptive self-tuning controller for a usage in a drying machine in aproduction of small amount printed circuits boards. The controller isdesign to use in a 8-bit microcontroller from DZ family produced byFreescale Semiconductor providing main functions – temperaturemeasuring and control, communication with PC. That microcontrolleris a main part of the dryer, but other parts (triacs and drivers) areindispensable. A dryer dynamic system is identified during a control process by arecursive least-square method. The controlling part is calculated onthe basis of a dead beat control method. Of course, it is verified on areal device with surroundings which independently changetemperature and air flow and it is compared with a non-adaptivecontroller.

Title of the Paper: Image Thresholding and Contour Detection with Dynamic Background Selection for Inspection Tasks in Machine Vision


Authors: K. Židek, A. Hošovský

Pages: 545-554

Abstract: The paper deals with a new method of thresholding especially for machine vision systems. This new method is based on creating dynamic background for machine vision tasks. The main advantage is resistivity to: non-homogenous environment light, surface texture failure with same color as background and shadows which can disrupt the recognized edge and shape contour. We can reach precise contour of recognized objects by this technics. The solution is primarily aimed for recognition tasks in automatized lines with conveyor belts.

Title of the Paper: Creating Support for Fully Automatic Code Generation for Cerebot MX7cK Hardware from Simulink Environment


Authors: V. Lamberský, J. Vejlupek, V. Sova, R. Grepl

Pages: 536-544

Abstract: When starting a new project, a higher programming language is usually selected for developing the control algorithm. And it is only natural to have support for automatic code generation, which would provide functionality for generating executable code for embedded processor directly from the high programming language, where the algorithm was originally developed. Currently there are several products on the market which implement described functionality. However this functionality is very limited. It is provided only for selected microcontrollers and simple peripheral modules. Increasing computing power of embedded processors allows implementing more advanced algorithms and to use more complex peripherals, for instance displaying units. This paper presents a method of creating support for fully automatic code generation for Cerebot MX7cK hardware from Simulink. This target uses complex peripherals, which are not supported in this extent by any other commercial product. Created support for automatic code generation is demonstrated by generating executable code for magnetic levitation plant controller, directly from Simulink.

Title of the Paper: A Wideband Digital Predistortion Based on Adaptive Subband Decomposition Technique


Authors: Xiaofang Wu, Miao Xiong

Pages: 529-535

Abstract: In wideband communication systems, conventionalpredistortion techniques suffer from correction bandwidth limitation,which implies that the linearization performance will deteriorate whenthe signal bandwidth expands. In this paper, a subband predistortionstructure is proposed, aiming at correcting the dynamic nonlineardistortion of wideband power amplifiers. The predistortion iscomposed of an adaptive memoryless lookup table followed by anadaptive subband linear filterbank. The former is used to compensatefor the nonlinearity of power amplifiers, and the latter is used tocompensate for the memory effects of power amplifiers. In addition,the identification algorithm of the subband predistortion is described,taking account of coordinating the two adaptive modules. Simulationresults show that the proposed predistortion can remarkably suppressthe nonlinear distortion with about 20dB’s ACPR reduction. Thecomparative results of a four-subband-filter case and a full-band-filtercase show that the subband predistortion has better linearizationperformance, as well as faster convergence speed due to the smallercorrelation of each subband signals.

Title of the Paper: Backup Power Source for Ethernet Devices Using Power over Ethernet Technology


Authors: Martin Pospisilik, Tomas Dulik

Pages: 518-528

Abstract: Currently, the technology of Power over Ethernet becomes rather popular, mainly for powering of terminal devices. Provided these devices are used to drive larger wireless network, it is appropriate that they were provided with a backup source in case of power failure. As the voltages used by Power over Ethernet technology are compatible with voltages of standard lead-acid batteries, the construction of the backup source can be simplified by omitting the output voltage inverter. Although the simplest way of creating a backup source is just to connect the appropriate lead-acid battery in parallel to the output of the main power source, there are more convenient solutions based on switches with MOSFET transistors. More sophisticated control of the battery connecting and charging will significantly prolong its life. One of such solutions is provided within the framework of this paper. The basic concept of the backup power source provides the output voltage of 24 V, but it can be optionally equipped with converters increased this voltage up to 48 V or decreasing it down to 12 V. The description of the converters is provided as well.

Title of the Paper: Spatial Analysis and Modeling of Non-Ionizing Radiations Using a Two Ray Approach


Authors: Verónica A. García, Boris Ramos, Byron Floreano, Jorge Gómez

Pages: 512-517

Abstract: This paper uses a Two Ray approach for modeling the spatial diversity of Non-Ionizing Radiations measured at Prosperina campus of Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), located in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Several measurements were made in the installed base stations of the two operators on campus, where we applied an improved version of the measurement procedure defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). The ITU procedure was combined with the one recommended by CENELEC (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique). The constructed model was able to simulate the multipath propagation of the transmitted signals and generated similar values as the ones measured at three different heights at the same location during the measurement campaigns around the cellular base stations of the two mobile operators on Campus. Finally as a complement, it was also investigated the simultaneous exposure to multiple sources in the closest point to the highest geographic location around Campus, the hill Cerro Azul, since it concentrates the greatest amount of radiating sources from different communication systems.

Title of the Paper: Implementation Aspects of Embedded MPC with Fast Gradient Method


Authors: J. Novak, P. Chalupa

Pages: 504-511

Abstract: In this paper we investigate the use of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technique on a low power embedded computing platform. The control approach uses a quadratic optimization problem to compute the optimal control signal. The problem is solved subject to a linear model of the system and the physical limitations of the system. The optimization problem is solved online using the Fast Gradient method. The proposed controller has been implemented on a Stellaris Launchpad board with ARM Cortex processor. By means of two simulation studies we detail the software and the hardware aspects concerning a fast real-time MPC implementation. In the first example linear MPC is used for stabilization of a quadrotor model. In the second example nonlinear pH neutralization plant is controlled using fuzzy MPC algorithm.

Title of the Paper: Application of the Cascade Control Method for a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor


Authors: P. Dostál, V. Bobál, J. Vojtěšek, B. Chramcov

Pages: 496-503

Abstract: The paper presents the control design of a continuousstirred tank reactor based on a combination of the cascade controland the adaptive control methologies. The control system consists ofthe primary a secondary control loops. The primary controlled outputof the reactor is a concentration of the main reaction product, and, thesecondary output is the reactant temperataure. The design of thenonlinear P-controller in the primary control loop is based on asteady-state analysis of the reactor. The controller in the secondarycontrol-loop is an adaptive controller. The paper contains a largernumber of simulations documenting suitability of the proposedmethod.

Title of the Paper: Efficiency Multithreshold Decoders for Self-Orthogonal Block Codes for Optical Channels


Authors: Valery Zolotarev, Gennady Ovechkin, Dina Satybaldina, Nurlan Tashatov, Aigul Adamova, Vitaly Mishin

Pages: 487-495

Abstract: This paper presents a least complexity multithreshold decoding algorithm for self-orthogonal block codes (SOC). Proposed decoding method has been expanding on the base of the optimization methods of functional of many discrete variables. This paper reviews operation principles of multithreshold decoders (MTD), compares their efficiency with other decoder’s efficiency (Viterbi and turbo decoders, decoder for low-density parity check codes) and presents possibilities of the MTD for high-speed codes, suitable for use in the optical channels. The results of fast and compact implementations of SOC Encoder and MTD architectures using Xilinx’s Virtex5 and Altera Stratix FPGA devices are presented and analysed.

Title of the Paper: Production of Anatomical Models via Rapid Prototyping


Authors: Eva Hnatkova, Petr Kratky, Zdenek Dvorak

Pages: 479-486

Abstract: This work deals with the possibility of using two-dimensional medical image data acquired from computed tomography magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography for manufacturing of anatomical models via rapid prototyping. These realistic models can be utilised for surgical pre-operation planning or medical training. There is also a huge potential that in the future the customised implant produced via rapid prototyping would replace the currently used implants fabricated by conventional technologies as forging, machining and casting. This could bring the benefits such as the reduction of operating time, the faster patient recovery, no geometrical restrictions and better aesthetic and functional results. In this project the latest medical data processing software Mimics from Materialise was used to generate the three-dimensional models of spinae vertebrae which was adjusted with computer-aided design software Catia and converted into standard triangulated (STL) files. These highly accurate three-dimensional models of anatomical structures in STL format served to create realistic tissue models using rapid prototyping technology with Poly-Jet technology.

Title of the Paper: The Hyperbolic Region for Restricted Isometry Constants in Compressed Sensing


Authors: Shiqing Wang, Yan Shi, Limin Su

Pages: 472-478

Abstract: The restricted isometry constants (RIC) play an important role in compressed sensing since if RIC satisfy some bounds then sparse signals can be recovered exactly in the noiseless case and estimated stably in the noisy case. During the last few years, some bounds of RIC have obtained. The bounds of RIC δ2k among them were introduced by Candes (2008), Foucart and Lai (2009), Foucart (2010), Cai et al (2010), Mo and Li (2011). In the paper, we obtain a hyperbolic region on δ2k and δk . It completely includes the regions of the bounds on δ2k obtained by the authors above, and if δ2k and δk belong to the hyperbolic region then sparse signals can be recovered exactly in the noiseless case.

Title of the Paper: Dual Oscilloscope Interface with a Galvanic Isolation


Authors: Martin Pospisilik, Petr Neumann, Milan Adamek

Pages: 464-471

Abstract: This paper deals with a design and construction of a dual-channel oscilloscope interface which enables concurrent measurement of voltage and current waveforms up to 30 kHz. The operation of the unit is based on a capacitive coupling through and isolation barrier inside a custom integrated circuit. The construction is cheap and easy to be bulit. Two samples of the device were bulit and tested at certain service operations. Based on the experience, several modifications have been proposed. These proposals are included in this paper as well.

Title of the Paper: Intelligent Adaptive Backstepping Hinfinity Tracking Control System for a DSP-Based PMSM Servo Drive


Authors: Fayez F. M. El-Sousy, Khaled A. Abuhasel

Pages: 441-463

Abstract: This paper proposes an intelligent adaptive backstepping Hinfinity tracking control system (IABHTCS) for the position control ofpermanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo drive. The IABHTCS incorporates an ideal backstepping controller, a dynamicrecurrent-fuzzy-wavelet-neural-network (DRFWNN) uncertaintyobserver and a robust Hinfinity controller. First, a backstepping positioncontroller is designed and analyzed to stabilize the PMSM servodrive system. However, particular information about the uncertaintiesof the PMSM servo drive is required in the ideal backsteppingcontrol law so that the corresponding control performance can notinfluenced seriously. To relax the requirement for the value of the lumped uncertainty in the backstepping controller , an adaptive DRFWNN uncertainty observer is designed to adaptively estimate thenon-linear uncertainties online. In addition, the robust controller isdesigned to achieve Hinfinity tracking performance to recover the residualof the approximation error and external disturbances with desiredattenuation level. The online adaptive control laws are derived basedon the Lyapunov stability analysis; the Taylor linearization techniqueand Hinfinity control theory, so that the stability of the IABHTCS can beguaranteed. Finally, a computer simulation is developed and anexperimental system is established to testify the effectiveness of theproposed IABHTCS. All control algorithms are implemented in aTMS320C31 DSP-based control computer. The simulation andexperimental results confirm that the proposed IABHTCS canachieve favorable tracking performance regardless of parametersuncertainties by incorporating DRFWNN identifier, backsteppingcontrol and Hinfinity control technique.

Title of the Paper: Measurement and Prediction of Precipitation Using a MMR50 Meteorological Radar


Authors: D. Šaur, S. Plšek

Pages: 433-440

Abstract: The article is focused on the use of MMR50 Meteorological Radar for Crisis Management in the Zlin Region of the Czech Republic. Zlin region contributes to project Information, Notification and Warning System project of the Zlin Region (further only, IVVS ZK). The realization of the building of communication and information infrastructure of the region was finished last year and the implementation of some systems has been preformed currently (eg integration of mobile MMR50 meteorological radar to the infrastructure level sensors on rivers, etc.). The goal of implementation MMR50 meteorological radar is to increase the level of monitoring current developments and precipitation forecast over the territory of the Zlin Region. In the article will be described IVVS ZK project in terms of features and the location of the MMR50 Meteorological Radar. The practical part will be compared outcomes radar measurements of MMR50 Meteorological Radar with meteorological radars of CZRAD Radar Network. Outcomes of the measurement will be demonstrated on examples of convective and stratiform precipitation clouds. Following the radar measurements will be compared to the description of predictions TITAN Nowcasting System, which is part of the equipment of MMR50 Meteorological Radar with Nowcasting Systems of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. In the end success of predictions TITAN Nowcasting System will be discussed in connection with the measured data.

Title of the Paper: Digital Control of Unstable and Integrating Time-Delay Processes


Authors: V. Bobál, P. Chalupa, P. Dostál, M. Kubalčík

Pages: 424-432

Abstract: Time-delay (dead time) is very often encountered in various technical systems, such as electric, pneumatic and hydraulic networks, chemical processes, long transmission lines, robotics, etc. Time-delays are mainly caused by the time required to transport mass, energy or information, but they can also be caused by processing time or accumulation. A part of time-delay systems can be unstable or have integrating properties. Typical examples of such processes are e.g. pumps, liquid storing tanks, distillation columns or some types of chemical reactors. This paper deals with a design of algorithms for digital control of the unstable and integrating time-delay processes using one suitable modification of the Smith Predictor (SP). This digital modification of the Smith Predictor is based on Linear Quadratic (LQ) method. A minimization of the quadratic criterion is realized using spectral factorization. The designed algorithms have universal usage; they are suitable for control of stable, non-minimum phase, unstable and integrating time-delay processes. The main contribution of this paper is design and simulation verification of this Smith Predictor for control of the unstable and integrating processes, because classical continuous-time Smith Predictors are not suitable for control of such processes. The designed algorithms for control of individual processes influenced by external disturbance were verified. The program system MATLAB/SIMULINK was used for simulation verification of designed algorithms.

Title of the Paper: Controlled Operation of Wind Turbine during Wind Disturbances


Authors: Navjot Singh Sandhu, Shelly Vadhera, K. S. Sandhu

Pages: 417-423

Abstract: Wind turbine a major component of wind power plant, is used to capture the kinetic energy associated with wind for converting it to electrical energy through generator. Performance of a wind power plant depends upon the power output of wind turbine under wind disturbances which may occur time to time. This paper includes a new Matlab/Simulink based proposal to control the output of wind turbine under wind variations. Simulated results as shown on two wind turbines, proves the effectiveness of new approach as proposed. Performance of wind turbine under controlled operation is found to be better as compared to uncontrolled operation.

Title of the Paper: Custom-Build Hardware-In-the-Loop Microcontroller Based Simulator for Turboprop and Turbojet Engine Control Units


Authors: J. Vejlupek, M. Jasanský, V. Lamberský, R. Grepl

Pages: 410-416

Abstract: This paper presents the use of Rapid-control-prototyping and Rapid-code-generation methods in the Hardware-In-the-Loop part of the development cycle of the turbo-prop and turbo-shaft engine control units. We describe the development process of the HIL Simulator for the turbo-prop and turbo-jet ECUs implemented into single 32-bit microcontroller with a toolchain based on MATLAB and Kerhuel toolbox.

Title of the Paper: A Hybrid Adaptive Compressive Sensing Model for Visual Tracking in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks


Authors: Salema Fayed, Sherin Youssef, Amr El-Helw, Mohammad Patwary, Mansour Moniri

Pages: 399-409

Abstract: The employ of Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs)has grown enormously in the last few years and have emerged in distinctiveapplications. WVSNs-based Surveillance applications are one of the importantapplications that requires high detection reliability and robust tracking,while minimizing the usage of energy to maximize the lifetime of sensornodes as visual sensor nodes can be left for months without any humaninteraction. The constraints of WVSNs such as resource constraints due tolimited battery power, memory space and communication bandwidth havebrought new WVSNs implementation challenges. Hence, the aim of thispaper is to investigate the impact of adaptive Compressive Sensing (CS) indesigning efficient target detection and tracking techniques, to reduce thesize of transmitted data without compromising the tracking performance aswell as space and energy constraints. In this paper, a new hybrid adaptivecompressive sensing scheme is introduced to dynamically achieve highercompression rates, as different datasets have different sparsity nature thataffects the compression. Afterwards, a modified quantized clipped LeastMean square (LMS) adaptive filter is proposed for the tracking model.Experimental results showed that adaptive CS achieved high compressionrates reaching 70%, while preserving the detection and tracking accuracywhich is measured in terms of mean squared error, peak-signal-to-noise-ratioand tracking trajectory.

Title of the Paper: Implementation of Decision Support Tools in ArcGIS and IDRISI and Their Environmental Applications


Authors: Vilém Pechanec, Ivo Machar

Pages: 388-398

Abstract: In recent years, the GIS is increasingly understood as a means used to support decision-making and recognizes as the basis for the SDSS. Paper in first part describes an analysis of spatial decision support systems absed on GIS and the decision-making processes and tools available in two key products, ArcGIS and IDRISI. Second part of paper, in the five small studies, deals with practical testing of the declared methods’ implementation. It tests the quality of implementation of identical tasks in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area in two environments using equally well-established methods. It provides a commentary on differences identified and gives recommendations as to what is to be taken into account to obtain correct results.

Title of the Paper: Floating-point to Fixed-point Conversion of Tropical Wood Recognition System Classifier


Authors: Enas Dhuhri Kusuma, Rubiyah Yusof, Mohammad Fauzi Othman

Pages: 376-387

Abstract: Automated wood recognition system is computationallyexpensive and require large data processing. The most time andresources consuming part of the system is classifier. LinearDiscriminant Analysis (LDA) is used as classifier in existingwood recognition system on training stage and testing stage. LDAimplementation to hardware is required for accelerating classifierperformance. In hardware implementation, one of its importantprocesses is floating-point to fixed-point conversion. Fixed-pointnumber operations requires less computation complexities andhardware resources than floating-point. Fixed-point conversion isessensially process to determine optimum wordlengths of everyinvolved variables. Total wordlength consists of integer length andfraction length. The optimum set of wordlengths will produce lowesthardware cost with quantization error does not exceed maximumerror specification. To perform wordlength optimization, LDAalgorithm will be divided into groups. For each group, integerlength will be determined first by performing range analysis for allvariables. Fraction length then will be determined by performingmulti-objective GA with Pareto ranking system for the GA selectionprocess. The best solution is selected from the Pareto front withlowest hardware cost and error power satisfy maximum errorspecification. The proposed method gives lowest hardware costcompared with sequential search, single (combined) objective GA,and Matlab fixed-point toolbox. This method is also more convergentin searching best hardware cost with constrained error comparedwith single-objective GA.

Title of the Paper: A Neural Network Based System for Classification of Attacks in IP Telephony


Authors: M. Voznak, J. Safarik, J. Slachta

Pages: 368-375

Abstract: This article deals with an application of artificialintelligence on classification of attacks in IP telephony. The proposedsolution is based on the multilayer perceptron neural network.Current used solution of classification is typically based on statisticalmethods such as Hellinger-Distance, Holt-Winters or Brutlag’salgorithm. The proposed solution MLP NN in the paper is used as aclassifier of attacks in a distributed monitoring network ofindependent honeypot probes. The vulnerability of SIP elements toDoS attacks was examined in real infrastructure and evaluated theirimpact on a SIP server. We prepared a set of honeypots monitoringvarious aspects of nowadays VoIP infrastructure which bringvaluable data about hacker’s activity with no threat to the runningsystem. Grouping single honeypots in one cloud solution enables togather more data on hacker activities and to provide results withhigher information value. Data about attacks on these honeypots arecollected on a centralized server and then classified in the neuralnetwork. The paper describes inner structure of used neural networkand also information about implementation of this network. Thetrained neural network is capable to classify the most common usedVoIP attacks. With the proposed approach is possible to detectmalicious behavior in a different part of networks, which are logicallyor geographically divided and use the information from one networkto harden security in other networks.

Title of the Paper: Video Surveillance System Functionality Quantification


Authors: J. Sevcik, L. Lukas

Pages: 361-367

Abstract: Quantification of Intelligent Video Surveillance System functionality plays significant role in measuring its effectiveness. Moreover, these systems are deployed still more often as a tool for regulation of crime rate around the world. The theory of aggregate coefficients is utilized as a tool for quantification of quality of these systems. The particular functional blocks of the Intelligent Video Surveillance Systems are determined in order to describe its operational functionality. The classification framework is used as a reference for quantification process. The specification of input data format for quantification process is supposed to be the main contribution of the paper. Exact calculation metrics are proposed for the purposes of intelligent video surveillance systems evaluation.

Title of the Paper: A Chaos Based PN Sequence Generator for Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum Communication System


Authors: Deb Sunder Swami, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Pages: 351-360

Abstract: In this paper, a pseudo-random noise(PN) sequence generator is constructed exploiting the features of one-dimensional chaotic systems such as the logistic map. The use of logistic map is done in a novel manner to generate strong cryptographic sequence. The method, the logistic map scheme, is applicable for use on wireless networks because it requires simple devices to generate the sequence. The method is shown to achieve reliability from theperspective of communication agents, as well as unpredictability and randomness from the perspective of an eavesdropper. Lastly, the performance of the scheme is compared against that of existing techniques. Results from a comparative analysis indicate that the proposed method generally yields a greater number of reliable, unpredictable and random bits than existing techniques under the same conditions

Title of the Paper: System for Vestibular Examination Based on Kinect Sensor


Authors: Viliam Dolinay, Lucie Pivnickova, Vladimir Vasek

Pages: 343-350

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to verify the ability of of modern game device such a Microsoft Kinect sensor for examinations in otoneurology. One of the traditional tests - Hautant’s test, was selected and its implementation based on Microsoft Kinect skeleton tracking feature will be presented. Hautant’s test has been programmed for laboratory experiments and the results are discussed and tested in cooperation with specialists in otoneurology. However, otoneurology has several other tests that are based on spontaneous or artificial unbalance human movement tracking. The combination of Kinect sensor and future software application therefore appear to be further applicable with possible benefits in practice. Using gaming equipment can also greatly accelerate the development. The research does not need to focus on the hardware development and the efforts may be directed to the implementation of the particular task. The objectives and results may be earlier deployed for practical tests and use. The price of the hardware, which is produced in the millions series for gaming devices is of course much lower than the equipment developed specifically for particular medicine examination. Nevertheless, to enforce any new device into practical use, especially in medicine is a complicated process and will require a lot of effort which will still need to spend.

Title of the Paper: Experimental Evaluation of a Needle-To-Grid EHD Pump Prototype for Semiconductor Cooling Applications


Authors: Emmanouil D. Fylladitakis, Antonios X. Moronis, Konstantinos N. Kiousis

Pages: 337-342

Abstract: A parametric study of a single needle-to-grid EHD air pump, intended for semiconductor cooling applications, is being presented in this paper. The effect of the distance between the emitter and collector electrodes, as well as the radius of the collector's grid wires, is being examined. To that end, several experimental EHD pump prototypes have been fabricated and their performance has been investigated. The experiments demonstrate that this simple and low-cost design is capable of producing usable results, depending on the space and voltage restrictions of the application, for emitter to collector distances greater than 15 mm.

Title of the Paper: Wireless Communication Modeling for Safety Related Systems


Authors: P. K. Pendli, M. Schwarz, H. D. Wacker, J. Boercsoek

Pages: 330-336

Abstract: This paper deals with the modeling of wireless communication for safety related systems. To achieve safe wireless communication for safety related systems, the wireless channel is modeled by taking into account both bit errors and erasures (loss of information) that occur during wireless transmission of the information. To reduce the bit errors and to detect the erasures, a coding method for transmitting the code word is suggested in this paper. With this coding method, parameters such as bit error, probability of undetected error are reduced and the bit erasures that occur due to fast fading and channel losses are detected confidently. The safety methods as defined according to the European standard EN 50159-2 are taken into consideration and their implementation to achieve safe wireless communication for safety related systems is explained in this paper. The mathematical derivations to calculate the probability of failures per hour (PFH) values for wireless communication with the suggested coding method are derived. With the derived PFH equation, safety integrity level (SIL) achieved for a particular wireless technology can be determined. Finally, the SIL levels achieved for Bluetooth technology are shown.

Title of the Paper: Event Driven Filtering an Intelligent Technique for Activity and Power Consumption Reduction


Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar

Pages: 321-329

Abstract: This work is a contribution to enhance the signal processing chain required in remote systems like mobiles, biomedical implants, satellites, etc. The system is powered by a battery therefore it must be power efficient. Filtering is a basic operation, almost required in every signal processing system. The classical filtering is time-invariant, the sampling frequency and the filter order remains unique. Therefore it can render a useless increase of the processing activity, especially in the case of sporadic signals. In this context an adaptive rate filtering technique, based on an event driven sampling is devised. It adapts the sampling frequency and the filter order by analysing the input signal characteristics. It correlates the processing activity to the signal variations. The computational complexity and the output quality of the proposed technique are compared to the classical one for a speech signal. Results show a drastic computational gain, of the proposed technique compared to the classical one, along with a comparable output quality.

Title of the Paper: Performance Enhancement of Smart Antennas Algorithms for Mobile Communications System


Authors: Thamer M. Jamel

Pages: 313-320

Abstract: This paper proposes new two smart antennas algorithms based on a combined method for performance enhancement of mobile communications systems. The first proposal combination method includes merging pure Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) with pure Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithms, so that the new algorithm is called as CGM-NLMS. While the second proposed algorithm will merge pure CGM with Modified NLMS algorithm so that this algorithm is called as CGM-MNLMS algorithm. The MNLMS algorithm is regarded as variable regularization parameter ε (k) that is fixed in the conventional NLMS algorithm. The regularization parameter ε (k) uses a reciprocal of the estimation error square of the update step size of NLMS instead of fixed regularization parameter (ε ). With the new proposed (CGM-NLMS) and (CGM-MNLMS) algorithms, the estimated weight coefficients, which are acquired from the first stage (CGM) algorithm, are stored and then used as initial weight coefficients for NLMS (or MNLMS) algorithm processing. Through simulation results of adaptive beamforming system using fading channel with a Jakes power spectral density channel model, the two new proposed algorithms provides fast convergence time, higher interference suppression capability and low level of Mean Square coefficients Deviation (MSD) and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) at the steady state compared with the pure CGM and pure NLMS algorithms.

Title of the Paper: State Estimation Method of Sound Environment System with Multiplicative and Additive Noises


Authors: Hisako Orimoto, Akira Ikuta

Pages: 307-312

Abstract: The observation data are usually contaminated by the additional external noise (i.e., background noise) of arbitrary distribution type in the real sound environment. Furthermore, the fluctuation factors appearing in the real environmental system can be roughly classified into two categories, that is, the external and internal fluctuation factors. The former like an external noise can be often considered as an additive model because it originally comes from the outside on the system and coexists independently of the internal system state, while the later like a gain fluctuation can be considered as a multiplicative model because it does not coexist with the internal state and completely disappears in the case without the existence of internal state. In this study, a new type of successive state estimation method based on the Bayes’ theorem is theoretically proposed for a mixed model type stochastic system. More specifically, by considering the liner and higher order correlation information between the state and observation, a noise cancellation algorithm is theoretically proposed. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed theory is experimentally confirmed by applying it to observation data in the real sound environment.

Title of the Paper: Clustering Digital Data by Compression: Applications to Biology, Medical Images and Remote Sensing


Authors: Bruno Carpentieri

Pages: 299-306

Abstract: A new, “blind”, approach to clustering by compression that classifies digital objects depending on how they pair-wise compress has been recently proposed. This clustering is based on the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) distance metric that considers only the pairwise compressibility of data but does not include any explicit semantic knowledge. In this paper we review this clustering method and we show how this approach can be used in bio-sequences clustering, medical images clustering, and remote sensing applications.

Title of the Paper: Choosing Communication Protocols, Microcontrollers and Batteries in the Use of a BMS


Authors: Javier Bilbao, Concepción Varela, Eugenio Bravo, Miguel Rodríguez, Olatz García, Purificación González

Pages: 292-298

Abstract: Traction applications in automotive have traditionally used lead acid batteries. However, the situation is changing as new battery chemistries and supporting technologies have brought with them new technical and economic benefits, making battery power viable and more accessible for traction applications that were previously uneconomic or impractical. So, traction applications, and particularly electric vehicles, are being increasing their popularity with new type of batteries. In this case, electric cars use the energy stored in a battery (or series of batteries) for vehicle propulsion. Electric motors provide a clean and safe alternative to the internal combustion engine. Obviously, with the new technology for batteries some systems to improve them are arising. At the present, systems for monitoring and managing these batteries are common. In this article we summarize the Battery Management Systems and present some choices for some of the parts of these systems: communication protocols, microcontrollers, and the batteries.

Title of the Paper: Parameter Optimization of Dominant Color Histogram Descriptor in Content-Based Image Retrieval Systems


Authors: Szabolcs Sergyan

Pages: 286-291

Abstract: Last years the importance and abundance of image retrieval systems had a big growth. During the searching process the color feature of the images is one of the most significant characteristics. Since the color-based comparison and retrieval has a variety of widely used techniques. This paper introduces a new color based image descriptor which is a mixture of other widely used features. This descriptor takes into account the dominant colors in HSV color space, the color histogram and the spatial distribution of pixels. With the proposed feature experiments were carried out in two image databases, and that was found the precision of retrieval has significantly improved. The paper presents the best choice for the mentioned parameters.

Title of the Paper: CITIROC High-Level Analog Front-End Model - Implementation and Simulations


Authors: D. Marano, M. Belluso, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, A. Grillo, S. Garozzo, G. Romeo, O. Catalano, G. La Rosa, G. Sottile, D. Impiombato, S. Giarrusso

Pages: 276-285

Abstract: This work reports the high-level implementation and PSPICE simulation results of the CITIROC fully-analogue frontend model, to investigate its main characteristics and demonstrate its practical effectiveness when driving the active silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detector signals. The circuit models of all functional blocks of the circuit are first described. Frequency and dynamic features of all electronic front-end sections are addressed, and the relevant key design mathematical equations are derived as well. Subsequently, PSPICE simulations of each single block are carried out to analyze and confirm its own analogue behavior. Finally, the transient responses for the global circuit front-end are simulated under a SiPM pulse-wise single-channel input.

Title of the Paper: PID Controlling of the Quadrotor and Sensor Performance Tests


Authors: G. Gol, N. F. Bayraktar, E. Kiyak

Pages: 266-275

Abstract: This paper includes three main parts. The first part is about a Quadrotor as a type of unmanned vehicles. The second part includes its mathematical model and controlling with PID controller. The last part consists of some in flight and on ground testing. For the aforesaid processes first of all a Quadrotor has been built. The Quadrotor is designed within the Anadolu University which is the unique university because of its own airport. The design has some problems such as slow vibration speed, long response time and big movements in roll axes so some controlling applications have been developed. After ensuring its stabile flight, some sensor tests have been carried out to develop its control mechanism.

Title of the Paper: Automation Components for Complex IEC 61499 Compliant Systems


Authors: Federico Pérez, Isidro Calvo, Fabian López, Ismael Etxeberria-Agiriano

Pages: 259-265

Abstract: In the past, automation systems were hardly considered for changes during their lifetime due to their complexity. However, nowadays, their integration with other systems in time is considered as an important issue at design. In addition, automation applications demand new capabilities such as dynamic configuration or run-time reconfiguration in response to process changes or alarms. New methodologies are necessary in order to face these requirements. Component-based technologies, originally introduced in the software engineering industry aimed at obtaining efficient, structured and reusable designs, proved to be useful. In this paper we introduce an IEC 61499-based framework capable of dealing with reconfiguration issues. A new abstraction layer is introduced to carry out communication between components: the communication channel. The proposed framework allows the combination of automation components and communication channels in order to ease the design and implementation of complex IEC 61499 compliant distributed systems.

Title of the Paper: Extending SEMAT Kernel to Deal with Developer Error


Authors: Marcel J. Simonette, Lucas Lago, Edison Spina

Pages: 253-258

Abstract: Human errors during the software systems development processes are related with software system failure. Usually, these kinds of errors are consequence of the way of work of development team. Although there are a many reliability techniques to steer software systems development process, the repertory of models and techniques to deal with humans, the fundamental element of the process, are very limited. The interplay between Soft Systems Engineering and Software Engineering must be increasingly present in organizations that develop software systems. Soft System Engineering approach helps the software system development team to coordinate their work processes; it allows the development of a resilient environment to human error during development process, and steer the team to the development of software systems with quality. The Endeavor dimension of the SEMAT kernel has the essential elements of Software Engineering, and can be extended, to deal with the human error as early as possible in the software systems development process. This paper is about Work, Way of Work, and Team, three essentials elements of the SEMAT kernel, and Soft System Engineering as a practice that extend the kernel to deal with human error in the software system development.

Title of the Paper: A Watershed-Based Thresholding Approach for Image Binarization


Authors: Andrei Tigora

Pages: 246-252

Abstract: In this paper a watershed image segmentation combined with a thresholding technique is used to produce a parameter-free binarization with very good preservation of fine details, whilst maintaining a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio.

Title of the Paper: EIS Measurements for the Assessment of the Conservation State of Metallic Works of Art


Authors: E. Angelini, D. Assante, S. Grassini, M. Parvis

Pages: 240-245

Abstract: The in-situ conservation of metallic artefacts of artistic and historic interest is a scientific challenge. The characterization of surface conditions of the artefacts is mandatory to estimate the effect of the atmospheric corrosion on the metal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a technique that can be employed in order to investigate the phenomena involved at the electrochemical interfaces and to predict the corrosion process. In this paper, a portable instrument specifically realized for EIS measurements on metallic works of art is presented, and the measurement results on two case studies are discussed: the iron bar chains in the Notre Dame Cathedral in Amiens (France) and a large weathering steel monument exposed outdoor in Ferrara.

Title of the Paper: RFID Reader-Tag Communication throughput Analysis Using Gen2 Q-Algorithm Frame Adaptation Scheme


Authors: Petar Šolić, Matko Šarić, Maja Stella

Pages: 233-239

Abstract: Dynamic Frame Slotted ALOHA (DFSA) is widely used Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. In RFID DFSA, communication between RFID readers and tags is organized in the interrogation rounds contained of frames which are further divided into slots. Upon announcing the size of frame, RFID tags are randomly taking the spot, i.e. the slot of the given time frame and they respond back to the reader when that slot is being interrogated. DFSA throughput, defined as a ratio between the number of successfully read tags (one tag response in the slot) over the size of frame, is greatly influenced by the size of frame. Setting wrong frame size will increase total time for tags identification due to number of empty (none tag responded within the slot) and collision slots (multiple tag responded within the slot) occurred. In this paper we evaluate Q-algorithm frame size adaptation scheme proposed in RFID Gen2 standard along with 3 typical scenarios of Gen2 physical setup, which enables us to measure total time for tags identification. In addition the impact on choosing the initial frame size is studied.

Title of the Paper: A Self-Adaptive Open Loop Architecture for Weak GNSS Signal Tracking


Authors: Ao Peng, Gang Ou, Jianghong Shi

Pages: 226-232

Abstract: An FFT-based open loop carrier tracking architecture for weak GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signal is introduced in this paper, as well as a self-adaptive method which is developed to improve the stability and reliability of the architecture. Performance of the proposed architecture is analyzed theoretically. Simulation results show the proposed architecture is more stable and reliable in weak signal environments, compared with traditional close loop architecture.

Title of the Paper: Experimental Evaluation of PWM Control Technique for an NPC Inverter to feed an Asynchronous Machine Using DSP Controller


Authors: H. Denoun, N. Benyahia, M. Zaouia, N. Benamrouche, S. Haddad, S. Ait Mamar

Pages: 218-225

Abstract: This paper discuses modelling and control of an a neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter called three-level inverter witch operates with the PWM switching pattern using DSP. The mathematical model of the (NPC) inverter is carried out using the conversion and connection functions for an easier understanding of the system operation. Simulation results using matlab program are reported in this paper. The performance obtained for the drivers of an asynchronous machine fed by this inverter are interesting. Finally, an analysis and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control solution.

Title of the Paper: Geometric Approach to Biomedical Signal Processing: Ballistocardiografic Monitoring of Vital Functions


Authors: Daniel Jezbera, Jan Kříž, Filip Studnička, Petr Šeba

Pages: 211-217

Abstract: We present a new mathematical technique of biomedical data processing, based on the knowledge of differential geometry of curves. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated using real and simulated ballistocardiographic data. The basic vital functions - heart and respiration rates - have been extracted from the data measured by a special bed equipped with mechanical sensors. Simulated data are used to show the robustness of the method with respect to possible very low signal-to-noise ratio.

Title of the Paper: Face Detection Based on Invariant Moments Classified by Neural Network


Authors: Milan Tuba, Romana Capor-Hrosik, Mirjana Vukovic

Pages: 203-210

Abstract: Face detection is very important topic in image processing. In this paper we propose a method for face detection based on skin detection for initial potential regions detection and Hu invariant moments as region descriptors. Seven Hu moments present complex relations among different skin regions and neural network is used for face or non-face classification. The utilized network is a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with one hidden layer. The back propagation learning is used for its training. Experimental results demonstrated successful face detection.

Title of the Paper: Target Validation and Image Color Calibration


Authors: Costin A. Boiangiu, Alexandru V. Stefănescu

Pages: 195-202

Abstract: The process of document image preservation and analysis starts from a correct acquisition of scanned or photographed digital information. It may sound simple but, unfortunately, it is not. The photo or scanning devices employed in the process need constant check and maintenance in order to certify the quality of their output. Even in case of perfectly functioning devices, small deviations may appear. The purpose of this paper is to examine the available methods of measuring the correctness of an imaging device functioning, to propose a set of methodologies for specific target validation in terms of tonal reproduction, geometric distortion, and image sharpness and to ensure that the correct output is obtained if only minor deviations occur.

Title of the Paper: Non-Euclidean Geometrical Transformation Groups in the Electric Circuit Theory with Stabilization and Regulation of Load Voltages


Authors: Alexandr Penin

Pages: 182-194

Abstract: Restricted load powers, two–valued regulation characteristics, and interference of several loads is observed in power supply systems with limited power of voltage source. In this paper a geometrical approach is presented for interpretation of changes or “kinematics” of load regimes; the definition of load regime parameters and regulators (in the relative and invariant form through different parameters) is grounded; suitable geometrical transformation groups, which describe the movement of an operating point along regulation trajectories, are proposed. To simplify the task and to reveal a matter of principle, the static regulation characteristics and idealized models of voltage regulators are considered. Non-Euclidean geometry is a new mathematical apparatus in the electric circuit theory, adequately interprets “kinematics” of circuit, and proves the introduction and definition of the proposed concepts. The obtained results are useful for the electric circuit theory education and a coordinated control of load voltage.

Title of the Paper: Distributed Region Growing Algorithm for Medical Image Segmentation


Authors: Sándor Szénási

Pages: 173-181

Abstract: Signal processing plays an important role in the work of pathologists; it is especially true for image processing software products. High-resolution digital images have taken over the role of traditional tissue slides on a glass plate. In addition to the direct effects of this advancement (sharing images, remote access, etc.), a new option appeared: the possibility of using image processing software for automatic (or semi-automatic) diagnostics. One of the most important tasks in this procedure is the segmentation of the tissue images; we have to identify the main components (in the case of colon tissue samples, these are the cell nuclei, glands and surface epithelium). There are several traditional image segmentation methods for this purpose, but none of them provides both acceptable accuracy and runtime. This paper presents a distributed region growing method implemented on CPUs and GPGPUs.

Title of the Paper: High Performance Processing for Speech Recognition


Authors: Milan Ramljak, Maja Stella, Matko Šarić

Pages: 166-172

Abstract: The evolution of computer technology, including operating systems and applications, resulted in designing intelligent machines that can recognize the spoken word and find out its meaning. During the years, processing time required for speech recognition has been significantly improved, not only thanks to improvements in algorithms, but also with more processing power of nowadays computers. In this paper we analyze processing time and reconstructed speech quality of the three common front-end methods (Linear Predictive Coding - LPC, Mel-Frequency Cepstrum - MFC, Perceptual Linear Prediction - PLP) for calculating coefficients. Reconstructed speech quality is measured with Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score. It is visible from our analysis that, if required, higher number of coefficients could be used without significant impact on processing time for MFC and PLP coefficients. Another very important aspect for processing time is a choice of back-end. In this paper we propose high performance neural network back-end implementation on distributed system based on Erlang programming language. Erlang processes can act as neural network neurons, and asynchronous message exchange is connection within processes transforming Erlang program in a normal neural network structure. With this kind of neural network implementation we have obtained significant increase in performance.

Title of the Paper: Flexible FPGA-Based BPSK Signal Generator for Space Applications


Authors: Antônio M. P. Lucena, Paulo D. L. Oliveira, Clauson S. N. Rios, Magno P. Almeida Filho, Francisco de A. T. F. da Silva

Pages: 160-165

Abstract: This paper presents the implementation of a versatile BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) signal generator targeted to FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The proposed model, taking advantage of the intrinsic flexibility of reprogrammable logic devices, allows adjustments to be made to the BPSK signal parameters such as amplitude, carrier frequency and bit rate. It additionally allows the insertion of the following propagation channel effects: frequency shift, phase shift, time delay and additive noise. Following a practical and fast methodology for the FPGA design flow, the attained results show that the signal generator architecture can be efficiently developed and reconfigured according to the application requirements. Another remark of this BPSK signal generator is the excellent balancing of phase and amplitude, a property that is hardly feasible with traditional modulators. These achievements represent a technological improvement from the perspective of applications that demand robust communication systems to be tested and validated against space channel impairments.

Title of the Paper: Modelling and Realisation of a Three - Level P.W.M Inverter Using a D.S.P Controller


Authors: H. Denoun, N. Benyahia, M. Zaouia, N. Benamrouche, S. Haddad, S. Ait Mamar

Pages: 154-159

Abstract: To overcome the limitations in voltage and power conventional two-level inverters and in order to improve the spectrum of the output voltage, multilevel inverters are being widely used. In the first part of this paper, the structure and the model of this power inverter are presented. After that, a SPWM control strategy is developed and implemented. Finally, experimental results are presented using a DSP controller.

Title of the Paper: Results of Geometric Ballistocardiography


Authors: D. Jezbera, J. Kříž, J. Rajsner, F. Studnička, P. Šeba

Pages: 149-153

Abstract: Results of application of differential geometry on ballistocardiographic signals is presented. Three measurements are discussed – blood pressure monitoring, pulse wave velocity monitoring and arrhythmias monitoring. Patients were measured using piezoelectric foil sensors placed under the mattress of clinical bed. Data from sensors was compared with the data from ECG and blood pressure monitor to determine the possibility of unobtrusive measurements. Few volunteers who suffer from atrial fibrillation were measured and the occurrence of arrhythmias was examined.

Title of the Paper: Intelligent Frog Species Identification on Android Operating System


Authors: W. C. Tan, H. Jaafar, D. A. Ramli, B. A. Rosdi, S. Shahrudin

Pages: 137-148

Abstract: In this paper an Intelligent Frog Species Identification System (IFSIS) which works as a sensor is developed. It is designed to assist the non-experts to recognize frog species according to frog bioacoustics signals for environmental monitoring. IFSIS consists of Android devices and a server. Android device is used to record frog call signal and to display the details of the detected frog species once the identification is processed by the server. Meanwhile, feature extraction and identification process of the frog call signal are done on Intel atom board which works as server. The Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC) is used as feature extraction technique while the classifier employed is Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experimental results show that the performances of 95.33% has been achieved which proves that IFSIS can be a viable automated tool for recognizing frog species.

Title of the Paper: New Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Adaptive Block Size


Authors: I. El-Feghi , Z. Zubia, W. Elwalda

Pages: 131-136

Abstract: In this paper, we focus on lossless image compression technique that uses variable block size and simple arithmetic operations to achieve high compression ratios in spatial domain. The main idea of the proposal method is based on partitioning the image into several sub images that have interpixel relation. The second stage is to encode the sub images in a novel fashion which the distance between the first pixel of each and every other pixels in the block. Depending on the homogeneity of the block, the distance between the between related pixels will require only four bits at most. In the third stage, we create a histogram of all distances obtained to represent each sub image. These steps are repeated and the decision to continuous of compression is decided by the maximum histogram bin. The output string which represent will be recompressed by another similar method using the distance again. The method was tested on more than 100 color and grey images. Results obtained reached high ratios of 75% reduction in size especially in medical image due to grey level homogeneity.

Title of the Paper: 3D Graph-Based Vision-SLAM Registration and Optimization


Authors: Doaa M. A.-Latif, Mohammed A.-Megeed Salem, H. Ramadan, Mohamed I. Roushdy

Pages: 123-130

Abstract: Mapping and localization of robots in an unknown environment is a complicated but essential task for navigation and further operations. This has made researchers eager to solve this problem and accordingly many techniques have been investigated using different types of sensors. In this paper we address the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem using colored and depth images. We present an overview of the most known techniques with focus on the graph-based mapping, along with a comparison of different algorithms used in registration and optimization. The system is tested on a standard 3D datasets of indoor environment.

Title of the Paper: RBF Network Design for Indoor Positioning Based on WLAN and GSM


Authors: Maja Stella, Mladen Russo, Matko Šarić

Pages: 116-122

Abstract: Location-based services aim to improve the quality of everyday lives by enabling flexible and adaptive personal services and applications. In order to provide context-aware services and applications, key issue is to enable accurate estimation of user location. Localization methods based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprints are gaining huge interest as localization solution, where, as pattern matching algorithm, different methods are used. In this paper we investigate the usage of Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network as approximation function that maps RSS fingerprints to user locations. We provide detailed analysis on network training performance considering different number of neurons and radial basis functions' spread values. We developed two real world indoor positioning systems in WLAN and GSM environment based on RBF neural networks. Compared to GSM based approach, WLAN system has the advantage in terms of lower localization error, but generally GSM signal coverage by far outreaches WLAN coverage and if less accurate positioning is required, GSM can also present a good solution.

Title of the Paper: Influence of Ordered and Weighted Analysis Windows on Detection in a CFAR Radar


Authors: H. Mansouri, M. Hamadouche, F. Youcef Ettoumi

Pages: 109-115

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for a CFAR radar detector. The proposed processor is derivated from OS CFAR one and is based on weighting samples taken for the background level estimate. We assume that targets are embedded in a Gaussian noise and fluctuate according to Swerling I model. First, closed form expressions of the probabilities of detection and false alarm are determined and the performances of the proposed detector referred as WMAX CFAR are investigated when using one weighting coefficient for one window containing N samples of background. Then, we consider the case of a version with two different weighting coefficients each applied on a half window containing N/2 samples. We present the results of performance analysis in non homogenous environment of the new detector referred as GOWMAX CFAR detector. The results are presented and discussed.

Title of the Paper: Development of Robust Self-Tuning Control for MIMO Linear Systems with Dead-Zone Approach


Authors: Nabiha Touijer, Samira Kamoun

Pages: 101-108

Abstract: The subject of this paper is the development of a robust self-tuning control for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) linear systems with unknown time-varying parameters, which can be described by auto-regressive exogenous mathematical models, in presence of unmodelled dynamics. We propose an explicit self-tuning control scheme which is based on the modified recursive least squares estimation algorithm with known dead zone. The considered system is represented by interconnected systems with multi-dead-zone. A recursive parametric estimation algorithm is developed, which can estimate the parameters intervening in the considered system. The stability conditions of the developed estimation scheme are established on the basis of the Lyapunov method. A simulation example is treated to test the performances of the developed explicit self-tuning control scheme.

Title of the Paper: Image Analysis Using Separable Discrete Moments of Charlier-Tchebichef


Authors: Mhamed Sayyouri, Abdeslam Hmimid, Hassan Qjidaa

Pages: 91-100

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new set of separable two-dimensional discrete orthogonal moments called Charlier-Tchebichef’s moments. This set of moments is based on the bivariate discrete orthogonal polynomials defined from the product of Charlier and Tchebichef discrete orthogonal polynomials with one variable. We also present an approach for fast computation of Charlier-Tchebichef’s moments by using the image slice representation. In this approach the image is decomposes into series of non-overlapped binary slices and each slice is described by a number of homogenous rectangular blocks. Once the image is partitioned into slices and blocks, the computation of Charlier-Tchebichef’s moments can be accelerated, as the moments can be computed from the blocks of each slice. A novel set of Charlier-Tchebichef invariant moments is also presented. These invariant moments are derived algebraically from the geometric invariant moments and their computation is accelerated using an image representation scheme. The presented approaches are tested in several well known computer vision datasets including computational time, image reconstruction, moment’s invariability and classification of objects. The performance of these invariant moments used as pattern features for a pattern classification is compared with Tchebichef-Krawtchouk, Tchebichef-Hahn and Krawtchouk-Hahn invariant moments.

Title of the Paper: Special Circuits of Operational Amplifiers for Measurement Purposes


Authors: Jaroslav Lokvenc, Rene Drtina, Josef Sedivy

Pages: 82-90

Abstract: Capture and processing of analog signals whose level is a function of frequency, usually requires the use of frequency-dependent circuits. They often use active 4-poles that implement the integration or derivation of the processed signal. Steady and largely standardized operational amplifiers involved in the function of integration and derivation amplifiers are described in numerous publication. This paper presents new possibilities for the involvement of bipolar circuits with operational amplifiers. The proposed connections are primarily intended for applications in the field of measurement technology for laboratory and process measurement. They can be used for measuring and other devices for processing low frequency and DC signals. The diagrams are applicable to hybrid and monolithic operational amplifiers, and for special purposes can be realized on discrete based components. The article presents the basic starting points, principles, and equations for these circuits. Application possibilities of these connections are everywhere where it is needed to process and edit analog electrical signal

Title of the Paper: A Non Invasive Tomography System for Characterization and Visualization of Tissue Optical Phantoms


Authors: Sivakumar R., Sujatha N.

Pages: 77-81

Abstract: Optical imaging techniques are treated with utmost importance due to their noninvasive and relatively inexpensive qualities. They have obvious advantages for continuous monitoring of physiological changes over diagnostic modalities like radiography and computed tomography which utilizes ionic radiation. Tomography is mathematical technique to get cross sectional details of an object from multiple trans-axial projections. A projection is a shadowgram obtained by illuminating a specimen by a penetrating radiation. In the proposed system the specimen is illuminated by using a near infrared laser and the transmitted optical radiation from the specimen are analyzed. Within the therapeutic window, from 600-1100 nm range tissues remain relatively transparent which helps to apply tomographic principles in obtaining the cross sectional details. The developed system was tested for its imaging capabilities as well as detection of abnormalities by using tissue mimicking structures called phantoms. Finally by using volume visualization techniques 3D visualization of the phantoms are also observed.

Title of the Paper: An Efficient Signcryption Method Using Fractal Image Coding Scheme


Authors: Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

Pages: 68-76

Abstract: The major aim of the computer and the commutation security research is to achieve secure and authenticated message delivery/storage. This can be satisfied using digital signature followed by encryption. The functionality combining of an encryption scheme with that of a signature scheme is called signcryption. An efficient signcryption scheme using the compression capability of fractal encoding and decoding scheme is proposed in this paper. In the proposed scheme the message is encrypted using an efficient encrypted method, and a secure digital signature is constructed using hash function. Using the advantages of fractal image coding (FIC), the fractal codes of a digital signature are added to the encrypted message to be transmitted. At the receiver side, the hash function is constructed for the received encrypted message, after decryption. By comparing the received hash with the calculated one the verification process is performed to identify the integrity of the message. The message is accepted only if the verification process is success, otherwise the message is ignored. The proposed scheme is analyzed and discussed from the attacker viewpoint to prove that the scheme provides essential security requirements. The properties and the software implementation for the proposed scheme are discussed in details.

Title of the Paper: Tri-Pass: A New Graphical User Authentication Scheme


Authors: Elmira Yesseyeva, Kanat Yesseyev, Mustafa M. Abdulrazaq, Arash Habibi Lashkari, Mohammad Sadeghi

Pages: 61-67

Abstract: User authentication is one of the most significant issues in computer and information security. Currently, the most prevalent and well-established authentication approach is based on the use of alphanumeric passwords. The first text-based authentication scheme was introduced in the late 1960s, and so far the most computer systems, networks and applications use this technique to authenticate their users. With the growth of users and services, this approach became susceptible to several vulnerabilities and drawbacks. In contrast to text-based passwords, graphical authentication mechanisms promise greater security, memorability and usability. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a new graphical password scheme called Tri-Pass with the purpose of improving the user authentication in both security and usability.

Title of the Paper: Voltage Calculation in Periodically Grounded Multiconductor Transmission Lines


Authors: Dario Assante, Claudio Fornaro

Pages: 54-60

Abstract: In this paper, the propagation of voltages and currents in lossless multiconductor transmission lines with one or more conductors periodically grounded is discussed. An general procedure for the computation of the characteristic impedance matrix is shown. The presented procedure is efficient, and can be applied to an arbitrary number of ungrounded and grounded conductors. Numerical results are shown for a typical line configuration, considering a direct lightning on the shield wire and discussing the effect that the termination has on the voltage propagation.

Title of the Paper: Decision Feedback Equalization for Indoor Visual Light Communication


Authors: Namyong Kim

Pages: 47-53

Abstract: In integrated systems of indoor visual light communication and power line communication technology, interference including multipath effect, DC bias and impulsive noise is a crucial obstacle to be coped with. In this paper, a recursive equalizer algorithm that can reduce the high computational complexity of blind decision feedback equalizer algorithms in order for advantages in implementation, and for the robustness against interference. The summation operation in the calculation of gradient of the cost function of the lagged cross-correlation of probability (LCCP) algorithm is transformed into a recursive gradient calculation. The proposed method reduces the computational burden of to , which is independent of the data block size. From the results of the simulation, the proposed method yielded the superior learning performance with reduced computation complexity.

Title of the Paper: An Application for the Comparison of Lossless Still Image Compression Algorithms


Authors: Tomáš Vogeltanz, Pavel Pokorný

Pages: 38-46

Abstract: This paper describes the comparison of results of lossless compression algorithms used for still image processing. In order to create this comparison, an application was developed which allows one to compare the effectiveness and quality of modern lossless image compression algorithms. The first section of this paper describes the evaluation criteria of the compression algorithm effectiveness. The second section briefly summarizes the types of compression algorithms and the graphic file formats that the application supports and tests. The following section describes the architecture of the application and its user interface. The final section contains the comparison of results for JPEG photos, RAW photos, grayscale photos, High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) color photos, High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) grayscale photos, 24-bit images, 8-bit images, 4-bit images, 1-bit images, grayscale images, 1-bit text images, and grayscale text images. The results are described and evaluated.

Title of the Paper: Proposal of Double Voltage Transmission Line Pulse Generator Using Four Coaxial Cables


Authors: Hitoshi Kijima, Koji Ochi

Pages: 30-37

Abstract: In order to carry out the simulation of an electrical noise, a pulse generator with fast rise time is needed. For this reason, the pulse generator using a coaxial cable is usually used. The pulse generator consists of a DC power supply, a charging resistor, a coaxial cable, a switch relay, and a terminating resistor. Even the same voltage as charge voltage was outputted when the termination of the impedance was high, only the output of the half of charge voltage is obtained when the termination impedance was set at 50Ω which is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. For this reason, we have been developing a pulse generator with the same voltage as charge voltage while termination impedance was set at 50Ω, by connecting four coaxial cables in parallel and in series.

Title of the Paper: Electromagnetic Interference and Environment


Authors: Frantisek Hruska

Pages: 22-29

Abstract: Electromagnetic fields have a big influences into environment. Aspects of electromagnetic inference cover very specific area. There are monitored in the field to the frequency of 100kHz. Electromagnetic interference is often electrically very powered e.g. in nearly power lines 50 Hz and influences functions of neighboring electrical instruments, data transmission in metallic cables as well as effects at living organisms. These influences are measured separately as electric field and as magnetic field. Significant there is understood of theory of these fields as well as using of modern software applications for modeling and simulation. Continuation of electromagnetic fields solves problems of electromagnetic wave in range of frequency above 100 kHz and until 60 GHz.

Title of the Paper: Growth and Characterization of ZnS Nanofilms Grown by RF Magnetron Sputtering on GaAs


Authors: J. Díaz-Reyes, R. Castillo-Ojeda, J. Martínez-Juárez, O. Zaca-Moran, J. E. Flores-Mena, M. Galván-Arellano

Pages: 15-21

Abstract: Zinc sulphide (ZnS) is one of the most important II-VI group semiconductors, with a wide direct band gap of 3.8 eV has been extensively investigated and used in electroluminescent devices, flat panel displays, infrared windows, sensors, and lasers. To explore the possibility of using it in electroluminescent devices, a study of the structural and optical properties of the host material is an important step. Based on the above criterion, the structural and optical properties of ZnS nanofilms have been studied in the present work. ZnS nanofilms were grown on (001) GaAs substrates at different temperatures by RF magnetron sputtering. The ZnS chemical stoichiometry was determined by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The XRD analysis and Raman scattering reveal that ZnS deposited nanofilms showed hexagonal wurtzite crystalline phase. The average crystallite size range of the film was from 8.15 to 32.95 nm, which was determined using the Scherrer equation. Besides an experimental study on first- and second-order Raman scattering of ZnS films is made. An energy level diagram involving oxygen traps and interstitial sulphur ions used to explain the origin of the observed emission peaks in the room temperature photoluminescence spectra.

Title of the Paper: State Space MPC Using State Observers


Authors: P. Chaupa, J. Novák, P. Januška

Pages: 9-14

Abstract: The article is focused on state observers and their usage in model predictive control (MPC). The observers are used to track and reconstruct states of a model of a controlled system. Linear time-invariant (LTI) state space models are used in the article because this type of models is often used in different MPC techniques If the states of the controlled system are immeasurable a state observer (filter) is used to calculate current states in each control step. The paper is especially focused to finite impulse filters (FIR) as these filters do not require knowledge of initial state - contrary to infinite impulse response (IIR) filters. Different observers are tested and compared with proposed filters based on quadratic and linear programming. Filters were used in a very noisy environment to evaluate filter robustness. Then MPC using promising filters was applied to a three tank model Amira DTS 200.

Title of the Paper: Tunable LNA for 802.15.4 2.4 GHz Band for Zigbee Devices


Authors: Loay D. Khalaf, Bassam Asir

Pages: 1-8

Abstract: A Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) with active inductance can be tuned over the desired operating range by changing certain variables such as the biasing voltage. A tunable LNA further reduces requirements on the blocking and linearity of a receiver by selectively amplifying the desired channel more than adjacent or alternate channels. This gain selectivity can simplify the analog to digital converters (ADC) of the receiver as well. A low noise amplifier (LNA) sometimes uses series resonance to amplify the voltage without adding noise generated by a transistor. One popular matching method for LNA’s is the inductance degeneration that reflects an inductor connected to the source as a resistance at the gate. While an amplifier amplifies all the signals that fall in its band, a tuned amplifier can be selectively adjusted to change its center frequency or bandwidth, and its gain. We present a LNA in this paper that can be tuned simply by changing the biasing voltage.