ISSN: 2308-1007


Published by NAUN

Year 2010

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

Main Page

    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 4, 2010)


Traffic Noise Impact in Road Intersections
J. Quartieri, N. E. Mastorakis, C. Guarnaccia, A. Troisi, S. D'Ambrosio, G. Iannone

Abstract: In the framework of urban environmental control, acoustical noise is considered one of the most important physical polluting agents. In particular, urban area are strongly affected by noise coming from vehicular traffic. Nowadays traffic noise models are mainly used to predict traffic noise in urban general environments and don’t takes into account conflicting points, such as intersections. Only some models consider the addition of a constant penalty due to the presence of a road intersection. In this paper the authors summarize the classification and the choice criteria of different intersections typologies, and then investigate the noise impact of different road intersections both on a review plan and on a software aided performance. The introduction of graphical elements for designers and engineers, able to furnish hints for the choice of intersection typology and geometrical features, based on the acoustical impact on urban environment, is pursued. Noise maps, easy to be read by final user, are produced for different intersection typology and compared by means of contour lines or areas.


Analyses of Iranian Garden Design Art from Landscape Architecture and Urbanism View
Shahram Nassehzadeh, Ahadollah A'zami

Abstract: In Iranian mind, garden has a pervasive picture as it has changed into an internal view through centuries and is considered part of its culture. From one side Iranian Gardens got their feature and shape from their geometric and structural definitions and from harmony of their sustainable orders. As each of these orders were modern but an unwritten principle and norm that systematized definition, planning, shaping and forming of a part of garden in relation with other parts of it. This order was in such an extent that no Iranian Garden is designed except if it included both orders of structure and geometrical point and forming Iranian architecture space, elements and arena. Investigating experiences of Iranian urban design in relation with methods of exploiting garden in urban structure and spaces can have significant role in reconstruction, repair and development of cities. Therefore, we have tried in this article to analyze basics of landscape architecture and Iranian Garden Urbanism together with its teachings in contemporary garden design of Iran from different points of view.


New Aspects on the Implementation of Wind Farms in Romania and Greece
Marius-Constantin Popescu, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: Presently, the wind energy utilization devices approach is changed from individual isolated equipments, designated to a singular application, to compel wind farms connected to the electrical network. Supported by a favorable legal frame, they become competitive actors on the energy market, challenging traditional actors, like thermal or hydro power stations. Romania and Greece has good wind resources, mainly on the Black Sea and Mediterranean coast and in mountainous areas. The paper presents a computer modeling of such a farm, continuing with a study of balance of a turbine, by a MATLAB simulation of the resulting transfer functions.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 4, 2010)


Application of Matlab for Simulating the Operation of a Photovoltaic System in Conditions of Mexico
Liliana Cortez, J. Italo Cortez, German Ardul Munoz, Ernest Cortez, Gustavo Rubin Linares, Alejandro Paredes Camacho

Abstract: The insufficient production of energy in Mexico represents a deficit nearby to 36 TWh per year and greatly elevates its cost therefore restraining the development of the country. The design of effective and profitable facilities on the basis of solar modules is especially important. Software dedicated to the simulation of photovoltaic systems can realize extensive and precise analyzes, but they generally do not allow the user to modify the algorithms. This degree of freedom only is in an open architecture of MATLAB that allows east process of disposition to modify any existing routine or to include new. In the present work a program in Matlab of the simulation of the operation of a photovoltaic system on the basis of the mathematical models of its components was designed. Software includes the models of the solar panel, battery, investor (continuous-alternating), consumption and model of arrival of the solar radiation. Each one of the obtained models have been organized in a set of architectures with the purpose of to characterize traditional photovoltaic systems most of.


Evaluation of Emissions Exhausted by Diesel Vehicles on Urban Routes
Adriana Tokar, Arina Negoitescu

Abstract: Most important pollutant effect of internal combustion engines is due to harmful gases existing in exhaust emissions, which occur due to poor, incomplete fuel combustion in internal combustion engines. Compression-ignition engines produce smoke at high loads. Experimental researches on traffic simulation with a Volkswagen Caddy 1.7DTI car were accomplished in Road Vehicles Laboratory at the Politehnica University of Timisoara and aimed a large congested vehicles route from Timisoara downtown (a traffic light intersection and a non-traffic light one, 6 pedestrian traffic light crossings and 4 non- traffic light ones). The studied route is 2.3 kilometers length, where the traffic is carried on “bar to bar”. As measurements results, the opacity values were obtained for the engine operating under transient conditions.


Key Elements of a Model for Sustainable Tourism
Mirela Mazilu

Abstract: Destination, or the terminus of tourists’ holiday, is a complex link between geography (with all the resources - human and natural - it offers you) and tourism (with all the activities they can undertake and services they can consume during the stay). The services forming the tourist product/products offered/given at a destination, and which must be differentiated from those offered by competitors, are the ones “forming” the brand. By tourist destination one can understand a country, a region within a country, a city, a village or a resort. Whatever the type of destination, the marketing tasks are the same: creating a favourable image of the destination in the target segments of visitors, the design of tools to support and promote the image and, not least, promoting the image of the destination in the regions of origin. These topics will be covered in this article, focusing on elements that define a tourist destination, the functions of a destination, but also the items which define the image of a destination and its competitiveness, which offer extra durability. Tourist destinations with limited financial resources for marketing activities face many difficulties in producing an impact on the tourist market. It is therefore vital for Romania to adopt a policy of marketing such as "hitting the bull’s eye”, thus directing the efforts toward clearly defined goals and using the most effective marketing tools.


Evaluation of Lead and Zinc Concentration and their Changes in Surface Sediments of Zayanderood River (Iran)
Javad Tabatabaei

Abstract: Zayanderood is the only permanent river in central iran and the main feeding source for regional aquifers that plays a key role in providing esfahan province with drinking water. Because of the importance of this river in terms of its various uses and the fact that it receives waste materials from heavy industries, In order to study the motion changes of the potentially poisonous elements of lead and zinc and their effective factors in zayanderood river, Eleven surface sediment samples were taken along the beds of the river course (up stream to down stream). Total metal concentrations were obtained after acid digestion and then analysis was carried out by ICP-AES. The results from the analysis of fine grain sediments (particles smaller than 63 μ) indicate a high concentration of lead and zinc in several sampling stations. The concentrations of zinc & lead have been 494.3 ppm and 40.45 ppm respectively. The separation of human factors from natural ones was done by comparing lead & zinc concentrations at" Zaman khan" bridge station (as the reference sample) with those of the other sampling stations by obtaining the enrichment coefficient. Taking into account the results and coefficients, obtained and comparing those with widely used international standards, it seems the two elements of lead and zinc have not natural sources in some of the stations.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 4, 2010)


Energy Efficiency Strategies in Refrigeration Systems of Large Supermarkets
J. M. Garcia, L. M. R. Coelho

Abstract: Energy efficiency and its relationship with sustainable development are one of the most important objectives in modern engineering systems. In Industrial Installations that use refrigeration systems that are associated with the food industry, this optimization of energy consumption associated with the achievement of high quality standard is one of the main objectives of the modern engineer. One of the most important sectors in the distribution industry is the large supermarkets. In this kind of plants the annual amount of costs associated with all the refrigeration equipments that exists inside (cold chambers, preparing rooms, displaying cabinets) achieve values that in some cases represent more than 50% of the total energy consumption costs. With this background all strategies that conduce to reductions in refrigeration energy consumption should be considered. This article is about this kind of strategies that can be made in the refrigeration systems and equipments of a large hypermarket to reduce refrigeration energy consumption. Special attention is given to the variation of evaporation and condensation pressure, utilization of scroll compressors, utilization of efficient control systems and equipment.


Weather Influence on a Different Weapons Systems
Karel Dejmal, Vladimir Repal

Abstract: The paper deals with possible estimation how impact may have meteorological conditions on operations. The paper is focused on human troops, unmanned armed vehicles, artillery, offensive air support, air reconnaissance, helicopter gunship and transport troop carrier. Weather impacts are typically provided in “stoplight” format, i. e. green (in other words Favourable) is used when the meteorological conditions have during mission the minimal operational impacts, amber (Marginal) for moderate operational impact and red (Unfavourable) when the meteorological conditions have severe operational impact or the mission is unrealizable due to meteorological conditions.


Implementation of Methods for the Radiation Fog Prediction
Karel Dejmal, Vladimir Repal

Abstract: Fog formation is complex; its occurrence is widely variable in space and time, forming under a wide range of meteorological circumstances. This article is focused on prediction of radiation fog formation on territory of the Czech Republic. The radiation processes play most important role in fog formation but unfortunately other processes as for example advection or precipitation must be considered. The main goal is to develop method for radiation fog forecasting on territory of central Europe. For this purpose Craddock and Pritchard’s method and methods based on its aproach hase been implemented.


Equilibrium Isotherm, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption onto Pineapple and Paper Waste Sludges
Panida Sampranpiboon, Pisit Charnkeitkong

Abstract: The adsorptions of lead from aqueous solution by pineapple and paper waste sludges are studied through equilibrium isotherm. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models are applied in order to describe the Langmuir coefficient (aL), Langmuir constant (KL), separation factor (SF), Freundlich constant (KF), intensity of Fruendlich adsorption (nF-1). The Gibb free energy (?G?), enthalpy (?H?), and entropy (?S?) are calculated for thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption of rate constant (kad) are determined with from kinetics studies; zero-order, first-order, and second-order adsorption. The activation energy (Ea) of adsorption is applied with Arrhenius equation. Langmuir adsorption model presents better fit with experimental data. The kad from first- and second-order adsorption have the high correlation coefficient (R2) with concentration 100-250 ppm, temperature 30-50 ?C, and pH 6.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 4, 2010)


Numerical Modeling of Solute Transport in a Coupled Sinusoidal Fracture Matrix System in the Presence of Fracture Skin
N. Natarajan, G. Suresh Kumar

Abstract: Modeling of fluid flow and solute transport through fractured rock is an important aspect of many disciplines such as groundwater contamination, nuclear waste disposal, petroleum and gas production, mine excavation and geothermal production. A few studies have been conducted in the coupled fracture matrix system in the presence of fracture skin using parallel plate model. An attempt has been made to simulate solute transport in sinusoidal fracture-skin-matrix coupled system numerically. Results suggest that the spatial variation of the fracture aperture along the fracture affects the mass transfer at the fracture-skin interface. The sinusoidal fracture geometry increases the residence time of the solutes and thus increases the rate of diffusion of solutes into the fracture skin. The sinusoidal geometry of the fracture plays a major role in the mass transfer mechanism and thus needs to be considered while modeling contaminant transport in the fractures.


GIS-Based Assessment of Geotechnical Characteristics Related to Earthquake Motion in a Small Urban Area
Chang-Guk Sun

Abstract: Site characterization on geological and geotechnical conditions was performed for evaluating the earthquake ground motions associated with seismic site effects at a small urbanized area, Hongseong, in Korea, where structural damages were recorded by an earthquake of magnitude 5.0 on October 7, 1978 and severe damages were also recorded in many historical documents. In the field, various geotechnical site investigations composed of borehole drillings and seismic tests for determining shear wave velocity profile were carried out at 16 sites. Based on the geotechnical data from site investigation and additional collection in and near Hongseong, an expert information system on geotechnical information was implemented with the spatial framework of GIS for regional geotechnical characterization over an entire area of interest. For practical application of the GIS-based geotechnical information system to assess the earthquake motions in a small urban area, spatial seismic zoning maps on geotechnical parameters, such as the bedrock depth and the site period (TG), were created over the entire administrative urban area of Hongseong, and the spatial distributions of seismic vulnerability potentials were intuitively examined. Seismic zonation was also performed to determine site coefficients for seismic design by adopting a site classification system based on TG. A case study of seismic zonation in the Hongseong area verified that the site investigation based GIS was very useful for regional prediction of site effects related to seismic response characteristics in a small urbanized inland area.


Analysis of Relative Humidity Variation in Autumn 2009
Carmen - Otilia Rusanescu, Ileana Nicoleta Popescu, Marin Rusanescu, Ladislau David

Abstract: In the present paper, relative humidity variation was analyzed every week from autumn months of 2009, and analysis was done for the 1st day of September and the last day of December 2009. Relative humidity variation analysis was made based on the records of the atmospheric parameters of the weather station equipment from Biotechnical Engineering Faculty of the University “Politehnica” of Bucharest (UPB). Based on records maintained by AWS weather station type / EV, we have achieved the statistical analysis of relative humidity in the months of the autumn 2009 and also in december, highlighting the maximum and minimum relative humidity. We using GECO Using Data Acquisition software which are operating system runs under Microsoft Windows 95, 98, ME, Win NT, Windows 2000, XP. With this equipment, meteorological time is measured, recorded and transmitted automatically in real time with specific systems and also stored on computer databases. Primary meteorological Stored in databases on WAS will be subject to the evaluation process, statistical calculated and analyzed. The Relative Humidity Sensor RH %, from this device it is an electronic sensor, based on a thin film element (temperature compensated capacitive Polymer) which have the capacity to variations linearly with the relative air humidity. RH % it is also an analogue sensor, have a good accuracy of measurements (the signal ranging linearly between o V and + 1 V which measuring between 0-100% and have sensitivity on the full scale +/- 2 % and a response time less than 15 second), which could give us an adequate monitoring of analyzed parameters.


Experimental Researches on the Corrosion Behavior and Microstructural Aspects of Heat Treated Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys
Maria-Cristiana Enescu, Ileana-Nicoleta Popescu, Raluca Zamfir, Alina Molagic, Vasile Bratu

Abstract: The material for experiments was an aluminum alloys series 7xxx obtained by thermo-mechanical processing. We studied the influence of different artificial aging parameters on mechanical characteristic and corrosion of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-alloy. The Al alloys was solution treated at 475±5o C for 60 minutes, quenched in water 40-60oC and artificial aging at 120, 150, 180, 210oC at different time of aging (60, respectively 300, 540, 720 minutes). After heat treatment the obtained alloys were corroded in solution of 53g NaCl + 1000 ml distilled water and boiled in these solutions for 24 hours. After corrosion test, samples were prepared for optical microstructural analyzing and mechanical tested. We observed that the best corrosion behavior has the sample aged at 180oC /12 hours, when coalescence occurs and the weakest corrosion behavior has the sample aged at 180oC /1 hour (better behavior in comparison with the sample aged at 210oC). At 150oC the maximum hardness is higher, while the decreases of hardness in time are lower and corrosion behavior is better for all samples.


Geoenvironmental Issues Concerning the Black Sea Basin
Ancuta Rotaru

Abstract: This paper presents the geographic data and the reasons to study the Black Sea basin. The paper also describes the Black Sea tectonic evolution models, its platform conditions, especially in the Romanian sector, the deep sea basin conditions and its anomalous magnetic theory. The geoenvironmental impact data of Black Sea basin, taking into account its fresh water discharge, coastal discharge, with coastal (beach-forming) sediments and marine (deep-water) sediments, sediments in the Romanian Sector, erosion with its causes and effects.


Green Product Development – Customers and Producers Reflection
Matjaz Maletic, Damjan Maletic, Bostjan Gomiscek

Abstract: This paper intends to provide a better understanding of environmentally friendly design concerning various aspects, including customers’ and producers’ perspectives. The results of the research study conducted in Slovenia provide an important link between customers and producers view considering green products. The customers appear to recognize the importance of environmental concerns regarding green product development, even though their main purchase-decision criteria are: their needs, quality and price. This applies that in order for green product to succeed, product characteristics should be in a balance with quality (and consequently customer’s need) and environmental protection. The results also highlight the different views according to the benefits of green products. From customers’ point of view, the most important benefits for producers regarding green products is enhanced reputation (response rate was 33%), while producers believe that customer trust is the most important benefit obtained from green products (response rate was 31%). However, it seems that there is still often too little awareness and understanding of the wider environmental, social and economic impacts of green product design.


Hydrogen as a Future Energy Source. An Impact Study
Violeta-Carolina Niculescu, Mihai Anghel, Ioan Stefanescu

Abstract: One of the major impediments for the transition to a hydrogen based energy system is the lack of satisfactory hydrogen storage alternatives. In a future sustainable energy system based on renewable energy, environmentally harmless energy carriers like hydrogen, will be of crucial importance. Hydrogen is an important, though little studied, trace component of the atmosphere. It exists at the mixing ratio of about 510 ppb. Hydrogen is an indirect greenhouse gas with a global warming potential GWP of 5.8 over a 100-year time horizon. A future hydrogen economy would therefore have greenhouse consequences and would not be free from climate perturbations. Our study focuses on the environmental impact of using hydrogen as a energy source. If a global hydrogen economy replaced the current fossil fuel-based energy system and exhibited a leakage rate of 1%, then it would produce a climate impact of 0.6% of the current fossil fuel based system.


Biomass - An Environmental Friendly Production Source for Hydrogen
Mihai Anghel, Violeta-Carolina Niculescu, Ioan Stefanescu, Radu Tamaian

Abstract: The aim of our study is to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass. There are three options for producing hydrogen from biomass. Our efforts must be focused on maximizing the reforming and shift conversions along with maximum economical recovery of hydrogen from the PSA. This study demonstrates that hydrogen can be produced economically from biomass. The pyrolysis-based technology, in particular, because its coproduct opportunities, has the most favorable economics.


Standardization of Key Performance Indicators for Environmental Management and Reporting in the Czech Republic
Jiri Hrebicek, Jana Soukopova, Eva Kutova

Abstract: The paper presents chosen results of the project No SP/4i2/26/07 “Proposal of new indicators for monitoring the effectiveness of environmental management by industry (NACE) and system of environmental reporting in the evaluation of links between environment, economy and society” of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic. It introduces the proposed standardized key performance indicators of the Czech Republic for environmental management systems. These are used in corporate environmental reporting and also in annual reports of organizations with Environmental Management and Audit Scheme. Key performance indicators are based on the Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009 and enlarged to economic and social area with using G3 and RICON Group guidelines in the Methodical Guideline of the Ministry of Environment.


Evaluation and Monitoring of Effectiveness of Heat Pumps via COP Parameter
Petr Vojcinak, Mojmir Vrtek, Radovan Hajovsky, Jiri Koziorek

Abstract: This paper deals with some evaluation and monitoring of effectiveness of heat pumps located at the Small Research Polygon (SRP) district, whereas very important parameter of these HPs is so-called coefficient of performance (COP), which is solved from various viewpoints here. The first part is focused on the COP parameter solved from the direct energy input, which is resolved to so-called exergy in the second part. Some recalculation mechanism is also done. All these methods are helpful for evaluation, but each of them has its specific application. The third part of this paper is centered on some description of a SRP technology and monitoring of the parameters needed to calculate a COP parameter value of the SRP heat pumps.


Operating Experience of Photovoltaic Systems installed at the University of Jaen
P. Perez-Higueras, G. Almonacid, E. Fernandez, E. Munoz, F. Almonacid, C. Rus

Abstract: Photovoltaic systems have showed themselves to be one of the most promising applications for dealing with the solar electricity generation. This way, the photovoltaic market has drastically changed. The annual growth rates of worldwide photovoltaic production increased. The use of photovoltaic for electricity generation purposes has recorded one of the largest increases in the field of renewable energies, and this trend is expected to continue in the coming years. The University of Jaen (Spain) is a pioneering public organism in the field of grid-connected PV systems, as it proves the milestones developed by its IDEA research group in the last decades. The University of Jaen has installed several integrated photovoltaic systems in buildings and these systems work properly. Currently, the university produces some of the electrical energy consumed and has provided this institution with infrastructures for the research and development of photovoltaic solar energy.


Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate Analysis of Office Buildings
Martin Thalfeldt

Abstract: This article introduces energy consumption and indoor climate analysis of two office buildings. Several indoor climate and energy consumption simulations with different parameters of building envelopes and HVAC systems were made of both buildings. The results showed that in modern office buildings approximately 1/3 of consumed energy is heat and 2/3 electricity. The effective means of reducing energy consumption are using efficient indoor climate control, energy-efficient electrical equipment (lighting, office equipment) and HVAC systems.


A Technology to Simultaneously Produce Clean Hydrogen and Iron Powder
Stefanoiu Horatiu George, Stanasila Virgil Corneliu, Stanasila Octavian, Stefanoiu Dan

Abstract: The redox steam–iron process, which has been discovered in the early 1900’s, was finally abandoned because the degradation of the iron oxide ores within a few cycles. Recently, this process has been reconsidered, due to the necessity to yield cheap and pure hydrogen. In this article, we introduce a related but improved technology. At the first stage, the inlet iron oxide for the steam–iron process is the hematite, which has to be reduced to metallic iron in a gasifier called HG, by using syngas from coke (or cellulose). The hydrogen is then produced in a cyclic process, based upon the reduction of metallic iron by means of steam. At the second stage, another hematite, at any granulation, is reduced to iron powder in a reactor called IPR, at about 570?C by using the hydrogen of HG.


Mathematical Modeling and Parameters Estimation of an Anaerobic Digestion of Shrimp of Culture Pond Sediment in a Biogas Process
Jiraphon Srisertpol, Prasit Srinakorn, Adtavirod Kheawnak, Kontorn Chamniprasart

Abstract: The biogas is one type of energy and sustainable development which is important to the energy and environmental planning of Thailand. The study and analysis of the mathematical model of the biogas process can be explained the variables that affect biogas process and proposed a design for biogas reactor using shrimp pond sediment. The treatment of shrimp culture pond sediment by anaerobic digestion process could also reduce the amount of waste and produce biogas, which were the high ratio of methane can be used as renewable energy. This paper presents a mathematical modelling and parameter identification of an artificial intelligence to estimate the mathematical model of an anaerobic digestion with shrimp pond sediments in the biogas process which is a batch reaction. The principles of mass balance equations were defined the mathematical models. The equations is one stage nonlinear caused by the reaction of organic substances that are decomposed into biogas. This mathematical model was compared to the experimental data, including temperature, pH, biogas flow rate and biochemical properties of shrimp culture sediment.


Multi-Criteria Generation Optimal Mix Planning for Malaysia?s Additional Capacity
Aishah Mohd Isa, Hideaki Magori, Takahide Niimura, Ryuichi Yokoyama

Abstract: In August 2010, the Malaysian government announced that an additional 2000MW needs to be constructed to meet the projected electricity demand in Peninsular Malaysia. The proposed generation technology for the 2000MW capacity is coal technology. This paper considers other generation technology options, namely nuclear, solar thermal and biomass. These four technologies, along with coal technology will be compared based on three criteria, economic cost, reliability and socio-environmental cost. The proposed comparison algorithm is the two-phase K-best dynamic programming trade-off method.


Forecasting Time Series of Solar Energy and Wind Power by UsingWide Meteorological Data and Pattern Matching Method
Tomohiko Ichikawa, Katsuhiro Ichiyanagi, Kazuto Yukita, Yasuyuki Goto

Abstract: As an alternative energy of fossil fuel, the solar energy and wind power is made effective. This paper describes an application of a neural network for forecasting to time variations of solar energy and wind velocity. The neural network is used to forecast the natural energy and the pattern matching is used to choose the training data of the neural network. It is found from our investigations that forecasting accuracy of the time variation of solar energy and wind velocity is improved by utilization the pattern matching of the weather map data.


Climate Change Policies for the XXIst Century: Mechanisms, Predictions and Recommendations
Igor Khmelinskii, Peter Stallinga

Abstract: Recent experimental works demonstrated that the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis, embodied in a series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate models, is erroneous. These works prove that atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes only very moderately to the observed warming, and that there is no climatic catastrophe in the making, independent on whether or not carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced. In view of these developments, we discuss climate predictions for the XXIst century. Based on the solar activity tendencies, a new Little Ice Age is predicted by the middle of this century, with significantly lower global temperatures. We also show that IPCC climate models can't produce any information regarding future climate, due to essential physical phenomena lacking in those, and that the current budget deficit in many EU countries is mainly caused by the policies promoting renewable energies and other AGW-motivated measures. In absence of any predictable adverse climate consequences of carbon dioxide emissions, and with no predictable shortage of fossil fuels, we argue for recalling of all policies aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions and usage of expensive renewable energy sources. The concepts of carbon credits, green energy and green fuels should be abandoned in favor of productive, economically viable and morally acceptable solutions.




Copyrighted Material. NAUN