ISSN: 2308-1007


Published by NAUN

Year 2009

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 3, 2009)


Kinetic Modelling of Bioethanol Production using Agro-Industrial By-Products
Sara Raposo, Joao M. Pardao, Inti Diaz, Ma Emilia Lima-Costa

Abstract: This work aims to evaluate a sustainable bioethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae and using, agro-industrial by-products as carbon source for fermentation process. The influence of several carbon sources and their concentrations was studied using carob pod extract (CPE), citrus waste pulp (CWP) and beet molasses (BM) and compared with glucose and sucrose as conventional carbohydrates at different concentrations, 15, 20 and 30 g/l. Kinetics parameters were determined by Langmuir–Hanes equation, based in the linearization of the Monod equation. The agro-industrial byproducts presented similar values of 1max and Ks to the conventional carbohydrates. No significant difference was found between maximum ethanol production obtained with CPE, CWP, BM, glucose and sucrose fermentations profiles.


The Environment Management versus the Quality Management
Mariana Ciobanu, Mirela Mazilu, Sabina Mitroi, Marius V. Ciobanu

Abstract: The quality management and the environment management are components of management in general. There are complementary relations and conceptual equivalences between the standards of the ISO 14000 group (environment) and those of the ISO 9000 group (quality). The complementarity has one of the systems already functioning, and we can use it in order to implement the other one, because there are structure and principle similarities between the two managerial concepts. The conceptual equivalence means the fact that the two systems are based on the so-called Deming cycle, circle or spiral. In 1997, at the level of the UNO International Standards Organization (ISO), the following standards were gathered into one audit standard available for quality and for environment: ISO 10011, 14010, 14011, 14012 (SR EN ISO 19011 proposed for 2002 – Guidelines for the audit of the quality management systems as well as for the environment management), which could lead to the creation of a common management system for both quality and environment, having a common textbook. But as far as it seems, there are enough reasons, especially technical ones, which will maintain the two management subsystems as two different and separate entities.


Binomial Inseparable Environmental Economics
Mirela Mazilu, Mariana Ciobanu

Abstract: During the historical evolution, the human society has confronted numerous natural crises or irrationally generated by man, of small or great dimension and intensity: some political and social, others economic or related to connected fields like reproduction, trade, consume, accumulation. The present marks the awareness of the population about the most acute of all crises, a global one without precedent: the ambient crisis, accompanied by a global financial crisis like in a Cassandra’s Choir. Although it is tough, even impossible to establish their birth within time and space coordinates, the majority associates them with the period of industrial revolution, because the man’s wish of a better, more sustainable life has uncontrollable effects on the environment. Thus, the change with its multiple faces and components remains a priority for the protection of the environment and of the sustainable development, and people face the most important choice of their long history. One with paradigmatic values – having rational, ecologic, protectionist, emotional, educational valences – generated by the troubling metamorphoses like: the exhaustion of natural resources, “baby-boom” beyond any control, the ecologic unbalances, the inequality of chances when education, health and carrier are concerned.


The Imperative Need for an Integrated Energy and Climate Policy for Africa
A. A. Refaat

Abstract: Until recently, energy security and climate change were considered separate issues to be dealt with by policymakers. The two issues are now converging, challenging the security and climate communities to develop a better understanding of how to deal with both issues simultaneously. Africa is a continent of many contradictions: rich in natural resources, yet underdeveloped with large populations of poor people. Many African countries are generously endowed with productive land and valuable natural resources, including renewable and non-renewable resources. Although Africa is the continent least responsible for climate change, it is particularly vulnerable to its effects, including reduced agricultural production, worsening food security, the increased incidence of both flooding and drought, spreading disease and an increased risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. Although historically least responsible for the problem, yet, according to all scientific prognoses, African countries will be hardest hit. Climate change is a major threat to sustainable growth and development in Africa, and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Africa will be unable to cope with climate mitigation and adaptation demands without substantially increasing its use of its indigenous modern energy. Africa’s capacity to respond to the challenges of climate instability will be expanded by improving overall resilience, integrating climate change goals into sustainable development strategies, increasing the use of modern energy systems with reduced carbon intensity, and strengthening international initiatives. This study seeks to establish a framework for considering the complex and evolving links between energy security and climate change, applicable to Africa.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 3, 2009)


Development of Flood Regional Models in Gorganrood Basin
Atefeh Abdolhay, Mohd Amin Mohd Soom, Bahram Saghafian, Abdul Halim B.Ghazali

Abstract: Irregular distribution of precipitation in time and space in north part of Iran results in frequent flooding. Two extreme floods have occurred in north eastern part of Iran in year 2001 and 2002 (August) which had not been reported till that time. These catastrophes resulted in loss of human and properties. In spite of research and executive works on floods, still flooding occurs in northern part of Iran. Therefore flood disaster management and flood prevention must be revised in this region. Due to insufficient gauging stations in this region, regional flood frequency analysis was applied. For each homogenous region flood model for different return period was developed. Percent areas of NDVI classes besides other parameters were used in developing models as independent variables. The result showed influence of this parameter in some return period on flood.


Analyzing the East Coast Malaysia Wind Speed Data
Siti Khadijah Najid, Azami Zaharim, Ahmad Mahir Razali, Mohd Said Zainol, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Abstract: Wind energy has been widely used for navigation and agriculture for the past centuries. Wind energy is given a lot of attention because of the focus on renewable energy. Wind energy growth in Asia is currently on the rise with both India and China as leading countries with their installed capacity and manufacturing facilities. Recently, wind energy conversion is also given a serious consideration in Malaysia. Since Malaysia lies in the equatorial region and its climate is governed by the monsoons, the potential for wind energy generation in Malaysia is very much depends on the availability of the wind resource that varies with specific location. In the present study, the wind energy potential of the location is statistically analyzed based on wind speed data, measured over two years period. The probability distributions are derived from the wind speed data and their distributional parameters are identified. Three types of probability distributions have been used to estimate the wind energy potential in Kuala Terengganu, east Malaysia. A comparison is made of the ability to describe the experimental mean wind power density. The application of the graphical plot along with different types of numerical analysis in terms of model validations show that of all the three distributions used, Burr distribution, whose parameters are estimated using the maximum likelihood principle, provide the best fits for the year 2005 and 2006 respectively.


Relation of Fuel Temperature and Gas Emissions
Charalampos Arapatsakos, Dimitrios Christoforidis, Anastasios Karkanis, Konstantinos Mitroulas

Abstract: One of the major global problems is the air pollution. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals that can threat the health of human being, animals, and plants as well as damage the environment. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities, such as cooking, smoking, car emissions, smokestacks and other industrial inputs into the atmosphere. It also can be created by outdoor activities, such as smog and acid rain. The two main sources of air pollution are transportation and fuel combustion. The main aim of this essay is to examine the effect of temperature of fuel in the gas emissions that is used in four-stroke diesel engine. The temperatures of fuel that were used are 10οC, 20oC, 30oC, 40oC, 50oC and 60oC. For those fuel temperatures the gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen monoxide (NO), smoke are being measured and the fuel consumption is also examined.


The Three Way Catalyst Efficiency Increase
Charalampos Arapatsakos

Abstract: Air pollution has been a problem throughout history. It is made up of many kinds of gases and particles that reduce the quality of air. Among all the pollution sources in a city the road transport emissions are often the most important source. Furthermore, the biggest causes of pollution are the operation of fossil fuel burning power plants and automobiles that combust fuel. Air pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide have diverse and numerous harmful effects on the human being, plants and animals. In nowadays there is a great increase in car ownership and use. Therefore, it remains to be seen what measurers needs to be adopt, in order to reduce emissions from road traffic and consequently to prevent transport related air pollution problems. It is generally accepted that the process of catalyst deactivation originates from the entrance sections of the converter and gradually progresses towards the exit. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of a catalyst operating life extension via a mounting inversion, when the catalyst is close to its limits in the normal position. The experimental results indicate that under full load conditions at 3000 rpm improvement of catalyst efficiency can be accomplished reaching approximately 30% for CO and HC. This mounting inversion can be easily accomplished by an appropriate symmetric design of the monolith casing and mounting flanges, so that smooth gas flow conditions can be attained in both flow directions.


Application of Diesel - Ethanol Mixtures in Tractor Engine
Charalampos Arapatsakos

Abstract: The tractor has been developed in the first half of the twentieth century. A tractor is basically a machine that performs agricultural tasks, such as pulling or pushing agricultural machinery or trailers, planting cultivating, fertilizing and harvesting crops, with the purpose of a faster and more efficient production of rural products. Except of hauling materials tractor can be used for personal transportation as well. The tractor is a replacement of human effort and that of draft animals. The following essay investigates the behaviour of farm tractor engine under full and real load conditions, by using fuels as Diesel, Diesel-20% ethanol and Diesel-30% ethanol mixtures. Concretely, it examines the farm Tractor with Diesel engine from the viewpoint of power and gas emissions and consumption. A series of laboratory instruments were used for the realization of the experiments. The results of full load tests using Diesel and Diesel - ethanol mixtures in Diesel Tractor engine, indicate that the CO exhaust gas content tends to decrease in case of using ethanol as fuel. This is probably caused by the presence of oxygen in the ethanol that participates in the combustion process. In the case of full load tests the combustion temperatures are sufficient for efficient combustion in all the cases of engine rpm. Therefore, the reduction of exhaust emissions with the ethanol content is natural. However, the power decreases as far as the ethanol is increasing.


Microclimate of Low-Energy Buildings in Relation to Applied Heating Systems
Patkova Zuzana, Mastny Petr

Abstract: Low-energy buildings have become wide spread within the Czech Republic. Therefore it is necessary to focus on evaluation of indoor microclimate of such buildings. As indoor climate is greatly influenced by heating system and building constructions (as the most important parameters of thermal-hygric and toxic microclimate), this paper compares two case studies – two low-energy family houses with different heating systems and constructions. The aim of the paper is to determine optimal microclimate regarding particular heating systems and constructions. Since there have not been realized many of such case studies, this work might help designing healthy low-energy buildings with optimal indoor microclimate with is fundamental condition for a long-term inhabitation.


Evaluating the Effects of UHI on Climate Parameters (A Case Study for Mashhad, Khorrasan)
S. Ghazanfari, M. Naseri, F. Faridani, H. Aboutorabi, A. Farid

Abstract: Urban expansion, pollution growth, and development of major industrial activities in metropolitan areas impacted local climates of major towns. Transforming big cities into heat islands is one of the most important results of micro-climate change. In this study, variation of some of the important climate factors (such as precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and percentage of cloudiness) was reviewed in order to study micro-climate changes. The city of Mashhad selected for this study, as metropolitan area. The study performed by comparing the climate parameters of this city with the neighboring regions, which placed at the same climate categories. According to the effective role of rainfall in the urban weather modification and decreasing of pollutions, rainfall variation will be more important and sensitive. The result of this research shows that rainfall variation follows the change of temperature trend. A significant correlation between temperature and precipitation changes showed the effect of heat island on urban climate parameters. The urban heat island phenomenon increases the hot season rainfalls when we have decreasing effects on cold season.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 3, 2009)


Introducing Transportation-Related Carbon Footprint Considerations in Optimal Urban Road Infrastructure Management
Loukas Dimitriou, Antonios Kaltsounis, Antony Stathopoulos

Abstract: Environmental considerations are gaining importance in civil infrastructure design and management. In particular the transportation sector of urban civil infrastructure is regarded a major determinant of life quality and environmental sustainability. Its development and operation plans involve the employment of multiple policies, and demand multiple objectives to be met. In this paper, a policy-driven approach is presented for providing optimal investment and management plans for future network developments, by taking into account air quality criteria and in particular the carbon footprint related to vehicle emissions. Optimal network design and pricing decisions are tested in order that multiple conflicting social, economic and environmental targets to be simultaneously optimized. Under this framework, social dilemmas are revealed, while quantitative results can support decisions related to the sustainable urban development. The methodological approach presented here is based on a formulation of multi-objective, non-convex, multi-level, vector optimization programming problem. The problem’s formulation nature leads to solution sets that are composing Pareto Fronts (PF). PFs, are estimated by suitably hybridized evolutionary algorithms. Insights are provided by applying the proposed framework into a part of a realistic network, for alternative problem setups.


Proposed Risk Control in Strategic Management Project for Qomrud River in Iran
Amir Alikhani

Abstract: One of the most important targets of the leadership is preventing and identification of the errors and frauds. The cost of the possible control measures must be compared with the probability of appearance of such fraud or error and the consequences. A sever flood was occurred on the 31 of March 2009 in the city of Qom, Iran, enhancing the climate change impacts of this event on the holly place of Hazerat Masome, situated in the bank of the Qomrud river with more than 1300 years last. It is shown that in some cases only 30 cm flood was enough to overturn the cars and caused dead. This will be presented with some interesting pictures taken by the author. Regarding climate changes the question was come to consideration that what is the most likely cost or duration for improving the river channeled and damaged infrastructures, or more usefully what budget or schedule do I need to ensure a 90% (or any other percentage) probability of success?. When you assign a cost or duration to an individual task within a project you are, in effect, trying to predict the future; you don't know what that task is going to cost or how long it will take until it has been completed. When you assign costs or durations you are simply making educated guesses as to what these will be. The evaluation system offers the leaders the required data necessary for the administration of that event. But it’s still the job of those being in charge to create and launch such a system. Risk quantification is the process of measuring the probability of a risk and its impact on project objectives. Unlike risk assessment, risk quantification aims to produce verifiable numerical values. Risk quantification typically uses techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation and decision analysis to determine the cost and schedule contingencies that will be required, based on the levels of uncertainty (= risk) in the various components of a project; to determine probabilities of completing within a certain cost or by a certain date; to identify realistic project targets (cost, schedule, functionality, quality).


Combination of Neuro Fuzzy and Wavelet Model Usage in River Engineering
Amir Alikhani

Abstract: The sediment load transported in river is the most complex hydrological and environmental phenomenon due to the large number of obscure parameters such as spatial variability of basin characteristics and river discharge patterns. Wavelet analysis, which give information in both the time and frequency domains of the signal, give considerable knowledge about the physical form of the data. Neuro-fuzzy modeling is another method that refers to the approach of applying deferent learning algorithms developed in the neural network literature to fuzzy modeling or a fuzzy inference system (FIS). Combination of neuro fuzzy and wavelet model usage in river engineering were used in this paper. Three models were investigated and compared with each other. In this research suspended sediment load (SSL) prediction in a gauging station in the USA by neuro-fuzzy (NF), conjunction of wavelet analysis and neuro-fuzzy (WNF) and conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) models were investigated. In the proposed WNF model, observed time series of river discharge and SSL were decomposed at different scales by wavelet analysis. As input to the NF model for prediction of SSL in one day ahead summed effective time series of discharge and SSL were imposed. The results showed that the WNF model performance gave better in prediction rather than the two other models. The WNF model produced reasonable predictions for the extreme values. Furthermore, the cumulative SSL estimated by this technique was closer to the actual data than the others one. This model is able to simulate hysteresis phenomenon, where the SRC model has not this ability. In the best of the author’s knowledge, this paper is the first application of wavelet-neuro-fuzzy hybrid model for prediction of SSL. The results of this paper illustrated the advantage of WNF model to NF approach in simulation of suspended sediment time series. Reasonable contributions are presented to the water resources and environmental engineering literature by this article.


Use of Solar Energy for Water Heating
Bedri Dragusha, Besim Veselaj, Xhevat Berisha

Abstract: In this paper is presented the possibility of using solar energy and the promotion of use of this energy source. It is being worked hard in this way to promote the use of this source of energy through the installation of solar panels. The important sources of renewable energy which can be used in Kosovo are solar energy. Kosovo has suitable climate conditions and solar radiation about 1400 [kWh/m2year] that is approximately 40% greater than in some European countries where the use of solar energy for heating of sanitary water use has major trends. Once that has a large amount of solar radiation will be presented and the implementation of a project in a university clinical center.


Identification of Pollution Dispersion Patterns in Complex Terrain using AERMOD Modeling System
Despina Deligiorgi, Kostas Philippopoulos, George Karvounis, Magdalini Tzanakou

Abstract: The scope of this work is to identify the dispersion patterns of air pollutant emissions in complex topography, using a steady-state dispersion model. The area under investigation is the Chania plain on the island of Crete in Greece and the modeled industrial source is a power generating plant. The meteorological assessment is based on a two year dataset (August 2004 – July 2006) from six automated surface meteorological stations. Case studies of the predicted ground-level distributions of SO2 are presented for days with commonly observed meteorological phenomena.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 3, 2009)


Statistical Simulation of Wind Speed in Athens, Greece based on Weibull and ARMA Models
Kostas Philippopoulos, Despina Deligiorgi

Abstract: Wind Speed simulation and modeling is essential in the field of wind power estimation and a useful tool in air pollution management and control applications. This study is focused on the simulation of the hourly wind speed sequences of a single station. Under this framework, the Weibull distribution and the autoregressive-moving average ARMA models are employed. The Weibull distribution is fitted to the monthly frequency wind speed distributions. For each month of the year a single ARMA model is trained according to the Box – Jenkins methodology. The ARMA models are assessed for their ability to reproduce successfully the main statistical figures of the observed time series. The goodness of fit tests along with the limited percentage error on the observed mean wind speed and standard deviation imply the usefulness of the simulation scheme in generating synthetic wind speed time series for the site under study. ARMA models are found superior in simulating the frequency distributions of wind speed.


Integration of Building Envelope and Services via Control Technologies
Chris J. Koinakis, John K. Sakellaris

Abstract: The last decade offered the foundation of several seminal concepts, which although natively composite and complex, amply demonstrate the potential of 21st century technology to affect important societal trends. Among notable candidates, the convergence of technologies related to information and energy, has revealed the potential to reform conventional modes of operation towards a sustainable and more rational way of resources utilization. Perhaps the most profound example of this technological integration will be met in forthcoming planning of residential and industrial building design, where the rapid advance of co-generation technologies and respective legislation follow-up, pave the way for a vast growing market. The rational behind this blooming market becomes directly apparent, considering that the international power authorities and vendors, must –among many other issues such as power network safety- urgently address the gross imbalance between central power generation (93% global share), which is characterised by high losses from transmission and distribution (T&D) systems and inefficient power plants. Electricity losses are running at a minimum of 13.4% a year from developing countries T&D systems, while the efficiency of central power plants is only around 33%. This waste of energy, which is directly associated with the traditional model of central power generation -but can be largely stopped by the use of building-level cogeneration, is dragging along massive social, economic and environmental damage -particularly to the world’s poor countries. Millions of people are failing to receive a supply of electricity as a consequence; national fuel bills are billions of dollars higher than they could be, and pollutant emissions are causing untold additional health and environmental harm. At this point it must be clearly stated, that at the context of this paper the term services is restrained to energy consumption reduction services.


Urban Renaissance on Athens Southern Coast: The Case of Palaio Faliro
Stefanos Gerasimou, Anastassios Perdicoulis

Abstract: The city of Palaio Faliro is a suburb of Athens, around 9 km from the city centre of the Greek capital, located on the southern coast of the Athens Riviera with a population of nearly 65.000 inhabitants. The municipality of Palaio Faliro has recently achieved a regeneration of its urban pro?le and dynamics, which extends on an area of Athens southern costal zone combining historic baths, a marina, an urban park, an Olympic Sports Complex and the tramway. The final result promotes sustainable development and sustainable mobility on the Athens coastline taking into consideration the recent metropolisation of the Athens agglomeration. After a brief history of the municipality, we present the core of the new development. Behind the visible results, we highlight the main interactions among the principal actors that made this change possible, and constitute the main challenges for the future. With this case we learn that while the arrangement of space has its logistic difficulties regarding financial and engineering aspects, the deeper challenge is that of exercising democracy justly — and even more so, in its own birthplace.


Improvement of Education about Sustainable Cities and Climate Change in Romania
Gabriela Teodorescu

Abstract: The development of an environmental education strategy, sustainable cities and climate change impact is an important step in providing the leadership and the framework to point us all in the same direction. The strategy will assess impacts on a more sub regional scale as such it will have to include specific problems pertaining to diverse socio-cultural environments. Biodiversity is responsible for the provision of a wide range of impacts on human well-being. Environmental education and climate change impact on cities contributes to the communication of information and to the development of understanding, skills, attitudes and values that influence the behavior of individuals and communities.




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