International Journal of Geology

E-ISSN: 1998-4499
Volume 8, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 8, 2014

Title of the Paper: A Robust System for Earth Current Measurements Related to Atmospheric Electric Fields


Authors: Ernst D. Schmitter

Pages: 81-85

Abstract: Monitoring geomagnetic and geoelectric field variationsis of great importance for geophysical studies. We present a novelsystem for the measurement of shallow running earth currents onshort distances (tens of meters) that proves as a reliable and inexpensivesensor for the surface Earth electric field as part of the globalelectric circuit. It is well suited to study electrified clouds, aerosolconcentrations as well as averaged diurnal and seasonal surfaceelectric field variations. It is less fragile than mechanical field mills,less prone to noise and more robust with regard to static dischargescompared to electrometer (charge amplifier) devices and is thereforewell suited for continuous unattended operation.

Title of the Paper: Qualitative Assessment of the Cliff Instability Susceptibility at a Given Scale with a New Multidirectional Method


Authors: G. F. Andriani, V. Pellegrini

Pages: 73-80

Abstract: This paper aims to present a new predictive method for the assessment of rocky cliff instability susceptibility at a given scale in carbonate environment. The method (CISA, Cliff Instability Susceptibility Assessment) entails in situ specific geomechanical and morphological surveys, laboratory geotechnical tests, analysis of meteo-marine data together with human-related variables controlling cliff recession potential. The first step of the method consists of the subdivision of the coastal stretch in sectors based above all on morphological and geological criteria. Then, according to an heuristic approach, 28 conditioning parameters were divided in four categories (geomechanical, morphological, meteo-marine and anthropogenic) and weighted on the basis of a multifactor spatial GIS analysis using physical geographically-based measures. For each parameter 5 classes of rating were proposed; the cliff classification, in terms of cliff instability susceptibility, was obtain from the total rating which represents the summation of the single rating of the individual parameter. An application of the CISA method was here presented through a case study along the Murgia coastline South of Bari (Apulia, SE Italy). The stretch of coastline considered in this study is entirely in the territory of the municipality of Polignano a Mare, between the localities of San Vito and Largo Ardito; it is made up of cliffs, up to 20 m high, and shore platforms interrupted by small pocket beaches. The coastal outcrops consist of Mesozoic carbonate rocks, mainly white-greyish calcilutites well stratified and, moderately to highly fractured and karstified, which are overlain by massive Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites.

Title of the Paper: Topographic Effect to the Prediction of Nickel Deposit


Authors: La Ode Ngkoimani, Edi Cahyono

Pages: 69-72

Abstract: Predicting nickel ore content inside the soil under a given area/region is considered. This is very important for exploitation activity from economic point of view. So far, the prediction is based on the data from the drilling activity at several „points‟ which yield information of the nickel concentration at every point. Current methods applied in industries only provide nickel concentration in the whole region. Moreover, in drilling activity the effect of topographic surface does not taken into account. This paper discusses the prediction of total nickel content in the whole region by considering the topographic surface. The total content is approximated by integral of the nickel concentration over the surface. Whereas the nickel concentration under the surface is approximated by applying linear interpolation of the data obtained from drilling. The total nickel content in the whole region is more desirable for deciding exploitation activity from economic point of view. An example of the effect of surface topography which gives an error in prediction is also presented.

Title of the Paper: A Simplified Method for the Seismic Analysis of Urban Transportation Tunnels


Authors: Seyed J. Faraji, Zhang Qingping, Mahdi Shadab Far, Hadi Kordestani, Seyed Y. Faraji

Pages: 65-68

Abstract: By a quick look at the states, it can be realized that many cities in the world with rapid and considerable growth suffer from three key problems including road safety, air pollution and urban traffic management [6]. Due to the reasoning ability, humans have always looked forward the best environment and comfort and therefore tried to find operational solutions to solve these problems. So, one of the fundamental steps in this direction is construction of safe and reliable buildings and structures. Accordingly, in this paper, attempt has been made to develop a simplified procedure in which the equivalent static method, the vertical and horizontal seismic loading as well as the effect of soil-tunnel interaction have been studied. The results of this study although can model the behavioral characteristics of the tunnel and surrounding soil, do not have any certain complexity and can easily be used for analyzing the transportation tunnels under earthquake loads.

Title of the Paper: Environmental Effects of Lime on Mechanical Characteristics of Stabilized Closed-Texture Soils


Authors: S. Boudaghpour, F. Majdzadeh

Pages: 60-64

Abstract: Many closed-texture soils due to natural characteristics of the constituent minerals or geological processes of their formation, in contact with water are soft and swollen. If the origin of soil be marl, saturating may cause weakening of soil mass, reducing shear strength, land sliding on steep piles and ultimately destructive pressures to adjacent structures. When the type of soil cemented materials is water soluble salts, any water flow causes leaching of salts and will result soil divergence, piping phenomenon on steep piles or severe surface erosion. In this case using additives as natural and artificial pozzolan, lime and polymeric materials, is one way to stabilize the soil. in addition to mechanical reinforcement of soil, each of these materials have environmental and physical effect on environment, accordance with their chemical properties. In this paper, the effect of lime on geotechnical characteristics of soil-lime mixtures is surveyed. To do this, soil mechanical tests including Atterberg limits, Proctor compression, Not-confined compressive strength and Direct shear were used. Undesirable characteristics of soil can be improved and its behaviors can be modified by increasing amounts of lime and cement in lime-soil mixtures (within this survey). The percent of selected weight is between 0-14 (wider domain than what is practically used in projects). In this way, the erosion of closed-texture soil can be prevented and favorable environmental effects can be achieved.

Title of the Paper: Seismic Analysis of Urban Water Supply Systems (Case Study: Qazvin City, Iran)


Authors: Mahdi Shadab Far, Zhang Qingping, Reza Rasti, Seyed J. Faraji

Pages: 47-59

Abstract: Today, most people have settled in a habitat named city, a place with a distinct structure and function from its surroundings, which has created a new mean of civilization and human identity. Undoubtedly one of the most vital lifelines in modern societies is the water pipelines and its governing system. In this regard, there should be a policy for purposive conveyance of water and providing the basic needs for citizens to manage the disorders and surmount the possible problems. What is responsible for this task is the water supply system and networks which should improve the life in societies. Meanwhile, the knowledge of urban managers out of water systems status also seems a very vital issue because acquiring this knowledge they can take necessary action against unexpected disasters such as earthquakes. So, in this article, after doing several full dynamic finite element analyses on Qazvin distribution water pipelines, it has been tried to present the vulnerability maps of pipelines in the various hazard levels in the form of GIS maps to reach a general understanding of Qazvin water network status which located in a seismically active area and help the relevant authorities to take appropriate action on this issue.

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Mashhad Aquifer: A Successful Assessment Strategy to Control Groundwater Contamination


Authors: M. Ehteshami, A. Aghassi, S. Tavassoli, S. Moghadam

Pages: 39-46

Abstract: Identification of areas with heavy nitrogen loading from point and non-point sources is important for land use planners, environmental regulators and decision-makers. Once such high-risk areas have been identified, preventative measures can be taken to minimize the risk of nitrate leaching to groundwater. Most of the cities in the Third World countries face lack of wastewater collection systems which, in turn, could cause ground water contaminations. Elevated nitrate concentrations in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia in infants, stomach cancer in adults and nitrate poisoning in animals as well. Modeling of nitrate fate and transport in groundwater to minimize nitrate concentration in groundwater has been studied by numerous researchers. The present research focuses on modeling and assessment of Mashhad aquifer. The aquifer is serving most of the drinking water wells and its pollution threatens the health of city residents. A three-dimensional numerical model was developed using PMWIN 5.3 to simulate the flow and transport of contamination in Mashhad aquifer. A total of 86 wells were selected for data collection from 2005 to 2012. The collected data showed that average amount of nitrate in observation wells was increasing every year. The increment is about 3mg/l per year. Average nitrate in observation wells in 2012 stood at 65mg/l, which exceeded the World Health Organization’s (WHO) maximum contaminant level of 50 mg/lit for nitrate concentration in drinking water. The simulated and observed measured data showed that the model was able to predict the ground water quality changes within the aquifer.

Title of the Paper: Dynamic Characteristics of Site and Existing Low-Rise RC Building for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment


Authors: A. F. Kamarudin, M. E. Daud, A. Ibrahim, Z. Ibrahim, H. B. Koh

Pages: 28-38

Abstract: Seismic performance and vulnerability studies of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings without seismic design provision in Peninsular Malaysia have been started to be given serious attention. Previous earthquakes from neighboring country of Sumatra and local earthquake events in Bukit Tinggi had shaken many low-rise to high-rise buildings and emerged panic. Insufficient structure durability for excessive lateral resistance, inappropriate building configuration, site-structure resonance effect, poor soil conditions, ground topographic surfaces irregularities etc. may be associated to the building vulnerabilities against seismic threat. In this study, ambient noise measurements were conducted for dynamic characteristics and resonance potential of site and an existing 4-storey RC primary school building of SK Sri Molek in Batu Pahat-Johor (Peninsular Malaysia). Estimations of building capacity and sediment thickness based on the microtremor findings were also discussed. The predominant building frequencies were found between 4.20 Hz and 4.35 Hz in transverse and longitudinal directions, while 2.69 Hz to 3.20 Hz for the ground frequencies, at medium level of resonance potential was estimated. Good agreement and closer prediction of sediment thickness shown in comparison with boreholes data. Since none of specific design response spectra (RSA) available in the study area, estimation of base shear force using equivalent static analysis (ESA) and Eurocode 8 has been done by substituting the RSA developed in Kuala Lumpur region. The ultimate horizontal load based on conventional design load combination found to be exceeded 1.5% as provided in BS 8110 which may lead to structural damages.

Title of the Paper: Filtering a Digital Surface Model


Authors: Dragos Badea, Karsten Jacobsen

Pages: 19-27

Abstract: This paper describes the processing method of the LiDAR data by using the feature characteristic derived from height and position information. The most important factor that everyone care, is the similarity of digital representations with the real terrain surface. Different techniques were developed around the research groups. Now those objects not belonging to the bare earth can be eliminated through different filter methods. But in the same time other problems occur. In a flat area , an object can be detected by an algorithm which analyses the height of the points in relation to the surrounding area. But ,what is happening when the terrain surface is not flat? The same algorithm is not anymore suited to filter off-terrain objects from the area with the same threshold. You can have the surprise that this filter will eliminate points from bare earth surface . And you have to find a different approach to the problem. The LiDAR data is classified by the neighborhood height effect. The problem occurs when you try to eliminate off-terrain points like manmade objects and trees. Those objects not belonging to the bare earth can be eliminated through different filter methods. This paper-work demonstrate the benefits brought by introduction of break lines in filtering the Digital Surface Model to achieve a more accurate Digital Height Model. LIDAR data sets used for demonstrations are from Romania – Prahova Valley. The methods of filtering and generation of DHM we use, were developed,implemented in software and improved in time at Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation at the University of Hannover (IPI).

Title of the Paper: Small Soil Embankment Electrical Resistivity Value on its Array, Moisture Content and Density Influences


Authors: A. Mohd Hazreek Zainal Abidin, B. Fauziah Ahmad, C. Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera, D. Rosli Saad, E. Mohamad Faizal Tajul Baharuddin

Pages: 9-18

Abstract: This study presents the results of an investigation into the influence of electrical resistivity setting with particular reference to array and basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to soil moisture content and density on its electrical resistivity value (ERV) using small trial embankment. In the past, ERV obtained from resistivity survey has demonstrated some ambiguous results that prove to be difficult to deliver in sound and definitive ways especially in engineering point of view. Traditional practice in the past has always been query due to its qualitative anomaly and being image obsessed which led to several undefined ambiguities derived from the nature of uncertainties of soil. Several black boxes such as dissimilarity of electrical resistivity value for the same type of soil also have being debate by the engineers due to the lack of basic fundamental of geophysics. Hence, a small embankment of Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND was tested using ABEM Terrameter SAS (4000) set in place to obtain the resistivity value in this small embankment constructed with soil placed in a loose condition. Electrical resistivity array of Wenner and Schlumberger was used during the resistivity field model measurement with soil moisture content (w) and density (ρ) was performed soon after the resistivity test was finished. Three soil samples were obtained in selected location in line with the resistivity test were also being tested for particle size distribution test using wet and dry sieve method. It was found that the ERV was a function of the array, moisture content and density variations of the soil and was also associated to soil particle variations. Both arrays have produced a different ERV even the measurement was performed on the exact location of resistivity spread line. However, the ERV for both arrays has shown some consistent relationship to the soil moisture content and density by showing Gravelly SAND has a relationship of ERV ∞ 1/w and ERV ∞ ρ while Silty SAND showed a relationship of ERV ∞ 1/w and ERV ∞ 1/ρ. This finding has shown that both resistivity arrays were applicable for producing good ERV which varied due to the moisture content and density variations. Furthermore, this study also found that the ERV was highly influence by air void content which caused by loose soil embankment condition used in this study. Hence, it was found that ERV produced was relative to the types of array used during the field measurement in line with the variation of physical soil characteristics.

Title of the Paper: Geostatistical Models Used in GIS for Geomorphological Processes


Authors: Ana-Cornelia Badea

Pages: 1-8

Abstract: The main objective in this paper is to emphasize the main application of geostatistical analysis and the differences between the results obtained through multiple methods applied. A main application of geostatistical methods used is in creating of hazard maps. After we had applied some geostatistical methods in surface erosion, we have a comparative study about these methods.