International Journal of Computers and Communications

E-ISSN: 2074-1294
Volume 8, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being seperated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 8, 2014 

Title of the Paper: Use of Petri Nets for Evaluation Modeling of the Student Transition through the Web Environment


Authors: Zoltán Balogh, Milan Turčáni, Martin Magdin

Pages: 183-189

Abstract: The paper describes student transition evaluation modeling through LMS by the use of Petri nets. First, a universal student transition model had to be created through the LMS. This model created in Petri nets is modular. This means that a model could be added which evaluates the student on the bases of transition through LMS. According to these results, each states of the student could be simulated and on the bases of his steps it is possible to evaluate him. Petri net (PN) is a graphical and mathematical modeling tool that has such characteristics as concurrent, asynchronous, distributed, parallel, nondeterministic, and stochastic. Although, as an ideal system which would be close for every student is utopian for sure. It is still possible to approach the perfect personalization of teaching by means of correctly designed models by the use of Petri nets.

Title of the Paper: Web Service Oriented Generation of LaTeX Plots


Authors: Katarína Žáková, Zoltán Janík

Pages: 177-182

Abstract: Preparation of graphics for publication of scientific results can be time-consuming procedure and therefore a lot of authors is looking for the way how do it in simpler and faster manner. The paper is devoted to the facilitation of work with LaTeX environment. It shows how to automate the preparation of plots for easy use in LaTeX documents. It is realized using JSON-RPC based web services that can be available to all users. The service and the complementary web application enable to take into account user’s preferences regarding layout and appearance of resulting pictures and facilitate the picture production. The implementation was realized using two LaTeX packages: Pgfplots and Gnuplottex based on Gnuplot. Both are widely distributed, their syntax is not so difficult to learn and commands for graphics generation can be written directly in the LaTeX source code.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of the Automatic Methods for Building Extraction


Authors: Julia Åhlén, Stefan Seipel, Fei Liu

Pages: 171-176

Abstract: Recognition of buildings is not a trivial task, yet highly demanded in many applications including augmented reality for mobile phones. Recognition rate can be increased significantly if building façade extraction will take place prior to the recognitionprocess. It is also a challenging task since eachbuilding can be viewed from different angles or under differentlighting conditions. Natural situation outdoor is when buildings are occluded by trees, street signs and other objects. This interferes for successful building façade recognition. In this paper we evaluate the knowledge based approach toautomatically segment out the whole buildingfaçade or major parts of thefaçade. This automatic building detection algorithm is then evaluated against other segmentation methods such as SIFT and vanishing point approach. This work contains two main steps: segmentation of building façades region using two different approaches and evaluation of the methods using database of reference features. Building recognition model (BRM) includes evaluation step that uses Chamfer metrics. BMR is then compared to vanishing points segmentation. In the evaluation mode, comparison of these two different segmentation methods is done using the data from ZuBuD.Reference matching is also done using Scale Invariant Feature Transform. Theresults show that the recognition rate is satisfactory for the BMR model and there is no need to extract the whole building façade for the successful recognition.

Title of the Paper: Web-Based Smart Anti-Counterfeit Branding System – A Practical Approach


Authors: B. Chowdhury, N. Sultana, T. Ahmed

Pages: 164-170

Abstract: Brands mature over time and are developed carefully to capture an important position in the minds of consumers. But, many successful brands become victims of the worldwide phenomenon of counterfeiting, where cheap impersonations of the brands are distributed by the counterfeiters. Nowadays, the brand counterfeiting context is increasingly dominated by the unconstrained presence of fake brands. Gray markets are created by illicit trade in counterfeit goods - already grasp both developed and developing countries successfully through counterfeited, pirated and copycat products that lead to a serious economic, social, and political problem. These problems often threaten the lives of unsuspecting consumers, wreak economic havoc, and weaken consumer confidence in branded products. The counterfeiters have been linked to terrorism, the international drug trade, sweatshop conditions and child labour in both domestic and international settings. As the extent of counterfeiting is increasing in almost every industry, it becomes critical to develop measures that can help to prevent buying and selling of counterfeit products. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework that attempts to capture an emerging technology such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) based solutions. RFID can be employed to reduce counterfeit branding and also to facilitate the automatic streamlining of their detection and monitoring processes in an individual industry. It can assist retailers and vendors with fast and accurate detection of their brands. We also outline the design and development of a real-time Web-based RFID-enabled Anti-counterfeit Branding (RACB) application to curb counterfeiting.

Title of the Paper: Service Oriented Architecture as an Enabler of ICT Integration and Optimization in Public Protection and Disaster Relief Services: Case Study of Medical Emergency Services in Finland


Authors: Paulinus O. Ofem, Jyri Rajamäki

Pages: 149-163

Abstract: Current global initiative is geared towards improving health care services using service oriented architecture (SOA) and Web Services or REST. The decision support systems so far introduced have been based on software development approaches and architectural philosophies that have inherent limitations and therefore do not adequately tackle the growing pressure on the health care services such as the emergency medical services and the integration of systems that support such services. These systems are to a large extent not interoperable and do not support agility, reusability and integration owing to the approaches that gave birth to them. Since health services are moving towards the adoption of SOA and Web Services, this paper proposes a SOA model for use in medical emergency vehicles and their control centres together with a conceptual innovative service blue print for the domain. The primary idea is to address issues of ICT integration, interoperability and support for information inter-change within the domain. The paper also presents the outcome of a survey which sought to test the popularity and viability of SOA as a technology for adoption including its implementation using Web services or REST. Issues that affect the adoption and implementation of SOA and suggested ways through which they can be addressed are also presented. The research findings suggest that, a SOA solution is feasible in the problem domain and standards-based interoperability and integration can be achieved.

Title of the Paper: Semantic Annotation and Retrieval Using Multimedia Ontologies


Authors: Tomo Sjekavica, Ines Obradović, Gordan Gledec

Pages: 140-148

Abstract: Today’s major problem in consumption of multimedia content from the Web is the extremely large volume of multimedia content in various forms on the Web, which keeps on rapidly growing. Another problem is that one part of that multimedia content is not annotated; therefore it is very hard to find and reuse such content. The other part of multimedia content is described manually, hence those annotations may be too subjective or inaccurate, and may be lacking in formal semantics. This results in the need for efficient semantic annotation, so that computers and applications can easily process those metadata for reuse and retrieval of multimedia content. This paper presents ontologies in general as part of Semantic Web and specific ontologies used for multimedia annotation. Comparison of the most commonly used multimedia ontologies and their main features is provided in this paper. These multimedia ontologies can be used for creating high quality and semantically rich multimedia annotations.

Title of the Paper: Feature Selection for Efficient Intrusion Detection Using Attribute Ratio


Authors: Hee-Su Chae, Sang Hyun Choi

Pages: 134-139

Abstract: Network traffic is increasing due to the growing use of smart devices and the Internet. Most intrusion detection studies have focused on feature selection or reduction because some features are irrelevant or redundant which results in a lengthy detection process and degrades the performance of an intrusion identify important selected input features for building an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that is computationally efficient and effective. To this end, we investigated the performance of standard feature selection methods; CFS(Correlation-based Feature Selection), IG(Information Gain) and GR(Gain Ratio). In this paper, we propose a new feature selection method using feature average of total and each class and applied efficient classifier decision tree algorithm for evaluating feature reduction method. Moreover, we compared the proposed method and other methods.

Title of the Paper: A Pyramidal Scheme of Residue Hypercubes for Adaptive Video Streaming


Authors: Adrian Enache, Costin A. Boiangiu

Pages: 128-133

Abstract: The following paper proposes a solution for the adaptive video streaming problem based on a construction of a pyramid of hypercubes. The hypercubes are built as residues between successive downsampling and upsampling operations over chunks of video data. The described mechanism allows a great deal of flexibility with minimum overhead, is both general and mathematically elegant and may be further refined for better transmission control.

Title of the Paper: The Vision of Global Internet Freedom


Authors: Beatrice Zuell

Pages: 120-127

Abstract: The Internet and development of social media has made new forms of communication and connection among individuals possible. It enables individuals to express themselves and supports the free flow of information. Numerous governments try to deny these rights by controlling and censoring the Internet and imposing laws to restrict Internet freedom. With the increasing power and influence of technological innovations, the methods of control used by some governments are becoming less transparent. Societies expect Internet freedom and protection from computer related crime. Internet freedom aims to provide both – regulated freedom by defining rules to protect from crime and terrorism and freedom from surveillance and regulation by governments. Striking the balance between regulation and protection of interests is a delicate task for governments and societies.

Title of the Paper: Vulnerability and Information Security Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Ministries in Korea


Authors: Sangmin Park, Tae-Sung Kim

Pages: 112-119

Abstract: This paper focuses on the relation between information security workforce and information security investment budgets. Organizations are currently interconnected via platforms, such as inter-organizational networks, because their needs have increased with regard to supporting Big Data and Cloud services. Studies define the relation between information security investment measures and vulnerability as a network linkage. However, measuring vulnerability as a network linkage is difficult because organizations presently have good inter-organizational network connections. To address these issues, we propose that vulnerability be measured as the size of an information security workforce (i.e., number of employees). In so doing, we identify the relation between vulnerability and information security investment. The results of this study can be used as bases for relating information security investments to a fixed number of information security investments. We believe the application of our findings will afford organizations a competitive advantage in information security investment and effective decision making.

Title of the Paper: Using Web Logs Dataset via Web Mining for User Behavior Understanding


Authors: Zakaria Suliman Zubi, Mussab Saleh El Raiani

Pages: 103-111

Abstract: Web usage mining focuses on the discovering of potential knowledge from the browsing patterns of the users. It leads us to find the correlation between pages in the analysis stage. The primary data source used in web usage mining is the server log-files (web-logs). Browsing web pages by the user leaves a lot of information in the log-file. Analyzing log-files information drives us to understand the behavior of the user. Web-logs include web server access logs and application server logs. Web-log is an essential part for web mining to extract the usage patterns and study the visiting characteristics of user. Our proposal focus on the use of web mining techniques to classify web pages type according to user visits. This classification helps us to understand the user behavior. Also we will use some classification and association rule techniques for discovering the potential knowledge from the browsing patterns.

Title of the Paper: Improving the Product Manufacturing and Behavior by Mixing Trade Knowledge and Mathematical Models


Authors: Yvon Gardan, Nicolas Gardan

Pages: 94-102

Abstract: The design-engineering-manufacturing process has been for a long time linear. Some work has been done to optimize it, including knowledge and designing, taking into account the other phases. Considering the increasing performance of the optimization software, a new process, optimization before design, is now possible. For instance, engineering design optimization of mechanical structures is nowadays essential in the mechanical industry (automotive, aeronautics ...). We think that optimizing mechanical structures must be processed with sufficient information about other phases of the design-manufacturing process, in order to lead to a global optimization and not only a local one. Engineers must then design parts or assemblies that are a better compromise, between mechanical and functional performance, weight, manufacturing costs etc. In this paper, we present in a synthetic manner our recent work concerning the optimization. After giving an overview on the different disciplines in design optimization of mechanical structures, we propose an integrated approach to optimization in a functional design process with a methodological point of view. It is difficult to take into account all the constraints (multi-physics, multi-criteria, trade knowledge ...). To illustrate the diversity of the possible choices, we present three kind of optimization : one in mechanical structures optimization, on based only on trade knowledge and the third mixing calculus and knowledge.

Title of the Paper: How Standardized Utility Cloud Services and Service-Oriented Architecture Benefits in Public Protection and Disaster Relief?


Authors: Jyri Rajamäki, Paresh Rathod

Pages: 86-93

Abstract: All emergency response service providers in developed countries are using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and technologies. Recent studies shows majority of the public protection and disaster relief (PPDR) organizations are using ICT services in very heterogeneous and customized delivery methods. Many organizations have tailored processes, contracts and technologies. PPDR organizations are lacking supporting infrastructure and expertise hence ICT services are managed by internal and external suppliers. On other side, ICT field is going through constant innovations as a process of evaluation in technologies. Cutting-edge technologies including cloud computing, utility computing and service-oriented architecture (SOA) can be beneficial in emergency response services. Advancement in these technologies is constantly bringing various challenges. This paper is investigating use of utility cloud services and service-oriented architecture in public protection and disaster relief operations. The paper studies and compares cloud and utility computing the context of ICT services. The paper is also investigating design principles of service-oriented architecture to leverage benefits in PPDR. The study argues that all processes, technologies and contracts in utility computing and service-oriented architecture should be standardized to leverage the full benefits of these innovative technologies in PPDR. Further, it also discusses and describes the benefits and disadvantages of standardization and lack of standardization respectively.

Title of the Paper: Dayparting in Online Media: The Case of Greece


Authors: Andreas Veglis

Pages: 77-85

Abstract: The concept of dayparting has been employed for quite some time in the broadcasting industry. A daypart can be defined as a consecutive block of time on similar days during which the size of the audience is homogeneous as is the characterization of the group using the medium. Until recently Internet media planning has been characterized by overall site reach, demographics and content affinity without particular regard for how audience dynamics change by time of day. The existence of Internet dayparts can have major implications on media organization that continuously update their content offered by internet tools and services. This paper investigates the existence of dayparts in the usage of various publishing channels employed by Greek media web sites. More precisely we investigate the traffic patterns of Greek media web sites, as well as internet usage habits of Greek users. In the case of the internet users the study investigates the existence of dayparts for various devices that are being utilized in order to access the internet as well as internet services that constitute different publishing channels for media organizations. From the data we are able to identify distinct Internet dayparts that exhibit similar usage characteristics.

Title of the Paper: Processing Big Data with Natural Semantics and Natural Language Understanding Using Brain-Like Approach


Authors: Emdad Khan

Pages: 67-76

Abstract: We propose semantics and associated Natural Language Understanding (NLU) based approach to address the key problems of big data. Our approach use human Brain-Like and Brain-Inspired algorithms as humans can very effectively retrieve knowledge from data as well as can significantly compress the data by using the semantics of the information. This is true for both unstructured and structured data which are growing very fast - already exceeding the exabyte range. Unstructured data, however, dominates structured data with a wide margin. There are multiple problems with big data including storage, search, transfer, sharing, analysis, processing, viewing, and deriving meaning / semantics. Such problems are mainly due to the 4 Vs i.e. Volume, Velocity, Variety and Variability. All these problems can be addressed well when the data can be highly compressed and meaning of the data can be converted to knowledge. We propose to use Semantic Engine using Brain-Like Approach (SEBLA) to convert data to knowledge and also to compress it; thus addresses the Big Data problems in an effective way. SEBLA provides “Natural Semantics” i.e. semantics similar to what humans use. The main theme in SEBLA is to use each word as object with all important features, most importantly the semantics. In our human natural language based communication, we understand the meaning of every word even when it is standalone i.e. without any context. Sometimes a word may have multiple meanings which get resolved with the context in a sentence. The next main theme is to use the semantics of each word to develop the meaning of a sentence as we do in our natural language understanding as human. Similarly, the semantics of sentences are used to derive the semantics or meaning of a paragraph. The 3rd main theme is to use natural semantics as opposed to existing “mechanical semantics” of Predicate logic or Ontology or the like. All these together can achieve summarization and draw inference i.e. finding useful information or converting data to knowledge, at least to first degree. These have numerous applications (e.g. Business Intelligence, Analytics, Document Summarization, and Document Analysis). There are other types of key applications using the semantic capability of SEBLA including Intelligent Information Retrieval, Intelligent Search, Question and Answer System, and Intelligent Language Translation. We have presented a few such applications.

Title of the Paper: TTS-Driven Expressive Embodied Conversation Agent EVA for UMB-SmartTV


Authors: Matej Rojc, Marko Presker, Zdravko Kačič, Izidor Mlakar

Pages: 57-66

Abstract: The main goal of using non-verbal modalities together with the general text-to-speech (TTS) system is to better emulate human-like course of the interaction between users and the UMB-SmartTV platform. Namely, when human-TV interaction is supported by TTS only, the interactions tend to be still less functional and less human-like. In order to achieve more advanced interaction, and more human-human like, the virtual agent technology as a feedback interface has to be introduced. In this way more appropriate social responses from the UMB-SmartTV through personification of the TTS system, named PLATTOS, can be produced and close to human-human-like communicative behavior may be invoked. Verbal and co-verbal gestures are linked through complex mental processes. Understanding of attitude, emotion, together with how gestures (facial and hand) and body movements complement, or in some cases, override any verbal information produced by the TTS system, provides crucial information for modeling both the interaction and the embodied conversational agent’s (ECA) socially-oriented responses. The social responses of the TTS system fused with ECA can then be presented to the user in a more human-like form, using not just audio but also facial expressions, such as: facial emotions, visual animation of synthesized speech, and synchronized head, hand, and body movements. In the paper a novel TTS-driven behavior generation system is proposed to be used for IPTV platforms. The behavior generation engine is implemented as a service and used by UMB-SmartTV in a service-oriented fashion. The behavior generation engine fuses both, speech and gesture production models, by using FSMs and HRG structures. Selecting the shape and alignment of co-verbal movement for embodied conversational avatar, named EVA, are based on several linguistic features (automatically extracted from the input text), and several prosodic features (symbolic and acoustic features produced within the TTS engine). Finally, the generated speech and co-verbal behavior are animated by embodied conversational agent’s engine and represented to the user within the UMB-SmarTV user interface. In this way, personificated TTS system PLATTOS, integrated within the UMB-SmartTV system, enable more advanced, personalized, and more natural multimodal-output-based human-machine interface.

Title of the Paper: Virtualization of Links with Partial Isolation and a Packet-Wise Policy


Authors: Tomasz Fortuna, Andrzej Chydzinski

Pages: 49-56

Abstract: In this paper a proposition of the packet scheduling algorithm for virtualization of links is presented. The algorithm is based on the time-limited polling model with a constant maximum server attendance time. Such design allows for computing throughput and delay guarantees for the scheduling algorithm and assures that the influence of one virtual link on the performance of other links is limited (i.e. the partial link isolation is provided). Contrary to typical polling models, the scheduling algorithms uses a packet-wise policy, which enables serving packets in a round-robin manner within one operating cycle. This optimization allows for a less CPU-demanding implementation and decreases the queueing delay of the virtual links.

Title of the Paper: Advantages of Semantic Web Technologies Usage in the Multimedia Annotation and Retrieval


Authors: Tomo Sjekavica, Gordan Gledec, Marko Horvat

Pages: 41-48

Abstract: During the last few years, there was a large increase in various forms of multimedia content on the Web, which presents a growing problem for the further use and retrieval of such content. In parallel, with the increase of multimedia content on the Web existing multimedia metadata standards were improved and new standards have been developed. To facilitate the use of multimedia content on the Web, that content is assigned a metadata that describes it. Manually annotation is time-consuming and expensive process. Besides, annotations can be created by different people such as authors, editors, publishers or the end users, which represents a problem, because there may be different interpretations of those annotations. The main disadvantage of such annotations is the lack of well-defined syntax and semantics which is why computers in most cases can hardly process such information. Using Semantic Web technologies such as XML, RDF and ontologies is recommended for creating new and enriching existing annotations due to a large number of multimedia metadata formats and standards and their incompatibility.

Title of the Paper: Behavior Based Mobile for Mobile Robots Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance


Authors: Mohammed Faisal, Khalid Al-Mutib, Ramdane Hedjar, Hassan Mathkour, Mansour Alsulaiman, Ebrahim Mattar

Pages: 33-40

Abstract: Nowadays, autonomous mobile robot is used in many applications such as security guards, material transport. One of the most recent research areas in mobile robot is the navigation of mobile robots in unknown environments. In this paper, real time navigation using multi modules fuzzy logic technique is developed to navigate an autonomous mobile robot in dynamic indoor environment. The multi modules fuzzy logic consist of four fuzzy logic modules. Goal Seeking Module (GSM), Static and Dynamic Obstacles Avoidance Module (SDOAM), Emergency Module (EM), and Robot Setting Module (RSM) are combined to perform the behaviors of reaching the target and avoid static and dynamic obstacles. The target of this work is to use the autonomous mobile robots in warehouse with dynamic and unknown environment. Experimental results show the success of the proposed algorithm.

Title of the Paper: A Novel Network Coding Scheme for Efficient Multicast and Unicast in Ad-hoc Networks


Authors: Mohamed Osama, Ahmed Shawish

Pages: 25-32

Abstract: Achieving higher throughput values in wireless ad-hoc networks is essential to support many applications. Network coding was found to be the most promising and effective approach for this purpose. However current network coding schemes, mainly relying on COPE, were able to improve the throughput gain in case of unicast flows only, while failing to achieve similar gain in case of the multicast scenario. With the notable flourish of conference-based and multimedia streaming applications that are mainly dependent on multicast flows, it became crucial to formulate a new network coding scheme that is able to handle both unicast and multicast flows with the same efficiency. In this paper, we introduce a novel network coding scheme to efficiently handle multicast flows simultaneously with the unicast ones with the same high efficiency and hence achieve a real high throughput gains. It even provides the option to favor one type of flow over the other when needed. The proposed scheme depends on graph theory to model packets and nodes in the network. A smart algorithm is then introduced to discover all feasible coding options in a way that smartly avoids the draw backs of previous schemes. Extensive simulation studies report the success of the proposed scheme to deliver nearly double of the COPE throughput gain in case of multicast flows while still delivering on par gain in unicast case.

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Network Delays through Implementation of EIGRP Routing Protocol


Authors: Astrit Hulaj1, Adrian Shehu

Pages: 17-24

Abstract: Many applications that today operate within the network are enough sensitive in relation to network caused delays, including the end-to-end delays. Among the applications that are critical a lot regarding delays within the network are the Video and VoIP applications. This paper will deal precisely with analysing and providing a solution in relation to optimizing these delays that occur along the network. This paper will analyse network delays concerning three routing protocols, respectively for RIP, OSPF, EIGRP protocols. For analysis purposes we have used Video, VoIP, FTP, HTTP and e-mail applications. Results are obtained using OPNET software and will be graphically presented for the three routing protocols. Finally, based on the results obtained we will present concrete proposals regarding the optimization of network delays.

Title of the Paper: A Novel Ims Based Umb-Smarttv System For Integrating Multimodal Technologies


Authors: Izidor Mlakar, Danilo Zimšek, Zdravko Kačič, Matej Rojc

Pages: 7-16

Abstract: Several systems with multimodal interfaces are already available, and they allow for a more natural and more advanced exchange of information between man and a machine. Nevertheless, the television domain is still undergoing an innovation/development phase within which standard linear television is further enhanced with several novel technologies. In this way it is already being transformed into a full interactive entertainment environment customizable with several applications and services. Besides, TV set is a most common household device and can, therefore, represent a common platform also for smart-home environment. Current level of personalization and interactive possibilities are still quite limited, especially in terms of context-awareness, recommendation, and multiple user-control-devices (e.g. smart-phones, tablets, game-pads, keyboards, mice, etc.). Therefore, the fusion of evolving IPTV services with natural modalities can be effective solution for users that would like to access these services and IPTV content in a more natural way. In the paper a novel IMS based UMB-SmartTV system is proposed that fuses traditional IPTV services with multimodal services, including text-to-speech synthesis engine, speech recognition engine, and embodied conversational agents, available for several users even remotely. The platform enables flexible migration from often closed and purpose-oriented nature of multimodal systems to the wider scope that IPTV environment can offer. It is designed to overcome problems regarding interoperability, compatibility and integration that often accompany migrations to multiservice (and resource limited) networks. The UMB-SmartTV architecture is developed on IMS core and distributed DATA architecture. In this way it flexibly merges IPTV and non-IPTV services into uniform and highly modular solution that provides entertainment, ambience control, and many other services to the users operating with different devices and speech.

Title of the Paper: Extending the Linking Capabilities of Resources in the Web of Data


Authors: Bujar Raufi, Xhemal Zenuni, Artan Luma

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of extending web resource linkings with other linking methodologies besides the unidirectional one. The process of interlinking web resources nowadays is done through hypertext references which allow only unidirectional coupling. We explore the extension of the linking process in the web of data through the use of XML Linking Technologies (XLink) applied to web documents or other resources. With the proposed approach, the linking structure of web resources can be substantially enriched and as a result, access to more resources and resource entities is achieved. The initial experimental results also indicate that by using the proposed approach, a substantial improvement and increase of linking process between web resources is evident.We envision that this outline will potentially improve future of information extraction and resource linking for automatically generate knowledge bases and various assertions on such linked resources.