ISSN: 1998-4499


All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

Main Page

    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 5, 2011)


Temporal Change of Geologic Features in the Pyroclastic Surge Dominated Deposits of the Komakusadaira Pyroclastics in Zao Volcano, NE Japan
Y. Takebe, M. Ban

Abstract: The Zao volcano in northeast Japan is one of representative stratovocanoes having a crater lake in the summit area. We studied geologic features of the pyroclastic surge dominated deposits of the Komakusadaira pyroclastics, which is the thickest unit of the youngest stage (ca. 33 ka–present) and revealed the temporal change of the type of eruption. We also examined the petrographic features of the products along with the stratigraphy. The pyroclastics are composed of 27 layers by five facies; scoriaceous tuff, lapilli tuff, agglutinate, volcanic breccia, and tuff breccia. By unconformities, seven episodes are recognized, which are grouped to three periods of episode 1, episodes 2–4 and episodes 5–7, because time gaps within episodes 2–4, and 5–7 are short. The ages of these periods are estimated to be ca. 32–33, 31, and 27 kyr BP. The tuff breccia, volcanic breccia–agglutinate, and scoriaceous tuff facieses are characterizing the three periods respectively. The phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions with minor amount of juvenile fragments would be occurred repeatedly in the first period. During the second period, the eruption type had changed from the vulcanian to the phreatomagmatic, which formed pyroclastic surge with abundant spatter and ballistic bombs. The phreatomagmatic eruptions would continue to the late part of this period, but the explosivity would decrease. In the third period, the type of the eruption is mainly the phreatomagmatic, but the explosivity of the activity would be much smaller than that of the former period. All rocks are olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite to andesite. The petrographic features are different among three periods. Mostly, mafic minerals are of simple zoning type and plagioclases are patchy and oscillatory zoning type in the first period. In contrast, complex zoning pyroxenes and honeycomb texture plagioclase with larger glass inclusions are remarkable in the second period. In the third period, olivine phenocrysts are abundant and honeycomb texture plagioclase with smaller glass inclusions is characteristically observed. These distinct features for each period would reflect the differences in magma system in each period.


Heavy Metals Uptake in Plant Parts of Sweetpotato Grown in Soil Fertilized with Municipal Sewage Sludge
George F. Antonious, Sam O. Dennis, Jason M. Unrine, and John C. Snyder

Abstract: Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality and ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots). Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl2 solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield compared to plants grown in native soil. Concentration of heavy metals in MSS amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits. However, monitoring heavy metals in soil and edible plants should be regarded as a requirement for the safe use of soil amendments in agricultural fields.


Applications of Ferrocement in Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Columns
Abid A. Shah

Abstract: The load carrying capacity, ductility and serviceability of unreinforced masonry columns can substantially be improved if encased by ferrocement. The parameters such as cement mortar thickness, gage-wire spacing and bond at the interface of ferrocement and brick columns have effects on overall behavior. In the present experimental study, it was found that the first crack load and ultimate load of a ferrocement encased masonary column was increased by 119% and 121% respectively. Cracks developed in ferrocement-encased column were finer and well distributed as compared to plain specimen. However, premature failure is possible when bond at the interface of brick masonry column and ferrocement is poor. At higher reinforcement ratio, severe spalling and delamination is expected.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 5, 2011)


Harmonizing Member State Water Policies to the EU Water Directive 2000/60/EU: The Case of Greece
Kallopi Kalampouka, George N. Zaimes, Dimitrios Emmanouloudis

Abstract: Water is a resource with increasing pressure due to the increase in its demand for many diverse uses. This is why the European Parliament and the EU Council enacted a directive-framework (2000/60/EU) for the protection of the inland surface, coastal and ground waters. The harmonization of the legislations to the provisions of this directive is very important due, on the one hand, to the desired results and aims of the directive, on the other hand, due to the kind of measures that member states are required to take in order to protect the environment and their citizens. This study determines the margin of evaluation that member states have, according to the directive and the jurisprudence of the Court in order to establish the most effective Standards of Quality for the Environment (SQE).


Wearable System Supporting Navigation of the Blind
Lukasz Kaminski, Andrzej Stepnowski, Jerzy Demkowicz

Abstract: Improving blind people comfort of life is a problem of great importance. Fortunately, new technolgies provide us with additional methods to improve everyday life of the blind and visually impaired. The paper presents experimental system made by researchers from Department of Geoinformatics of Gdansk University of Technology, which is capable of finding the route from the indicated source to chosen destination, using dedicated digital map and a set of various sensors. Subsequently, it supports the movement of the blind along the found route. The user's position is obtained with the use of DGPS receiver. In order to further improve accuracy, particle filtering method is used. The system operates on a casual smartphone and communicates with the blind by the touch screen and by the voice messages generated by voice synthesizer.


Generating Transition Rules of Cellular Automata for Urban Growth Prediction
N. Laila Ab Ghani, Siti Z.Z. Abidin, M. Zamani Z. Abiden

Abstract: Urban growth prediction can be simulated using digital maps. The growth of a non-built area can be detected through the change of pixels in a temporal imagery data. A built area usually affects the growth of its surrounding area as similar to Cellular Automata theory. Cellular Automata (CA) is a system consists of grid cells where each one is in finite number of states. The basic components of CA are cells, states neighborhood and transition rules. This research is mainly about obtaining a set of transition rules that detect the pattern of urban growth based on digital maps. The datasets are in the form of satellite images of the study area, the district of Subang Jaya, one of the most rapid urban growth areas. It is difficult to specify equation-based transition rules due to complex geographical processes in the urban growth. Most of the available transition rules are defined statically. This research proposes a different approach using deterministic and pixel-based method by experimentally identifying the unique pattern of surrounding cells on every pixel in the map. Then, the unique patterns are used to generate the transition rules. The rules are implemented as a prototype engine and the accuracy of the rules are tested by comparing predicted results with the original satellite images. Due to the rapid urbanization process in Malaysia, it is important to have a system that has the ability to predict the future growth of an urban area. Excellent accuracy will lead to better monitoring system to cater future livings.


Phase Field Theory Modeling of CH4/CO2 Gas Hydrates in Gravity Fields
M. Qasim, B. Kvamme, K. Baig

Abstract: Natural gas hydrates in reservoirs are thermodynamically unstable due to the interactions with surrounding fluids (aqueous, gas) and mineral surfaces. Depending on the local flow hydrate will dissociate as well as reform. If the dissociation rate is faster than the capacity of the surrounding fluids to dissolve the released gas, the gas will form bubbles. Depending on the rate of released gas and possible fracture patterns this may lead to venting of gas. The proper implementation of hydrodynamics will provide a deeper insight of the hydrate kinetics involved during dissociation and formation processes which involve hydrate former phase as smaller or larger bubbles or even continuous gas phase. In this work the phase field theory coupled with hydrodynamics model is implemented with variable density using the relative composition, phase field parameter and flow, which is an extension of our previous work which considers a constant density.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 5, 2011)


Computational Seismic Algorithmic Comparison for Earthquake Prediction
Sajjad Mohsin, Faisal Azam

Abstract: Seismic data is generated in nature by the changes or movement of the earth crust. This data has evolutionary patterns. Since this data is based on time, a model can be formed to predict the future pattern. In this work we have focused on different statistical learning models to identify the potential seismic changes in the geography related to Pakistan. We used both deterministic and un-deterministic optimized algorithms to determine the future values. The results of different applied techniques show the possibility of future earthquakes in Pakistan region. This work also elaborates the comparative performance of statistical techniques for earthquake prediction. For this purpose, M8 and MSc algorithms have also been considered for critical overview.


Communication Switch for Seismic Active Area
V. Skorpil, P. Zednicek

Abstract: Communication network in the field of geology, for the seismic active areas must have, given the difficulty of the environment, the advanced controlled switches, the earthquake epicentres with specific fault zones must be serviced. We propose a model of the switch, which would be for its advanced properties for an active seismic territory very suitable in this paper. Part of the research were described previously, in this contribution we focused to yet non-published conclusions. Switch suitable for the seismic active area is controlled progressively using artificial intelligence, such as neural networks or evolutionary algorithms and not classical sequential circuits. Switching is more reliable, faster and better meets the demands of the environment. Switches the main role of the processing of a received data according to the results of the processing units and the direction of these data to the relevant networks. It is important to maintain the quality of service, therefore questions of the packet delay, jitter, priority processing, etc. In the seismic areas are the services sensitive primarily to the delay, jitter, error rates and sensitive nondeterministic behaviour, for example random delay.


Technical Aspects on a Landslide Affected Construction
Andreea-Terezia Mircea

Abstract: One main geological phenomenon a civil engineer has to deal with is related to landslides which include a wide range of ground movement. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors (geomorphological, physical, seismic, volcanic or human activity-related), acting together or alone. Every construction has to be founded on soil, transmitting all the loads to the foundation stratum. The research was aimed to reviel technical aspects on a landslide affected construction - a box feeder, built in order to improve the technological flows of a brick systems company, having a reinforced concrete rigid box-type main structure, and a lightweight steel roof support. A platform for storing the necessary raw material was arranged behind this construction. Short time after the feeder was put into operation the surrounding land filling structure showed signs of swelling and fractures. The paper presents aspects of the technical investigation carried out in order to establish the geotechnical situation regarding the foundation soil, the technical condition of the feeder’s structure, as well as to set up the main solutions and operation needed to be taken in terms of strength and stability, in accordance with the legislation on quality in construction and construction safety.


Concrete Damage Assessment with Innovative Non-Destructive Testing Techniques
Abid A. Shah

Abstract: Ultrasonic attenuation changes and acoustic emission events were used in assessment of concrete damages. 18 cubic specimens were cast with w/c of 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60, respectively. The specimens were damaged by loading under un-axial compression in several steps until failure. At each loading step the ultrasonic amplitude attenuation and acoustic emission activity were measured. It was found that ultrasonic amplitude attenuation is quite sensitive to change in damage. It increases as damage increases. Similarly acoustic emission events were observed increasing with increasing damage level.


Climatical Changes Effects on the Potential Capacity of Salt Removing Species
G. Bekmirzaev, J. Beltrao, M. A. Neves, C. Costa

Abstract: The effects of the climate changes on the environment and have become the one of the most complicated issue facing world leaders. Moreover, warnings from the scientific community are becoming louder, as an increasing body of science points to rising dangers from the ongoing buildup of human-related greenhouse gases - produced mainly by the burning of fossil fuels and forests. What is climate changes, how do we know they are happening, and what can we expect from them? Certainly, the answer to these questions we must be known and understood. Another problem related to these climate changes and global warming is the increase of soil salinity. Beside this increase, current problems arising the agricultural development are appearing, as natural disasters, drinking water scarcity, less food production, infectious diseases and lower soil productivity. Conventional techniques used to control soil salination process - soil leaching or fertilization enhancing - contribute highly to soil and aquifers contamination; on the other hand, the use of salt tolerant plant species will be very useful to the plants, but it does not solve the problem of soil or groundwater contamination. Hence, the only way to control the salination process and to maintain the sustainability of landscape and agricultural fields is to combat the salination problems by environmentally safe and clean techniques. One of these techniques is the use of salt removing species. In order to study the climatical changes effects on the potential capacity to remove soil salts, two horticultural leaf species Tetragonia tetragonioides and Portulaca oleracea were planted. The total growth and the leaf mineral composition of these species were studied. According to the results of plant growth and leaf analysis, it was seen that Tetragonia tetragonioides are the best salt removing species; on the other hand Portulaca oleracea was the most tolerant species to soil and water salinity. It was shown that this technique to control salinity is a powerful and environmental clean tool to maintain the sustainability of the landscape and of the agricultural areas. As final remarks, it is concluded that in arid climates and global warming, the clean and environmental safe procedures to control salinity could be associated to the conventional techniques, combining environmental, economical and social aspects, contributing, therefore, to increase the sustainability of the environment and plant growth.


C:N ratio of Sediments in a sewage fed Urban Lake
Durga Madhab Mahapatra, Chanakya H. N., Ramachandra T. V.

Abstract: C:N ratio of lake sediments provide valuable information about the source and proportions of terrestrial, phytogenic and phycogenic carbon and nitrogen. This study has been carried out in Varthur lake which is receiving sewage since many decades apart from large scale land cover changes. C:N profile of the surficial sediment layer collected in the rainy and the dry seasons revealed higher C:N values[43] due to the accumulation of autochthonous organic material mostly at the deeper portions of the lake. This also highlights N limitation in the sludge either due to uptake by micro and macro-biota or rapid volatilization, denitrification and possible leaching in water. Organic Carbon was lower towards the inlets and higher near the deeper zones. This pattern of Organic C deposition was aided by gusty winds and high flow conditions together with impacts by the land use land cover changes in the watershed. Spatial variability of C:N in surficial sediments is significant compared to its seasonal variability. This communication provides an insight to the pattern in which nutrients are distributed in the sludge/sediment and its variation across seasons and space impacted by the biotic process accompanied by the hydrodynamic changes in the lake.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 5, 2011)


Developing a Nomograph for Estimating Erodibility Factor of Calcareous Soils in North West of Iran
A. R. Vaezi, H. A. Bahrami, S. H. R. Sadeghi, M. H. Mahdian

Abstract: In the USLE model, the soil erodibility factor (K) is measured using the average rate of soil loss from the unit plot per the unit of rainfall erosivity factor. This factor can also be estimated by the USLE nomograph on the basis of some measurable soil properties. The USLE nomograph has been developed based on field measurements of soil loss in soils of the semi-humid regions in USA, where soils are uncalcareous with low values of carbonates (lime). In semi-arid regions' soils, carbonates are identified as important factors influencing the soil structure stability. Thus, the application of the USLE nomograph in semi-arid regions' soils may lead to inaccurate assessment of the K factor. Therefore, semi-arid regions' soils need a new nomograph to reliably estimate this factor. A 900 km2 agricultural area in a semi-arid region of northwestern Iran was selected for the research, whose soils had about 12.7% lime. The K factor was measured under natural rainfall events in 36 unit plots from March 2005 to March 2007 and estimated using the USLE nomograph based on soil properties. The results showed that the nomograph-based estimates were 8.77 times more than the measured values. The measured K factor significantly (p<0.001, R2=0.923) related to coarse sand, lime, aggregate stability and soil. Therefore, these four variables develop a new nomograph for estimating the K factor in the semi-arid regions' soils.


A Study Modeling of 15 Days Cumulative Rainfall at Purajaya Region, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
Ahmad Zakaria

Abstract: Aim of this research is to study periodic modeling of 15 days cumulative rainfall time series. The study was undertaken using 25 years (1977–2001) data of Purajaya region. The series of the daily rainfall data assumed was trend free. The periodic component of 15 days cumulative rainfall time series could be represented by using 253 harmonic expressions. The stochastic component of the 15 days cumulative rainfall was using the 3rd order autoregressive model. Validation of generated 15 days cumulative rainfall series was done by comparing between the generated with the measured rainfall series. The correlation coefficient between the generated or synthetic rainfall series with the measured rainfall series with the number of the data N is equal to 512 days for 25 years was found to be 0.99996. Therefore, developed model could be used for future prediction of 15 days cumulative rainfall time series.


Multivariate and Geostatistical Analysis of Groundwater Quality in Palar River Basin
P. J. Sajil Kumar, P. Jegathambal, E. J.James

Abstract: The knowledge of the occurrence of groundwater, its replenishment, physical and chemical characteristics have special significance in arid and semi-arid zones where groundwater is the main source of water. Assessing the quality of groundwater is important in determining its suitability for different purposes. In recent years, multivariate analysis is widely applied to identify the underlying structure of the groundwater quality data. Also the geostatistical tool is mostly used to get the spatial distribution map of a particular pollutant in the specified region. The results obtained through above mentioned tools will be helpful for the decision makers to adopt suitable remedial measures to protect the groundwater sources. In this study, the effect of discharge of tannery effluents in the Palar river basin was studied using factor analysis and geostatistics. Based on the results, it is concluded that the groundwater is not suitable for drinking in the northeast and southwest areas of the Palar river basin.


River Water Circulation Model on the Natural Environment
Yoshirou Takanashi, Haruna Sakagami, Yuta Taki, Minetada Osano

Abstract: The existing of water is most important element for living human in natural environment. Then, water circulates Model on one river is discussed to one river system as natural environments. This model is constructed with many element models as rainfall model, steam model, evaporation model, and river flow model. On those model, the many simulation is developed with using a formula with the above elements in one area include one river. We simulated the flows trough the underground soil after the rainfall flow. The substantial parameters are from AMeDAS data and detected exactly river flows dates. They are compared with actual survey of the recorded dates to check its accuracy. To develop the simulation model, the System Dynamics was used. As a consequence, a connected rainfall model and river model was constructed as good result.


Modelling Seismic Activity using a Bayesian Non-Parametric Method
S. Hernandez, P. Sallis

Abstract: Machine learning consists of a set of computational tools for performing large multi-dimensional data set analysis where standard statistical tests are not easily implemented. Many parametric approaches for machine learning consist of model selection and at least a two-step process. Using these techniques the underlying structure of the observed data may not be fully realised. On the other hand, Bayesian non-parametric methods perform inference operations over an infinitely greater number of parameters and because the inherent model uncertainty is also incorporated in the single-step approach, this can lead to a more robust estimation of resulting values. This paper applies this approach to the modelling geophysical events, which is a challenging spatio-temporal problem domain. This paper contributes to the ongoing investigation of optimal methods for geophysical event modelling by introducing a numerical computation solution using a Bayesian unsupervised learning algorithm with earthquake magnitude and location data from Central Chile following a recent 8.8 magnitude earthquake that destroyed many buildings and other property. It is envisaged that this method could be applied to other major earthquakes and further work is gathering data for analysis in this regard.


Automatic Generation of Chinese Phonetic Initial Field in ArcGIS Map Database and its Application
Lianhe Yang, Shanshan Ji

Abstract: Based on the existed ArcGIS map database, the CPI field is generated automatically for all layers. An amending method is introduced based on phrase, which is used to amend the possible CPI errors caused by Chinese polyphones. As its application, CPI inquiry functionality is added to the original ArcGIS map and further extended into customary abbreviation inquiry functionality, which makes ArcGIS map inquiry efficient and humanized.


Production of Alkali Felspar and Nepheline at the Cerro Siete Cabezas Complex (Alto Paraguay): A Pilot Study
Francesco Comin-Chiaramonti, Luca Zanetti, Piero Comin-Chiaramonti

Abstract: A pilot study, relative to the feldsparsnepheline eco-sustainable exploitation, was planned in an economically depressed area from the Paraguyan Chaco, i.e. Alto Paraguay river, Cerro Siete Cabezas complex. The latter represents an alkaline complex made of prevailing syenitic rocks. A twenty years business plan may allow to a whole profit of about 304 U$ million dollars, and a final conversion to a touristic locality similar to that existing in the near brazilian side of the Paraguay river, i.e. Porto Murtinho town. Analogous industrial models may be applied to the many similar alkaline complexes in the South America platform.


Risks and Vulnerabilities of Future Satellitebased Tracking Systems
Miikka Ohisalo, Otto Tiuri, Tatu Urpila, Pasi Kamppi, Jyri Rajamaki

Abstract: This study finds out if in the future, some special risks and vulnerabilities concerning satellite-based tracking and navigation occur. The concept of risks plays an important role in future studies and in all future thinking. To find out possible future risks, future research methods such as scenarios and weak signal identifications were being used. Forecasting the future is impossible, but the risks found are based on events that have already occurred or scientifically research of interesting phenomena. The risks found concern nature disasters, technical errors and political and economical situation worldwide. The future will most likely bring multiple new risks to the field of satellite-based tracking. Because of these risks, all the different end-users of satellite-based tracking need to be updated, both technically and mentally. The availability of different services will most likely increase as new service providers come to the expanding market in the future. Variety of the services is growing and the customer has to use more time and effort to find the best and most reliable alternatives.


Study of Non-Stationary Heat Transfer in Twolayer Plate
Hana Charvatova, Dagmar Janacova, Vladimir Vasek, Pavel Mokrejs, Jan Hrabovsky

Abstract: In the paper we deal with study of unsteady heat transport process in solids. Especially we focused on a problem of non-stationary conduction of heat in a two-layer plane plate. For this purpose we formulated mathematical model describing heating or cooling of a semi-infinite region. The analytical solution of this model we used for computer modeling of the mentioned process by use of mathematical software Maple. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate modeling of computing of heating or cooling of the two-layer plane plate by use of the software application that we programmed for automatic computing of temperature fields in the solids during heating or cooling of the two-layer plane plate. We also verified validity of the formulated problem by comparison of the computed data with computer simulation of the process by use of commercial software Comsol Multiphysics. Finally, we described main parameters that influence heating or cooling process course and described mathematical model use for economical costs of the studied process computing.


Copyrighted Material by NAUN