ISSN: 1998-4499


All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 1, 2007)


The importance of crustal shear wave velocity profile for ground motion modelling
Hing-Ho Tsang, Nelson T. K. Lam, S. H. Lo

Abstract: The potential seismic amplification and attenuation properties of an area are well correlated with the shear wave velocity (SWV) profile of crustal rock. When local strong motion records are lacking, the attenuation behaviour of future earthquakes can be inferred from a crustal SWV model that is representative of the area of interest. Details of the SWV profile close to the earth surface (1-2 km depth) are particularly critical. Unfortunately, such details cannot be obtained by conventional seismic reflection/refraction surveys. This study demonstrates the use of information from a combination of sources to produce a set of composite SWV profiles for four principal geological formations that are prevalent in Hong Kong. Their respective local upper crustal modification factors have been computed and the significant differences have been highlighted.


Site-dependent response spectral attenuation modelling: a case study of long distance earthquakes affecting Singapore
Hing-Ho Tsang, Nelson T. K. Lam, S. H. Lo

Abstract: A site-dependent response spectral attenuation model is an important element in a site-dependent seismic hazard assessment. Seismic attenuation behaviour is controlled by a large number of wave modification mechanisms, some of which have characteristics specific to a local area or a particular site, whilst others can be generalised to the entire seismic region. Factors representing these mechanisms are often not resolved. An attenuation modelling approach is demonstrated in this paper, to evaluate individual regional and local wave modification factors. The upper-crust amplification factor computed from the modelled rock shear wave velocity profile was then combined with predicted attenuation parameters to determine the upper-crust modification filter function associated with Singaporean geological formations. Stochastic simulations of the seismological model for the magnitude 9.3 Aceh earthquake (Indonesia) on the 26th of December in 2004, were performed and compared with the response spectra recorded on a rock site in Singapore.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 1, 2007)


Tectonic activities and deformation in South Korea constrained by GPS observations
Shuanggen Jin and Pil-Ho Park

Abstract: High precision GPS observations provide crucial insights into understanding the pattern and physical process of tectonic activities. In this paper, GPS data for the period from March 2000 to February 2004 were analyzed to quantitatively investigate the crustal deformation patterns and distributions in the southern Korean Peninsula. The high maximum shear strain rates are concentrated in the middle part of South Korea, which remarkably agrees with the shear trends in the Okcheon Belt and the Honam Shear Zone (HSZ) with a direction NE-SW. In addition, South Korea is dominated by both ENE-WSW compression and NNW-SSE extension, which is nearly consistent with earthquake focal mechanism solution (Mw ≥ 4.0, 1936-2004), indicating that the seismicity can be used to improve GPS-derived deformation style and orientation. Furthermore, it reflects that the occurrence of shallow earthquakes in South Korea is closely related with the horizontal strain.


Generation of the Moon and Some Other Celestial Bodies due to Explosion in Planet Interiors

Abstract: It is difficult to explain an origin of all celestial bodies of the Solar system due to smooth evolution of the protoplanet cloud. An alternative to the evolutionary one is the hypothesis of their explosive origin. It is supposed, that on the solid inner core of a planet the active layer is formed from particles of uranium and thorium oxides, weighed in liquid iron of the outer core of the planet. The explosion in such a layer might occur as a result of collision of the planet with an asteroid. Collision of the protoplanet with an asteroid, the subsequent explosion in an active layer and fragmentation of the planet in conditions of gravitation is numerically simulated. for two-dimensional non-stationary motion of the compressible medium on the basis of laws of conservation of mass, pulse and energy. The hypothesis that some bodies of the Solar system may be formed as a result of nuclear explosions in the protoplanet core is numerically confirmed in the paper. If the initial velocity of protoplanet rotation is small enough, the structure and composition of fragments may be determined by the cumulative jet going from a planetary core to its surface. The origin of Io may be so explained, for example. For the great enough velocity of rotation the nuclear explosion in the planet interiors breaks the balance between the centrifugal forces and the gravitation. That results in the separation of the great mass of the stone-silicate shell of the planet and the generation of satellites like the Moon.


Using geostatistical analysis and spectral signature for identifying shale distribution and type in El-Salhia project, Ismaillia, Egypt
El Nahry A.H.

Abstract: The current work aimed at recognizing shale distribution and its type in El Salhia project where it represents a serious limiting factor that preclude the agricultural development in that project. Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. It is characterized by thin laminae breaking with an irregular curving fracture, often splintery and usually parallel to the often-indistinguishable bedding plane. Shale formation are typically as a result of deposition in very slow moving water and are often found in lake and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains and offshore of beach sands.Two main landforms affecting shale distribution were recognized in the project i.e. I-The Nile river terraces.II-The deltaic stage of the river terraces. Geostatistical analysis was performed to identify shale spatial distribution.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 1, 2007)


Degradation of Indus Delta Mangroves in Pakistan
Amjad, A. Shah., Kasawani, I., and Kamaruzaman, J

Abstract: A largely arid/semi-arid country, Pakistan has a diverse landscape, with high mountain ranges, fragile watersheds, alluvial plains, sandy deserts and coastal mangroves. Indus, the major river of Pakistan, falls into the Arabian Sea in the Sindh coast forming a fanshaped delta interspersed with 17 major and numerous minor creeks and mudflats. Indus delta mangroves are unique in being the largest area of arid climate mangroves and the 7th largest block in the world. They are dominated by Avicennia marina (locally known as Timmer), which occupies about 90% of total mangroves in the delta. Reduction in inflow of freshwater from Indus on account of diversion of water for other purposes, inflow of pollutants from industries, navigational activities and intermix of industrial effluent, and human and livestock population pressure for fuelwood and fodder collection have exposed this complex ecosystem to severe environmental and social stresses in the form of loss of habitat and biodiversity, decline in fish productivity and social problems for coastal communities. The paper provides an overview of Pakistan's Indus delta mangroves, lists the manifold causes threatening their existence, and suggests corrective measures for preserving/developing this important ecosystem of the world.


Geostatistical analysis for estimation of mean rainfalls in Andhra Pradesh, India
Krishna Murthy B R and G Abbaiah

Abstract: Rainfall is a hydrological phenomenon that varies in magnitude in space as well as in time and requires suitable tools to predict mean values in space and time. Estimation of rainfall data is necessary in many natural resources and water resource studies. There are several methods to estimate rainfall among which interpolation is very useful approach. In this research, geostatistical interpolation methods are used to estimate monthly (June-December), seasonal (South-West and North-East Monsoon seasons) and annual rainfalls in Andhra Pradesh, India. Monthly rainfall data from a network of 23 meteorological stations for the period 1970-2003 has been in the study. The main objectives of this work are: (1) to analyze and model the spatial variability of rainfall, (2) to interpolate kriging maps for different months as well as seasons, (3) to analyze and model the structural cross correlation of rainfall with elevation for different seasons, (4) to investigate whether co-kriging would improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates by including elevation as a secondary variable, and (5) to compare prediction errors and prediction variances with those of kriging and cokriging methods for different seasons. Rainfall surfaces have been predicted using ordinary kriging method for these analyses. Co-kriging analysis has been done to improve the accuracy of prediction, by including the elevation as a co-variate. It has not resulted in significant improvement in the prediction. It was observed that the rainfall data is skewed and Box-cox transformation has been used for converting the skewed data to normal. It is observed that the trend is present in all the cases, and is constant for November, North-East monsoon. The first order polynomial fits well for June, August, Sept, October, December, Annual period and South -West monsoon. The second order polynomial fits best for July. It has been observed that the directional effects are predominant in October, November, South-West Monsoon and Annual rainfall. Spherical model fits well for June, July, November, South-West and North-East monsoons, where as the Gaussian model fits well for August, September, October, December and annual rainfalls. Nugget effect is zero for June, November, and North-East monsoon. The cross-validation error statistics of OCK presented in terms of coefficient of determination (R2), kriged root mean square error (KRMSE), and kriged average error (KAE) are within the acceptable limits (KAE close to zero, R2 close to one, and KRMSE from 0.98 to 1.341). The exploratory data analysis, variogram model fitting, and generation of prediction map through kriging were accomplished by using ESRI’S ArcGIS and geostatistical analyst extension.


3D Heat Generation and Transfer in Gravity Dam on Rock Foundation using Galerkin Finite Volume Solver on Tetrahedral Mesh
S.R. Sabbagh-Yazdi and N.E. Mastorakis

Abstract: In order to solve temperature field in a typical gravity concrete dam and its natural foundation, the three-dimensional temperature diffusion equation is chosen as the mathematical model. The finite volume formulation is derived using Galerkin approach for the mesh of tetrahedral elements. This method facilitates solving temperature problems with complicated geometries. The algorithm not only is able to handle the essential boundary conditions but also the natural boundary conditions using a novel technique. Accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm is assessed by comparison of the numerical results for a bench mark problem of heat generation and transfer in a block with its analytical solution. Finally the developed model is applied to compute temperature field in a three dimensional gravity concrete dam on rock foundation.


Application of Seismic Tomography Techniques in Dam Site
Kambiz Teimoornegad, Neda poroohan

Abstract: In this paper seismic data obtained from several boreholes located at Nimroud dam site in the east part of Tehran, was used to model 2D tomography of the subsurface model. To increase the accuracy in the modeling procedure , back projection , damped least squares and smoothest function method were used and their results were compared. The back projection method is an approximation weighted solution , while the second method is based on the damped least squares operator. The third method is more stable for estimation of the model parameter than the two previous mentioned methods. Analysis of the model sensitivity showed that , variation of the final residual time with respect to the obtained velocity values diagrams from four boreholes at dam axis differs from the other diagrams. These differences are between – 25 to + 10 percentage greater values. The geological information , sample core from the boreholes as well as the velocity values abnormality obtained at the study area were attributed to a hidden fault at the dam site area.


Analysis of the Landslide Movements
Ancuta Rotaru, Daniel Oajdea, Paulica Raileanu

Abstract: Understanding the causes of slope development, particularly the initiation of movement, requires knowledge of a set of factors, usually associated with groundwater, that are often difficult to determine. Landslides commonly occur as a result of: heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt, wet winter and spring particularly if previous years were also wet, the removing of the material from the base, loads material at the top, earthquakes, erosion, poor forest management, addition of water to a slope from irrigation, roof downspouts, poor drainage, septic-tank effluent, canal leakage, or broken water. Most landslides in Romania occur as a result of a combination of poor forest management and intense rainfall. A continuous recording of landslide displacements is often required in order to better understand the complex relationship between the triggering factors and the dynamics of the movement. In recent years structural geology has been used as a tool to investigate the development and evolution of potential rockslides. The recognition of the processes that triggered the movement is of primary importance to understand the landslide mechanisms. The paper analyses the movement of the landslides from the point of view of different stages of landslide activity: pre-failure stage, failure sage, post-failure stage and reactivation stage.


Numerical Model of Generating of the Surface that Borders a Hidden Volume
Nicolae Dobritoiu

Abstract: In the practical activity, especially in the knowledge activity of a deposit, one encounters the situation of determination of the form of the surface that borders a reserve unit of useful mineral substances. The knowledge of the form of a surface that borders a reserve unit allows its geometric parameters determination and the calculation of the volume of reserve unit. These informations are used in the decision process of mine working of the deposits of the useful mineral substances.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007)


Clustering Analysis Method based on Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm of PSO and PPSO with Application in Real Data
Jeng-Ming Yih, Yuan-Horng Lin, Hsiang-Chuan Liu

Abstract: The popular fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM) converges to a local minimum of the objective function. Hence, different initializations may lead to different results. The important issue is how to avoid getting a bad local minimum value to improve the cluster accuracy. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a popular and robust strategy for optimization problems. But the main difficulty in applying PSO to realworld applications is that PSO usually need a large number of fitness evaluations before a satisfying result can be obtained. In this paper, the improved new algorithm, “Fuzzy C-Mean based on Picard iteration and PSO (PPSO-FCM)”, is proposed. Three real data sets were applied to prove that the performance of the PPSO-FCM algorithm is better than the conventional FCM algorithm and the PSO-FCM algorithm.


New Magnetosphere for the Earth In Future
Tara Ahmadi

Abstract: All of us know the earth magnetic field come to be less and this problem can be a serious problem in future but now we find other problems that can destroy our planet life or in minimum state can damage it such as FTE theory , solar activities , reversing magnetic poles, increasing speed of reversing that last reverse, reducing magnetic strength ,finding leaks in magnetosphere ,etc. some of these reasons will be factors for increasing the solar energy that hit to the Earth and perhaps changing in our life and conditions of the Earth. In this paper , I try to show a way to against to these problems and reduce their damages to the Earth perhaps The Earth will repair himself but this repair need many time that humans could not be wait. In the past time magnetic field was reversed but now we are against to the other problems that can increase the influence of reversing magnetic field for the Earth and all these events can be a separated problem for us, these problem may be can not destroyed humans life but can be cause of several problems that occur for our healthy and our technology in space. This way is building a system that produce a new magnetic field that will be in one way with old magnetic field this system will construe by superconductors and a metal that is not dipole. This paper explain all the problems in addition to the way of repair their damages on the Earth and show the suitable shape of system that can help us for future programs.


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