International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

E-ISSN: 1998-4464
Volume 15, 2021

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 15, 2021

Title of the Paper: From Hierarchical Control to Flexible Interactive Electricity Services: A Path to Decarbonization

Special Issue on "Automatic Control" dedicated to the memory of Prof. Michael Athans, MIT, IEEE Fellow.


Authors: Marija D. Ilic, Pedro M. S. Carvalho

Pages: 1558-1570 

DOI: 10.46300/9106.2021.15.168     XML


Abstract: We propose to conceptualise electric energy systems as complex dynamical systems using physically intuitive multilayered energy modelling as the basis for systematic diverse technology integration, and control in on-line operations. It is shown that such modelling exhibits unique structure which comes from the conservation of instantaneous power (P) and of instantaneous reactive power ( _Q), (interaction variables (intVar)) at the interfaces of subsystems. The intVars are used as a means to model and control the interactive zoomed-out inter-modular (inter-area, inter-component) system dynamics. Control co-design can then be pursued using these models so that the primary control shapes intVars of its own module by using its own lowlevel detailed technology-specific model and intVar info exchange with the neighbours. As a result, we describe how the proposed approach can be used to support orderly evolution from today’s hierarchical control to a platform enabling flexible interactive protocols for electricity services. The potential for practical use of the proposed concepts is far-reaching and transparent. All that needs to be conceived is that intVar characterising any intelligent Balancing Authority (iBA) is a generalisation of today’s Area Control Error (ACE) characterising net energy balance of a Balancing Authority (BA). An iBA can be any subsystem with its own sub-objectives, such as distributed energy resources (DERs) comprising customers and grid forming microgrids; distribution systems; transmission systems; Independent System Operators (ISOs); and, ultimately, electric energy markets within large interconnection. Several industry problems are described as particular sub-problems of general interactive electricity services. These formulations help one compare models and assumptions used as part of current solutions, and propose enhanced solutions. Most generally, feasibility and stability conditions can be introduced for ensuring feasible power flow solutions, regulated frequency and voltage and orderly power exchange across the iBAs.