International Journal of Geology

E-ISSN: 1998-4499
Volume 6, 2012

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Issue 1, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Colloidal Transport in a Coupled Fracture Skin Matrix System with Sinusoidal Fracture Geometry

Authors: N. Natarajan, G. Suresh Kumar

Pages: 1-7

Abstract: Colloidal transport in fractured media is a hot topic of research in nuclear engineering as colloids are carriers of radionuclides in the subsurface. A few studies have been conducted on colloidal transport in fractured matrix coupled system in the presence of fracture skin with parallel plate fracture model. An attempt has been made to simulate colloidal transport in sinusoidal fracture skin matrix coupled system numerically. Results suggest that the sinusoidal fracture model behaves differently from the parallel plate model as the fracture aperture is spatially varying. Filtration and remobilization of colloids has negligible effect on the colloidal concentration in the sinusoidal fracture matrix system in the presence of fracture skin.

Title of the Paper: Web-Tourism and Development in Case of Yazd Historical City

Authors: Alireza Estelaji, Hadi Sadeghian, Roghaye Ghasemi Darvish Baghal, Seyedeh Leyla Khoda Bakhshi

Pages: 8-16

Abstract: Tourism Web Services is the link between the entrepreneur and the ICT specialist. Apart from web design, graphical solutions and hosting we offer consulting and project management services to ensure the realization of internet related projects within time and budget. We like to build a bridge between those who are the creators of innovative ideas and formulas and those who implement the necessary technology to ensure the translation into actual products and services. Project descriptions, stipulating the expectations and interpretations of the specialists involved are in our view the foundation of any project. A clear project description reduces ambiguity and free interpretations and thus reduces the chances of delay and corrections. The purpose of the research is to study the position of hotel websites in one of the most important counties in Iran, as it pertains to tourism. Yazd City(located in the center of county), known as the driest major city in Iran, and also having recognition as the “sister” of Venice, Italy, has great potential for attracting many tourists in Iran and abroad. Therefore, having a hotel website in a county such as this county can be very important. Hence, this article will compare the situation of hotel websites in Yazd County with standard indexes and use the qualitative-quantitative methodology. The data extracted has come from documents of the Organization of Cultural Heritage and Tourism in Iran, while the qualitative data has been achieved with content analysis from the websites. The result of this research shows that in many cases, the existing situation is not very suitable for the attraction of web users or improving the tourism. The result of this research may help the managers and authorities of tourism to come to a better solution.

Title of the Paper: The Role of Urban Tourism to Achieve Urban Sustainable Development

Authors: Alireza Estelaji, Hadi Sadeghian, Zahra Beyhaghi

Pages: 17-25

Abstract: While large cities have always attracted visitors from outside, the concept of cities regarding tourism as an industry of potential importance and encouraging its growth is a recent phenomenon. The demand for travel to cities has greatly increased over the last few decades. While many travel for business or convention purposes, others are traveling on leisure time to learn about other cultures, to develop their specific interests, and to seek entertainment. This paper examines the international phenomenon of urban tourism and its significance as a process affecting urban areas which poses many opportunities and problems for the development, management and functioning of such destinations. Its aim is to raise awareness of the international significance of urban tourism and to develop a more integrated approach towards the study of urban tourism than has hitherto been the case. The effect of the main output, the tourist experience of urban tourism, indirectly forms the focus for other chapters to illustrate how improvements to this outcome can be implemented by modifying some of the principal inputs. This is followed by a discussion of how different forms of tourist motivation lead to discrete and interrelated reasons for visiting urban locations. This article in this very frame has been written with the purpose of urban tourism and its rule in urban sustainable development, by means of descriptive-analytic method and library researches. Finally by dealing with various tourisms, the definition of constant development besides various developments and urban sustainable development, the relation of civic tourism with sustainable development, we’ve gotten to this result that urban tourism has been one of the most substantial actions and plans for urban sustainable developments, and regarding the climatic, historic, cultural, national and relational variation, making plans for this affair is accounted as one the necessities in our country.

Title of the Paper: Fluid Flow Direction Beneath Geothermal Area Based on Self–Potential Data (A Case Study at Mount Patuha, West Java, Indonesia)

Authors: Alamta Singarimbun, Mitra Djamal, Fitri Meilawati

Pages: 26-35

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to estimate the fluid flow movement beneath geothermal area by self-potential (SP) data analysis. The value of SP, such as curve shape, contour, and positive-negative value are used to achieve the aims of this research. The study was conducted in the area of Mount Patuha, West Java, Indonesia. This area is estimated as a prospect of geothermal energy. Measurements were conducted by using the amplitude of potential at the position of reference point in the Kawah Putih, with a height of 2213 m above sea level. Electrode moves with the observation point of 10 m distance. The results of this study are shown in the form of estimation of ground water movement to the northeast toward the Kawah Putih area.

Title of the Paper: Public Demand for Shores in Natural Condition: A Contingent Valuation Study in Estonia

Authors: M. Reimann, Ü. Ehrlich, H. Tõnisson

Pages: 36-43

Abstract: Approximately 98% of the 3800 km long coastline of Estonia is still in the natural condition. Considering that seashores are attractive as places of residence, natural seashores have a strong pressure from real estate developers. The paper seeks to investigate the willingness of Estonian population to pay for preserving the Estonian seashore in its natural condition. Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) a representative sample of Estonian working-age population was interviewed to find out their willingness to pay. Annual willingness to pay is asked separately for all main natural seashore types in Estonia, which include silty shore, till shore, cliffed shore, gravel shore, sandy shore. A total demand function was worked out to find the total demand for seashore in its natural condition as a valuable environmental good and on the basis of that a total demand curve was constructed. By integrating the demand curve we received results that annual total demand of the working-age population for seashores in their natural condition is 42.5 million euros. Important sociometric indicators for willingness to pay proved to be age and income. The study shows that the Estonian seashores in the natural condition are valuable environmental goods for which there is substantial demand.

Issue 2, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: A Review on Fluid Dynamics of Fractured Reservoir Geology

Authors: G. Suresh Kumar

Pages: 45-52

Abstract: This manuscript provides a review on fluid dynamics of subsurface flow in a heterogeneous fractured reservoir at the scale of a single fracture. The primary focus of this work is to discuss a few points on the general sub-surface fluid dynamics in the context of fractured rock hydrogeology. A second focus is on the computational fluid dynamics aspects of non-isothermal reactive solute transport related to dual-porosity approach.

Title of the Paper: Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading by Dynamicsoil Mass for Earthquakes

Authors: Phuong H. V. Truong

Pages: 53-61

Abstract: Dynamic soil mass for earthquakes can be used toevaluate the liquefaction and lateral spreading in earthquakes.Dynamic soil mass increases with the increase in the contact area ofdisturbance between bedrock and the soil, the square root of both soildensity and shear modulus of soil, and decreases with the increase inthe circular frequency of the earthquake. The ratio of the dynamicsoil masses for vertical and horizontal directions is linearlyproportional to the horizontal circular frequency, inverselyproportional to the vertical circular frequency, and increases with theincrease of the Poisson’s ratio. Effects of different soil and rocklayers on the response to earthquakes are also investigated in detail.

Title of the Paper: A Review on the Existence of Chrome in Cement and Environmental Remedies to Control its Effects

Authors: S. Bodaghpoura, N. Biglari Joob, S. Ahmadib

Pages: 62-67

Abstract: Due to different factors in cement production such as raw materials, fuels and additions many of heavy metals have the chance to enter the clinker and final cement product. In this research, the focus is on the Chrome; therefore dangerous effects of chrome on health and different ways to eliminate it from cement are discussed. Chrome can have some unfavorable influences on concrete properties and when enters water pipelines have some toxic features for people when its concentration is high. Conventional solution could be the usage of ferrous sulfate and other similar materials. In this study zeolite is suggested to perform efficiently in concrete mixes to remove undesirable influences of Chrome in concrete. Additionally, appropriate dispose for refractory kiln bricks containing heavy metals and the sufficient control method for the cement kiln dust are proposed.

Issue 3, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Effects of Acids on Geotechnical Properties of Black Cotton Soil

Authors: T. S. Umesha, S. V. Dinesh, P. V. Sivapullaiah

Pages: 69-76

Abstract: Industrial advances in agriculture, chemical industries has lead to release of variety of pollutants into the environment contaminating the soil. Soil is being contaminated by anthropogenic sources such as leakages from waste containment facilities, accidental spills and industrial operations. This paper reports the effect of hydrochloric, phosphoric and sulphuric acids on the compaction characteristics of Black cotton soil at varying percentages. The acid contamination of soil adversely affects the geotechnical properties of soil. The geotechnical properties of soil get altered when an acid compounds gets mixed with soil. Atterberg’s limits, compaction characteristics and unconfined compressive strength tests have been carried out. The results are indicative that compaction characteristics and unconfined compressive strength are altered due to acid contamination.

Title of the Paper: Dynamic Excess Pore Water Pressures by Dynamic Soil Masses and Dynamic Water Heights

Authors: Phuong H. V. Truong


Abstract: Dynamic excess pore water pressures due to the vertical and horizontal components of earthquakes based on the dynamic water heights and dynamic soil masses increases with the increase in the thickness of liquefiable soil and shear wave velocity of the hard rock; and with the decrease in the density, the Poisson’s ratio and bulk modulus of the liquefiable soil, the depth of the earthquake fault and the earthquake frequency. The geotechnical profile has five layers of soils or rock, e.g. hard rock, weathered rock, hard soil, liquefiable soil and top soil.

Title of the Paper: Geological Studies on Uranium, Thorium, Potassium based on Airborne Radiometric Geophysical Data in Harsin (the South of Ahar – Eastern Azarbayjan)

Authors: A. Noohi, A. Ziazarifi, K. Teimoornegad


Abstract: Airborne radiometric geophysical operations provide information which is particularly important in the exploration of radioactive elements. In fact, this kind of information is the basis for the exploration of uranium in different regions. In the present article, areas where radioactive elements may be found have been determined after the analysis of resulting data from airborne geophysical in 1:50000 sheet of Harsin zone in the northwest of Iran. In this paper, radiometric data derived from the region was first analyzed. Then, the accuracy of geophysical data was assessed through ground control of data in Harsin and some samples of the surface of all promising areas. In addition, the geology of anomaly areas on this sheet was studied. Results have shown that volcanic rocks and lacustrine deposits are found in the northeast of Harsin. This means high levels of uranium in volcanic rocks of structural control type as well as richness of uranium in lacustrine deposits and alluvium in order to explore uranium of type sedimentary. This research first seeks to determine alterations with the aid of satellite images and microscopic sections. Then, the geology and tectonic of the region is studies so as to determine the terrene of uranium and to distinguish important factors for the host rock.

Title of the Paper: The Analysis of the Characters of the Central Alborz Zone Earthquakes (400 B.D to 1998 A.C), caused by Active and Seismogenic Fault, Determination of Small Model of Alborz Geological Zone, Iran

Authors: A. Khorsandi

Pages: 92-96

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of central Alborz earthquakes as seismotectonic small model of Alborz range. The central Alborz is a subdivision of Alborz range’s geological zone, located in north of Iran. The historical and the measured earthquakes data in the selected area have been selected from 400 B.C to 1998 A.C choosing different references whose magnitudes are more than 4. The conclusion of research shows that 32% of central Alborz's earthquakes have a magnitude of more than 5 with a maximum of 7.6 recorded on the Mosha-Fasham thrust fault. Most of the earthquakes epicenters occurred on and around the Caspian and fewer earthquakes happened on or around Mosha-Fasham. On the contrary, most of the focal depths of earthquakes distributions are around Mosha-Fasham. The central Alborz borders the Caspian in north and Mosha-fasham thrust faults in south, which is a big horst that was uplifted by the active fault mechanism. Since many villages and towns including the city of Tehran Capital of Iran exist in central Alborz which will be influenced by central Alborz seismisity.

Issue 4, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Use of Cultural Heritage in Tourism for Development of the Czech Rural Areas


Authors: E. Simkova

Pages: 97-105

Abstract: Sight-seeing, museum, gallery, festival visits, and other cultural and ethnographic travelling are more and more popular activities. That results in an increased number of tourists in given destinations. The aim of this paper is to delimit cultural tourism, define problems related to its development in the Czech Republic, and to devise measures for its effective use. Since cultural heritage has huge impact on local as well as regional identity, it is an important factor for the development and resolving contemporary problems of Czech rural areas. The paper characterizes cultural tourism from the perspective of supply and demand and also deals with cultural tourism’s historical development and the segmentation of its market. It provides a detailed analysis of problems related to an effective use of the Czech Republic’s cultural potential. In the conclusion, the author devises measures that should activate economic potential as a tool for intercepting a long-term process of devastation of culture in the Czech Republic. The effort to preserve cultural traditions in national, regional and local scale (authenticity of cultural values, as opposed to consumption of mass culture) should be the crucial element of a state’s culture politics. The state’s other task should be to cultivate citizens and lead them to create a positive attitude toward cultural values. Through cultural tourism, the cultural assets can become a part of the nation’s value preferences.

Title of the Paper: Rural Development – The Rural Areas Sustainability Indicators


Authors: E. Simkova

Pages: 106-114

Abstract: Development of rural areas is often put in connection with rural tourism. Tourism, however, cannot be regarded only from the economic view-point, but it should be examined from the viability of destination as well. Rural tourism requires high-quality countryside. Development of tourism infrastructure, however, “urbanizes” the countryside and as a consequence the typical rural landscape features in many cases disappear. Yet, new uncontaminated areas are demanded. The objective of the paper is to suggest a set of indicators of sustainable rural area as a planning-tool for local development with usage of rural tourism in order to improve the quality of decision-making process. The paper is based on the performance of strategic qualitative research, interviews, personal monitoring, and analysis of available literature. In order to reflect also non-homogenous features of rural space and thus also different preconditions for further development, eight main types of rural spaces have been used. Based on these methods 45 indicators are presented. The indicators are selected to find out potentially problematic areas in six key dimensions of rural development – economic (proposed 9 indicators), social (7 indicators), environmental (10 indicators), cultural (7 indicators), political (7 indicators) and technological (5 indicators). The set of indicators was, however, reduced to 22 indicators due to complexity of data mining in the Czech Republic. Presented indicators may become a basis for further development at local and regional levels, as well as for determination of carrying capacity of the rural development potential.

Title of the Paper: Greenhouse Gas Inventory in Region Yugra of Russia


Authors: Valery P. Anufriev, Anatoliy P. Kuligin, Alexander N. Medvedev, Marina A. Medvedeva, Alexander P. Sergeev

Pages: 115-119

Abstract: Some results of greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are presented for Yugra - the largest oil-and-gas producing region of Russia. The inventory was carried out on the basis of methodology, recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for national inventories. The majority of emission sources in Yugra refer to the sector "Energy". The default emission factors of IPCC were used for all the sector categories except Fugitive emissions from Oil and Natural Gas activities. The regional emission factors were calculated for this category on the actual data of oil-and-gas companies. The regional statistics was the main data source. The special attention was paid to the results consistency, so as the inventory covered the long period of 20 years (1990-2010). The emission trends were analyzed to avoid the mistakes. Emissions were also matched with the rates of production. The estimation of feasible GHG emissions reduction due to savings of fuel and energy resources, as well as increasing the degree of associated petroleum gas utilization was done. The regional carbon footprint structure was determined.