ISSN: 2308-1007


Published by NAUN

Year 2011

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 5, 2011)


Optimization of Directional Drilling by Non-Rotating Stabilizer: A Simulation Study
Eisa Novieri, Sadegh Torfi, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Nejad

Abstract: Directional drilling is the system of directing the well bore along some trajectory to a predetermined target. Motivation of the early drilling of directional wells was economics and offshore field development is where majority of wells are drill directionally 5 Defection Implements is: whipestock, jetting bit, mud motor, stabilizers and turbine. The Non-Rotating Adjustable Stabilizer / Directional Solution (NAS/DS) is the imitation of a mechanical process or an object by a directional drilling operation that causes a respond mathematically and graphically to data and decision to choose the best conditions compared to the previous mode. The Non–Rotating Adjustable stabilizer (NAS) can be controls curvature rate by exactly positioning and run with the optimum bit, use the most effective weight (WOB) and rotary speed (RPM) and apply all of the available hydraulic energy to the bit. The directional simulator allowed to specify the size of the curvature rate performance errors of the NAS tool and the magnitude of the random errors in the survey measurements called the Directional Solution (DS). The combination of these technologies (NAS/DS) will provide smoother bore holes, reduced drilling time, reduced drilling cost and incredible targeting precision. This simulator controls curvature rate by precisely adjusting the radial extension of stabilizer blades on a near bit Non-Rotating Stabilizer and control process corrects for the secondary effects caused by formation characteristics, bit and tool wear, and manufacturing tolerances.In this study in south of Iran the Non–Rotating Adjustable stabilizer controls curvature rate by precisely adjusting the radial extension of the stabilizer blades on a near bit Non-Rotating Stabilizer. The combination of these technologies will provide smoother bore holes, reduced drilling time, and incredible targeting precision. Implement will control curvature rates from 0 to 15/100 ft. in 8 1/2 inch holes with bit weights up to 55000 lb.


Solutions on Site Monitoring of Environmental Factors in Brownfields Ghelari
Nan M. S., Dunca E., Stegaru (Parvu) D., Parvu A., Grigorie P.

Abstract: Monitoring is implemented in compliance with a set of rules of law: land use planning, pollution control procedures, etc. The main role of monitoring is to highlight whether an objective function meets the requirements at the time of its approval. Monitoring program will be coordinated with measures to minimize applied during the project implementation, namely: to provide feedback on the environmental authorities and the authorities imposed a decision on efficiency measures, to identify the need for initiation and implementation of action before damage occurs irreversible environmental. During the operation, will meet exactly all the provisions of environmental legislation in force. During the entire phase of decommissioning, demolition and construction of an industrial site, there would be a monitoring technology that aimed at reducing hazards and site restoration. Also in the remedial phase of the environment to check the quality of material treated, will be an environmental quality monitoring. Solutions on an industrial site monitoring helps to identify pollution and environmental impact. In Ghelari mining area has been taken as a case study sub-areas were established to monitor the perimeter points affected by pollution and monitoring of the environment. Through continuous monitoring of the environment can be established and remedial measures in the area affected by industrial activity


Promoting the Historic Center – A Way of Obtaining the Competitive Advantage in the Development Strategy of Bucharest
Razvan-Andrei Corbo, Ruxandra-Irina Popescu

Abstract: Urban competition strategic analysis shows that the performance of the 21st century cities` management depends on focusing on specific elements which can develop into differentiation sources. Thus, promotion and cultivation of the local spirit, emphasizing local people`s community identity and membership and conserving the cultural specific of every region, all represent valid strategic options for developing cities. Restoring urban, architectural and artistically patrimony has transformed from a goal per se (saving old towns` centre only for their essence) into a vehicle for complex outcomes such as revitalizing historical urban centers, creating working place, developing business incubators, habitation in old neighborhoods and sustainable tourism: ecotourism, cultural and historical tourism, urban exploration. Therefore, transforming Romania into a quality tourism destination, based on its natural and cultural patrimony and meeting the European Union`s standards for products and service supply is a big challenge. Moreover, achieving a sustainable tourism development, with a higher rhythm compared to other tourist destinations in Europe makes this goal even more feasible. The present paper analyses the way Bucharest Historic Centre regeneration may become a successful example for the national strategy for tourism development, by creating and boosting several realistic competitive advantages: existing natural and built patrimony, entrepreneurial climate, geographical position and easy access to and from the town centre.


The Brand of Bucharest – A Generator of Opportunities or Competence Needed in the Urban Competition?
Ruxandra-Irina Popescu, Razvan-Andrei Corbos

Abstract: The starting premise of this study is that a strong urban brand ensures cities an increased competence transformed into a competitive advantage, as well as a dynamic source of important opportunities. Moreover, urban competitiveness strategic analysis reveals that the analysis of opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses for identifying city development strategic options is compulsory. At the moment, Bucharest is still searching for those vectors capable of generating competitive advantages, which are essential for urban development. In this context, our aim is to develop a realistic analysis of Romania`s capital potential for overcoming the current economic crisis by building up a strong brand. The paper focuses on the main strong points Bucharest might exploit in the present concurential context and proposes three main directions to follow for shaping a good brand: Bucharest- residential city, Bucharest- knowledge city, Bucharest- business city.


Geographical Relations Dynamics (6) - Hell to Limbo via Economic Growth -
Minoru Ueda

Abstract: Mankind had long dreamed that once any country’s economic growth would take off, people would be liberated from all traditional disasters such as poverty, famine, pandemic, and infant deaths. However, contrary to popular belief of population bomb, recent developments in the most economically advanced countries such as EU, and Japan, and Korea indicate that those developed countries get into Limbo rather than the promised paradise, mainly due to aging and shrinking population. Through the case study on Japan, the author examines feasible solutions to the world which will face the same destiny soon.


Development of the Tertiary Sector and its Land-Use Impact in the Built-up Area. Case-Study: Commercial Services in Romania
Radu Sageata, Claudia Bucura, Maria Bud, Teodor Toderas, Virginia Gherasim

Abstract: The fall of the communist regime and the demise of the bipolar order have led to the development of globalising connections in the urban systems of the Central and East-European states. The main social impact of this complex phenomenon is the expansion of the diffusion area for the of global consumerist goods, entailing the development and the diversification of commercial services [1, 3]. Their localisation is still a direct consequence of financial segregation; the determining agent of the degree of penetration of global consumer goods at local level is the localisation and dispersion of investments [2]. In this context, the article analyses the strategies of localisation and the dispersion factors of commercial services in the Romanian urban system and in its capital city, in particular [5, 21].


Elements of Autochthonous Cultural Heritage versus Global Consumer Products. The Case of Romanian Traditional Farm Products
Radu Sageata, Claudia Bucura, Virginia Gherasim, Maria Bud, Teodor Toderas

Abstract: The paper suggests an analysis basis on the devices of insertion of the products of the global consumer culture on a local level, to the prejudice of traditional elements that they tend to replace. If to the old members of the European Union this process is well regulated through a coherent legislative framework, Romania, on the background of generalized poverty emphasized by the present global economic conjuncture, registers a strong decline of the local traditional occupations and entrepreneurial initiatives, which not being supported by an appropriate policy, become unprofitable and are doomed to disappearance [39, 51]. Thus, it is reduced the degree of occupational diversification regarding small traditional rural communities, having direct consequences on life quality and migration flows [1, 4]. In this context, there are proposed a series of measures which might contribute to the reduction of these phenomena.


Energy Efficiency Regulations in Estonia
E. Seinre, H. Voll

Abstract: Since July 1st, 2009 it is compulsory for a new or major renovation building project to meet the requirements set by Estonian Government decree nr. 258 „The Minimum Requirements for Energy Efficiency“. This article reports on analysis of evaluation carried out in Tallinn University of Technology how the implementation has taken effect. As the results show there are severe problems with application of this decree, concerning the decree itself, as well as the shortage of knowledge and know-how amongst people applying it. Due to difficulties of establishment of the decree an alternative building evaluating schemes that could be implemented in Estonia are introduced, with their possible merits and drawbacks stated.


The Enforcement of Local Identity through the Renewal of Public Spaces in Timisoara and its Role in the Facilitation of Urban Governance
Elisabeth G. Cosoroaba-Stanciu, Radu Radoslav

Abstract: The paper analyzes the system of impact of the renewal of public spaces in integrated urban regeneration and sustainable development through the facilitation of decentralized urban governance. In the context of the return of the principles of traditional urban structure to the city and the importance given to polycentrism and community regeneration in European cohesion policy, emerges the definition of communities with 7.000-10.000 residents in the city of Timisoara, which are better suited to coordinate local development than districts boundaries. To strengthen local identity in these communities, the renewal of public spaces is chosen as an instrument. After presenting the results of a multiple criteria based study of the network of local public spaces in Timisoara and of one of its communities, the interpretations, the concept of public space implies, are examined and its role in the urban context and citizen participation are analyzed. Furthermore a synthesis of criteria for a quality design of urban public space are outlined and illustrated.


Revitalization Strategy of Urban Spaces through a Holistic Vision – Case Study Timisoara, Romania
Branea Ana-Maria, Radoslav Radu, Gaman Marius Stelian, Morar Tudor

Abstract: The recentralization of historical centres is an important matter concerning the lifelines of an urban settlement especially in this moment of profound structural crisis. Without a well made strategy, its profound understanding by the local authorities and its coherent application, the city’s public urban areas may collapse. The centralizing strategy applied in the case of the city of Timisoara, Romania, to the central areas took place on three levels, namely revitalize-restructure-renovation in this order by using the potential of the existing students as an engine of development. The revitalization itself took place on another three levels meaning Re-Functionalizing of buildings, Re-Creating Public Spaces and Re-Orienting Events.


Strategic Vision and Concept of Regional Planning and Sustainable Development in Romania based on the Use of Geospatial Solutions
Vasile Surd, Veronica Constantin, Camelia-Maria Kantor

Abstract: The development and implementation of a strategic partnership concept of territorial planning in the short, medium and long term, as well as the identification of appropriate geospatial solutions, are key factors underpinning regional policy implementation needed to ensure the framework for the development of a sustainable and balanced development region.A four years long observation and analysis of planning and regional development within the Central Regional Development Agency lead to elaborating a strategy related to the current needs and trends in regional development. The starting point of the work consisted of an analytical review of the strategic and programmatic documents at the European, national and regional levels, as well as of the written literature in the field of regional planning and development, socio-economic development, and sustainable development. A regional strategic planning and development concept was developed based on the effective use of the Geographic Information Systems technology, a modern, dynamic and complex form of integration of geospatial solutions developed through the implementation of six support projects.


Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution with Particles and Modification due to Climate Parameters in an Exposed Population: Long and Short Term Study
C. Petrescu, O. Suciu, R. Ionovici, O. Herbarth, U. Franck, U. Schlink

Abstract: Many studies have consistently found associations between respiratory health effects and various types of airborne particles. The goal of this paper is to examine the respiratory health effects of airborne particles exposure and modification due to climate parameters using a case-control retrospective investigation and a time series analysis of data obtained in the same area (Drobeta Turnu-Severin) and two time periods: study- part 1 (1.01.1990-31.12.1997) and study- part 2 (1.01.2000-31.12.2003). We investigated the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), chronic bronchitis and asthma and total suspended particles (TSP) in Study- Part 1 (case and control data representing long-term effects) and in Study- Part 2 (daily hospital admission data as short-term effects which are analyzed with generalized additive models). In Study-Part 1, TSP was identified as a risk factor for COPD in the exposed population, with relative humidity as a protective factor against asthma. Population age’s distribution and urban environment resulted as confounding factors. In Study- Part 2, adverse effects of TSP were revealed for chronic bronchitis. Seasons and days of the weeks resulted as important confounding factors. A weak adverse effect of TSP upon chronic bronchitis incidence and hospitalization (disease exacerbation) was identified, at a specific age, 15-64 years, in both study periods. As a conclusion, in the investigated area (Drobeta Turnu-Severin), the respiratory health effects of particles are substantial and modified by climate parameters and seasonality.


The Effects of the World Economic Crisis on the Tourist Market from Romania
Mirela Mazilu, Marioara Avram, Roxana Ispas

Abstract: Considering itself as a unique market, the European Union has the most developed economy from the sector of Travels and Tourism, now representing a share of approximately 40% of the world market. Obviously, its share has grown significantly during the last few years, according to the EU extension beyond its initial borders to the current 27 member states. The EU dimension and its importance in the economy of Travels and Tourism explains why the World Travels and Tourism Committee (WTTC) has remained very active in the region, intensifying as well its activities in the whole Central and Eastern Europe in the last 12 months, in close collaboration with industry and individual government in order to try and increase the operational environment for Travels and Tourism. The activities include the promotion of members and the consolidation of the unfolding relations with industry and governmental leaders. It has been a year since the crisis has shown its "teeth" in Romania as well, implicitly in the Romanian tourism: bankruptcies, huge bank interests, financial blockings, lack of cash and thousands of unemployed people are some of the effects of the crisis. What have the travel companies and actors from this field and the people learnt from this crisis? This article is currently trying to present the most visible painful metamorphosis for the Romanian tourism, trying to make a correct diagnosis of the phenomenon. How do we survive the crisis? Despite all the predictions of the analysts, no one can say exactly when the crisis will end, as no one had anticipated when it would begin. Business representatives have thought of a few solutions to survive crisis: low budget spending, a real policy for the recovery of the economy and for the solution of the economic and financial blockings, increasing consumption and exports, balance of exchange rate.


Environmental Reporting within the Romanian Companies
Ienciu Alin, Muller Victor, Matis Dumitru

Abstract: The paper reflects the quality of environmental information voluntarily reported by Romanian listed companies. The study is conducted as a research paper which analyzes and explains using content analyses the quality of environmental reporting across Romanian listed companies. We concluded that the low quality of environmental reporting in this case of Romanian companies is showing that the environmental information provided by the Romanian companies is incomplete and irrelevant, environmental accounting and reporting remaining a challenge for the accounting profession and for researchers from Romania. Environmental reporting in the case of Romanian listed companies could be explained from legitimacy theory perspective.


The "Holiday Village" Concept and Its Role in Tourism Planning
V. Zotic, Diana Alexandru, V. Puiu

Abstract: The "holiday village" is a category of tourist infrastructure, a form of tourism, as well as a type of tourism development, although rather seldom found in tourism and spatial planning. This fact is justified by its relative novelty and through the large number of requirements to be fulfilled in case of its planning. Internationally, the concept of “holiday village" has become a tradition for decades, whereas in Romania it is only at the beginning of its implementation. This paper substantiates the concept of “holiday village" aiming to provide scientific support to practitioners for the implementation of this category of tourist facility in tourism planning. The implementation of this concept in tourism spatial planning will determine an increasing degree of polarization of tourist infrastructure as well as the enhancement of natural resources, such as: landscape, ethnicity, culture, architecture, gastronomy and others, that initially belong to the tourist area in which the “holiday village" is located and which cannot be currently recovered due to their spatial dispersion. Besides this, if we take into consideration the economic side of the concept, “holiday villages" become genuine regional development nuclei. Changing the perspective, we consider that the implementation of this concept brings out a new form of tourism – spending vacation in the “holiday village" - directly addressing to the urban market. Given that Romania has a real natural and human potential to implement this concept, we consider it would complement the national tourist offer and would generate an optimum distribution of tourism infrastructure in the territory.


Multiple Interconditioning: Tourism and Sustainable Development
Dalia Simion, Mirela Mazilu, Monica Patrutescu, Roxana Ispas

Abstract: Economic branch of interference, of great interest and important availability, Romanian tourism should become a dynamic component of the global economic system. Subsystem of the national economy, tourism bears influences from other subsystems and exercises, in turn, an increasingly influence on their evolution. The tourism sector in Romania currently holds only a modest share of GDP, in particular because it has not been strongly supported by decision factors, its development being left to chance. It is widely recognized the ability of tourism to become a primary sector of the national economy, in a context that will meet national targets in this area.


Tourist Attraction Assessment of the Bran – Rucar Corridor (Romanian Carpathians)
Daniela Dumitrescu, Adrian-Aurel Baltalunga, Gerald Billard, Guillaume Bailly, Nadia Manea

Abstract: The Bran Rucar Corridor is an important mountainous area in terms of tourist activity, particularly intensified after 1990. This dynamic determined a high pressure on the elements of genuine potential, often sacrificed in favour of rapid financial benefits. In the same way though, there are a series of real threats amongst this area with a remarkable potential, yet fragile from the environmental degradation point of view, both natural and constructed. In this regard it should be implemented a reflection on the relationship between the national identity and economy or risk versus prosperity. On the other hand, we consider important in this context, the evaluation of the attractiveness grade of mountainous tourist localities of the interior corridor, both primary and secondary, through comparative analysis. These may indicate the major directions for action at local or regional level, the balancing possibilities of the exploitation degree of tourist resources, the capitalizing of completions on these resources between the north and south sector.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 5, 2011)


New Approach in Evaluating Tourism Attractiveness in the Region of Moldavia (Romania)
Corneliu Iatu, Mihai Bulai

Abstract: This study opens some question marks over the actual tourism concepts and methods used in the evaluation of tourism phenomena in Romania. Overused and misused syntagms such as “tourism potential” have created gaps in understanding how supply elements reflect in tourist demand, as potential only expresses some territorial capabilities. The concept of “tourism attractiveness” as formulated by Formica, S. is a better instrument to explore the relationship between supply and demand. Thus, knowledge of mechanisms which produce benefits at regional scale is often poor, if we take a glance at the evaluation method used by the Space Planning of National Territory of Romania. By using principles utilized in regional analysis by Smith or Lovingwood, this paperwork tries to build a new approach in identifying key role of tourism resources and infrastructures (potential and existent supply) in attracting important amounts of tourists in Moldavia. The results confirm for this region of Romania a great role of presence of cultural resources as proximity factor of tourist registration and lack of strength of natural resources in producing overnights when not correlated with good access. Our approach shows the need for a paradigm shift in Romanian conceptual instruments used in the evaluation of tourism.


Active Tourism in Dornelor Basin – between Possibilities and Spatial Manifestation
Corneliu Iatu, Alina Munteanu, Mesalina Boghinciuc, Andrei Coca, Bogdan Ibanescu

Abstract: Different forms of active tourism have begun to develop in Romania, especially after 1990, the year which marked the international opening of the country and the assimilation of some unknown or, until then, insufficiently promoted tourism practices on Romanian territory. Yet, a real approach of these alternative forms of tourism was ascertained at the beginning of the year 2000, the region of Bucovina being a proper space which presented both the premises and the background, but also the necessary tourist demand. The main purposes of this study were to certify the tourist’s demands and also to analyse the potential economic benefit of this type of tourism for Bucovina region. In order to achieve these objectives, a survey has been developed during the days of a well known niche competition, Rarau Climbing Open. Besides the socio-demographic data, the tourist behaviour, the compatibility with other forms of active tourism, the survey offered essential data about participants’ budget. The final results of the study permitted the outline of some general characteristics of the participants, allowing also the projection of a few strategic measures with a significant economic potential for the concerning area.


Evaluation of Lentic Ecosystems from Bucharest City
Luminita Ghervase, Cristian Ioja, Elfrida M. Carstea, Lidia Niculita, Dan Savastru, Gabriela Pavelescu, Gabriel Vanau

Abstract: Bucharest is the capital city and also one of the largest cities in Romania. It disposes of natural and artificial lakes, arranged for different leisure activities and some of them even for bathing. Monitoring and maintaining the quality of lentic ecosystems is important from both an economical and environmental point of view. Several lake water samples were collected from Bucharest city area. The water quality of these lakes was evaluated using, for the first time, fluorescence spectroscopy together with standard indicators (conductivity and pH, oxygen indicators, like dissolved oxygen &8211; DO and chemical oxygen demand &8211; COD and nutrients, specifically nitrates and nitrites). The anthropic influence on the lentic ecosystems was evidenced by the presence of high quantities of ammonia, a clear sign of uncontrolled wastewater spills from the residential settlements on the lake borders. From the fluorescence measurements, various indices were calculated as ratio between regions of the fluorescence maps. A good correlation was found between some of these indices and the standard parameters, thus suggesting that fluorescence spectroscopy might be a potential tool in the monitoring of the lake water quality.


Romanian Middle Age Fortresses as Historic Environments, Touristic Entities and Products of Cultural Consumption
Iulian Dinca, Nistor Stelian, Liviu Bucur, Stasac Marcu

Abstract: The study deals with three Romanian fortresses located geographically at great distances one from another but all three situated on the same geomorphological step, that is the hilly step, all fortresses having different roles during the middle age period. These roles are defensive or a combined administrative - defense role of the village linked to the fortress, in this case reflects the present-day individualization and the way in which the fortress is administrated today. The main condition of the analysis is to put the past in condition to the present letting the fortresses to point themselves out in a particular way but also in a unitary way, according to the present-day function. Otherwise, the study try to leave the classical manner, of stressing the economic effect of touristic exploitation and of touristic flow and to let in front causal relations between past and tourism based on fortresses. What counts are: environments (as place and environment), history (with emphasis on past seen today) and the quality of touristic product. All these must be understand in strong variable in the relationship with the visiting tourist and with cultural acquisition based on fortresses. The cultural acquisition means filtering and keeping of useful and interesting aspects as cultural products during a type of tourism based on fortresses. Thus one could understand positive emotions or less relevant aspects, the tourists resonating in front of details or general features, both with cultural values.


Statistics – Reference Point in the Analysis of the Tourism Phenomenon
Dumitru Bala, Mirela Mazilu, Roxana Cristina Marinescu, Irimie Nicoleta Daniela

Abstract: Statistics represent an essential element of the information system and occupies a special place in the information supply regarding the status and trends of country's economic, social, demographic and tourism development. The transformations of the global economy driven by the liberalization of the global trade and modern information technologies, lead to a globalization, where the notion of national statistical territory leaves gradually, place to the regional or global statistical area. This phenomenon is more pronounced in the European Union, where accelerated mergers between groups of countries, the removal of control on internal trade (goods, capital, services and people), settlement of a single currency are essential to harmonize the concepts and statistical standards in order to obtain a unique statistical language. Also, all these lead to the development of statistics that capture the transactions between economic and social groups within the European Union, rather than to statistics limited geographically to national level. Romanian statistical system must keep pace with these developments and to participate effectively in Europe and globally, adapting its concepts and standards. Under the newly created circumstances, especially those for integration into Europe and expanding the international cooperation, the role of statistics as a leading producer of information becomes increasingly important. The interest of investors in Romanian tourism is greater and greater, but a huge obstacle in the way of launching the investment projects is the insufficiency of statistics in this field, which hinder a lot the completion of the feasibility studies and of the investment projects. How many foreigners are visiting Romania for business and how many for pleasure? What was the value of the private investments in Poiana Brasov last year or in any other tourist resort in our country? What was the average expense of a foreign tourist in resort X? There is not exact information, only estimations. “Romanian tourism is suffering from an acute lack of statistics, and those which exist are doubtful and are not available on time”, and “the investments have been hindered by the fact that we have not had sufficient statistical data. I consider there should exist a department within the Ministry of Tourism which should deal mainly with this problem, declare more and more professionals from Romanian tourism. Until last year, the only existing data regarding the evolution of the Romanian tourism were the ones published by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS). The publishing frequency of these data – every trimester – is too small for the private sector, which needs monthly information. Moreover, the majority of the business people from the industry do not use this information because they do not believe in it. “Even now statistical data are collected, but it would be extremely interesting to check the accuracy of these data through polls, data which is insufficient anyway”, thinks the president of the hotel consultancy company Peacock Management Consulting. The truth is probably somewhere in the middle in Romania … that we need statistics it is obvious, and tourism and statistics are connected and lead to the desired quality information which statistics has used us with.


Romania - An Attractive Tourist Market after the World Economic Crisis
Mirela Mazilu

Abstract: Through the geopolitical position that it holds within the continent, Romania enjoys a great advantage over competing countries. Romania is located at the crossroads of the most important trade routes of the continent: midway between the northern and southern Europe, and on the road linking Western Europe to Asia. This advantage can be developed in terms of transit tourism, but also in terms of relaxation tourism due to the relatively small distances between Romania and the western countries. The imperativeness of the road infrastructure development at the western standard will reduce the time spent on the road, given that road trips have the largest share of transport preferences of foreign tourists arriving in Romania. If one mentions the possibility of the future oil and gas pipe from the Caspian Sea to transit Romania, the country’s geopolitical importance in the Central European area is more and more increased. However, Romania has ceased to be an attractive tourist destination because of the competition, limited offers, inadequate infrastructure and services, according to the tourism development strategy published by the Romanian National Tourism Authority (NTA). According to the strategy, the Romanian tourism offer faces more problems. All types of programs offered by Romania encounter fierce competition on Western European markets, while the competing destinations offer a wide range of facilities for all the tourists. Also, the Romanian offer is relatively limited, confined to a few resorts, and within these to only a few hotels. The services are inferior to those of the competing destinations such as Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece and Cyprus, while entertainment does not match the offer of other destinations. To these problems we can add the inadequate road and technical infrastructure, lack of superior hotels in major cities and in tourist resorts of international interest. In terms of quality-price ratio, Romania has ceased to be an attractive tourist market.


How Environment-Friendly is the Modern Society?
Cismas Laura Mariana, Parean Mihai Olimpiu, Boldea Monica, Miculescu Andra

Abstract: The economic development based solely on natural resource extraction activities has major negative effects for society. In these circumstances the mining projects (such as the one related to the Rosia Montana) may have serious social effects. Therefore there is a need for sustainable and more diversified economic activities. At a first sight, modern civilization, of a consumer type character, the modern activities that rely on information technologies are environment- friendly, but these also require the consumption of resources, and the equipment supporting them contains elements which are very harmful for nature especially if the optimal conditions are not met regarding recycling. Tourist activities are also an important issue for the environment.


Spatial Planning and Local Development. Beius Land (Romania) as Project Territory
Luminita Filimon, Ribana Linc, Paul Olau, Claudiu Filimon

Abstract: Romania has 18 territorial entities known as “lands” within its territory, with series of specific features making the difference between them and the surrounding areas. These are not artificially created territories, but ones with a regional coherence expressed in the objective reality, both on territorial and especially mental aspect of the respective area’s inhabitants. Because of their territorial reality, spatial planning could make the most of the quality of “land’’ by imposing them as project territories. The present study suggests an association of three major concepts as endogenous development, local development and project territory, in order to propose Beius Land as project territory, trying thus to promote a different spatial planning approach. This would eventually serve to the local implementation of sustainable development strategies, with practical applicability and utility, as tools for spatial planning professionals and local decision makers. The main reason for proposing Beius Land as project territory is to keep the traditional identity marks of this area, fully developed during the 19th century. The more recent socio-economic transformations, related to the Communist Regime, the difficult transition to the market economy, the admission into the European Union and the globalisation, contributed to the fading of some of this identity marks. Nowadays there are still being maintained elements related to the traditional Professions and crafts. Within an adequate strategic planning process, this new untapped side of Beius Land identity (which is a general asset of the land-type spaces) could be capitalized in order to map out a sustainable evolution direction which would conserve the authenticity, and offer alternative economic development anchored into the territorial reality.


The Relationship Tourism-Environment in the Romanian Danube Valley. Study of Case: Giurgiu – Calarasi Area
Madalina-Teodora Andrei

Abstract: The relationship tourism – environment is very dynamic and involves many changes on both sides. The tourism depends on the environment quality and landscapes that it offers. The environment offers the support, the unfolding frame for the tourist activity. This bi-univocal system determines the balance of relationship between the two elements: tourism and environment. The Giurgiu-Calarasi area is situated near from the Bucharest, and could be considered a nice and attractive touristic area. In the studied counties, in the localities along the river Danube, between Giurgiu and Calarasi there are different aspects of pollution, due to the unequal concentrations of polluters, as well as the different values exceeding the admitted actual norms The tourist activity influences very little the quality of water because the Danube area is not exploited in the true meaning of the tourist potential, and the Danube has a great capacity of self-cleaning, its waters falling in the 1st category of pollution. We cannot state that the degree of pollution does not influence the tourism. The degradation of the natural and anthropogenic environment leads to the decrease of the tourist value of the natural or anthropogenic landscapes, determining the decrease of the tourist interest for certain objectives, sometimes extremely valuable. The solution is to keep clean environment for a sustainable tourism.


Evolution and Impact of Migration Flows in Rural-Urban Fringe Areas. The Case of Romania
Liliana Guran-Nica, Cornelia Marin, Narcizia Todica-Stefan

Abstract: Human migration is one of the main phenomena that profoundly influenced the Romanian society and especially the rural areas, causing different advantages and disadvantages. This paper is the result of an analysis concerning the characteristics and evolutionary trends of the migratory movements, trying to reveal their causes. The research work was carried out at the local level (commune) and also at regional and national levels, aiming to discover the migration behaviour changes that took place in the last 20 years and their geographical distribution. All this information is a good scientific basis for future studies concerning the causes and the impact of the migrations on the rural Romanian communities.


The Tourism Activities of Romania in The Context of Sustainable Development Necessity
V. Gherasim, T. Toderas, T. Cracea, M. Costea, I. Raduly, S. Dombay

Abstract: Landscape diversity, plus the special value of the anthropic tourism potential, create for Romania a significant opportunity for development in the current and future global economic environment. The article attempts to outline a series of coordinates which currently runs the Romanian tourism industry and identify its future development directions, based on application of modern management principles. They must be consistent with local, regional and national characteristics, but to be correlated as well with international tourism trends.


Nanometric Leveling and Optical Selectivity Enhancement of Black Nickel Electrodeposited on C81100 High Conductive Copper
R. L. P. Teixeira, R. A. Simao, B. Coelho, A. C. Oliveira

Abstract: A black nickel solar absorber film with high absorptance in the solar spectrum (?) and low thermal emittance (?) was electrodeposited on nickel films produced by the Watts solution on nanometric leveled C81100 copper. This high conductivity C81100 copper substrate was nanometrically leveled by electrochemical polishing to minimize textural surface effects as well as light trapping and optical losses. The nanometric leveled black nickel layer presented a thickness of (2.9 ± 0.1) ?m and a selectivity (?/?) of 11, against a selectivity (?/?) of 8.9 for the non structured condition. The nanometric leveled black nickel presented a higher concentrated statistical dispersion of grain range size and lower nanometric RMS, a diameter deviation of 17 nm against 42 nm for the non structured condition. AFM and optical results confirmed that the nanometric size of black nickel grains and their grain size standard deviation are decisive factors to decrease the emittance and increase the final selectivity.


SEM Investigations Regarding Skin Micromorphology and Modification Induced by Bacterial Infections in Cyprinus Carpio and Salmo Trutta Fario
Irina Neta Gostin, Anca Narcisa Neagu, Vasile Vulpe

Abstract: The micromorphology of the epidermis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The external part is unilayered and the outer surface presents microridges ornamentations. The increased preoccupations in fish culture have increased the interest regarding with the bacteria that affect fish health, growth, and survival. In this study SEM was used for the characterization of the skin bacterial lesions and of modifications induced by them.


The Planning of the Periurban Parks: Frontier's Problems between Urbanized Areas and Natural Parks in Southern Italy
M. Lopreite, A. Scarpino

Abstract: Nature conservation in the world shows a diverse series of intervention, organized on multiple layers of protection and with different degrees of social impact, appears inconsistent and fragmented. This diversity is not only due to the levels of human permanence due to climatic conditions, but also the cultural approach of the individual country that in the way of life, have very marked peculiarities. In this sense in densely populated areas like the Mediterranean, which also combine urbanity with alternating split us cities small and fragmented, are the framework within which the park is a national environmental emergency often besieged, usually urgent in the institution and its fortification. Which is often not the case in the new continent because population densities are high but concentrated in large urban areas.In this situation the south of the Mediterranean regions of Europe offers an example of purity of nature next to the small an numerous villages and towns that mark its territory. This implies that within the entities mentioned, those of ordinary town and country are found in intermediate situations, not always identified in the conventional model of city's plan. The periurban parks, in this sense are oasis of integrity adjacent to densely populated areas, with which they are related to and which are interwoven and continuous exchanges of user flows. In the general situation of the south of Italy, with the presence of large national parks in the planning of such parks with over-regional extension, this show characters that go beyond the border of the park itself, and touch on the relationship between this and the surrounding area. Do not allow the two entities remain wary neighbors but can establish relations between them that can generate in the concerned territory some form of sustainable development, is the most immediate and urgent action should be prepared to ensure the survival of the populations settled in the parks, and those placed immediately out in a common framework of mutual existence on the background of virtuous processes of sustainable development. This related to the south of Italy is particularly compelling in view of the importance of the parks present there, and also considering that, as has been demonstrated, the induced economic over the years would bring a good policy in the parks in those regions would exceed benefits, so far as they did in the years that industrial policies have succeeded in the south of Italy.


Towards the Acknowledgment of the Urban-Rural Interface as a Spatial Category
Susana Freiria, Alexandre O. Tavares

Abstract: In recent decades we have been witnessing the end of the urban-rural dichotomy. It is no longer possible to talk only of urban planning and rural planning. A new spatial category has emerged – the urban-rural interface. In Portuguese law – Regulatory Decree no. 9/2009 of 29th May, which specifies the technical concepts for spatial and urban planning to be used in territorial management instruments - there is no reference to the urban-rural interface. The purpose of this work is to contribute towards recognition of the urban-rural interface as a spatial category. A model that allows for the mapping of urban-rural interfaces will be presented, followed by an analysis of the links between urban-rural interfaces and natural risk management. The model presented integrates not only social interaction but also biophysical characteristics. Urban-rural interfaces were found with different spatial signatures, requiring different strategies. The results indicate that urban occupation has not been planned to take the physical conditions of the land into account. Economic factors have become more important than biophysical conditions. There is a need to integrate social and biophysical characteristics into urban-rural interface management.


Integration of Landscape Reclamation and Design in a Mine Tailing in Cartagena-La Union, SE Spain
S. Kabas, J. A. Acosta, R. Zornoza, A. Faz Cano, D. M. Carmona, S. Martinez-Martinez

Abstract: Mine waste hills, in other words mine tailings, especially heavy metal accumulated ones are the subject of environmental problems and pending questions for local communities and administrations. In order to find a sustainable solution for the problems and gain these problematic areas back, new functions have to be brought out for them, but initially environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated. Traditional solutions used in mining areas such as excavation and backfilling works are not feasible and appropriate because of the high amount of pollutants and the big volume of polluted soil of mine tailings. Therefore some negative effects of former mining activities can be minimized by creating a native vegetation cover which can also serve in the process of metal immobilization, called phytostabilization. This study explores how an optimal landscape design can be developed for a mine tailing by considering the process of phytostabilization as a reclamation technique, and how reclamation efforts can be integrated in the landscape design by taking into account not only the scientific considerations and also cultural and human aspects.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 5, 2011)


Holistic Approach of Biomedical Waste Management System with Regard to Health and Environmental Risks
Nikos E. Mastorakis, Carmen A. Bulucea, Tatiana A. Oprea, Cornelia A. Bulucea, Philippe Dondon

Abstract: An important issue of environmental protection process is the solid waste management (SWM), that includes responsible planning of collecting, transporting, processing and disposing of hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste material. A special concern focuses on effective management of biomedical waste. This article highlights a holistic approach of biomedical waste management, with regards to the chain of environmental and health risks and concerns, aimed in achieving the fundamental premises for a systemic approach of biomedical waste management. An attempt has been made to critically review the current biomedical waste management practices followed by some Romanian hospitals. Following the rules and legislation of both Romania and European Union, the methods for segregation, packaging, labeling and the treatment techniques for reduction in volume, neutralization and final disposal of the biomedical waste are analyzed.


How Urban Noise Can Influence the Learning-Teaching Process. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation
Bruno Magalhaes, Ligia T. Silva

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of urban noise and noise generated inside the buildings of elementary schools and its influence on the performance of their students. The sample is consists of the school EB1/JI in Prozela and school EB1/JI in Currais. The first one is located near the International Airport Francisco Sa Carneiro and the other school is surrounded by an electrical substation, a mechanic workshop, and by a motorway A41, both in the municipality of Maia.


Determination of Carbon Sequestration Rate in Soil of a Mangrove Forest in Campeche, Mexico
Ceron-Breton, J.G., Ceron-Breton, R.M., Rangel-Marron, M., Muriel-Garcia, M., Cordova-Quiroz, A.V., Estrella-Cahuich, A.

Abstract: It was determined carbon sequestration rate, total nitrogen content and several important physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, gravimetric moisture, salinity, pH and soil texture) in mangrove forest soil located within the natural protected area named “Terminos Lagoon” in Carmen Island, Campeche-Mexico. Six sampling zones were considered within a mangrove forest located in the Botanical Garden of the Autonomous University of Carmen City. Samplings were carried out considering three climatic periods (“Norths” season, dry season and rainy season) during 2009. The electrical conductivity was within the range of 1.38 to 26.2 dS m-1 and the highest values were found during the rainy season when the study sites were flooded most of the time. The seasonal influence on carbon storage was evident (from 1.2 to 22.2 kg C / m-2), with the highest rate of carbon sequestration in the dry season, in flooded soils with greater predominance of red mangrove, and is lower in those soils rarely flooded with a higher prevalence of buttonwood mangrove individuals. The organic matter content and organic carbon was greater at 30 cm depth for flooded areas, where long periods of flood tides and low rates of decomposition maintain anoxic conditions. Due to soils are sandy in the study areas and have high pH values with red mangrove associations, we can suggests that they have a high potential for carbon sequestration and it could be increased in future years.


Transport of Heavy Metals across the Supported Phospholipid Bilayers
Tomas Navratil, Ivana Sestakova, Vladimir Marecek

Abstract: As it has been reported in many scientific as well as popular papers, TV, newspapers etc., practically all parts of environment (air, waters, and soils, plants, animals, etc.) have been in increased levels contaminated with various metals, inorganic or organic compounds and species. This effect can be explained as result of human activities in many cases. In combination with pollutions brought about by natural events (volcano eruptions, forest fires, etc.), the human being is fundamentally affected in this respect. To start their negative (or positive) role in plants or in human body, the elements, the compounds and the other species, which are present in polluted environment, must be transported into these organisms, more precisely, into their cells. In other words, each pollution particle, which takes part further in metabolic processes, must be transported across the cell membranes. Similar processes are realized in the opposite way – out of the cells as well as in and out of any sub cellular structure. Detail elucidation of transport mechanisms is prerequisite for understanding of distribution of pollutants in real cells of more complex organisms (leaves, roots or the whole plants, animals or men) and for their possible control in the future. Because the real bio-membranes and the transporting processes realized across them are very complicated, the model membranes have been used for elucidation of the basic transporting steps. This article deals with simulation, characterization, description, and elucidation of the above mentioned transport processes on the example of some heavy (hazardous) metals, i.e., of cadmium and of lead. Because cations of these metals do not exist only as separate ions, it is necessary to take into account their existence in complexes. Therefore the attention was paid to their complexes with low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and their transporting processes. This contribution summarizes the results achieved using supported phospholipid model membranes. The ion channels, which are responsible for transport of some particles across the cell membranes, were replaced in the reported experiments by ionophores (valinomycin and calcimycin). The tested membranes and processes were characterized using electrochemical methods (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic stripping voltammetry, conductometry, etc.) and optical spectroscopy. This manuscript presents new knowledge in this field, first part of which was presented one year ago at this conference.


Assessment of Cadmium and Lead Mobility in the Rhizosphere using Voltammetry and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy
Ivana Sestakova, Jana Jaklova Dytrtova, Michal Jakl, Tomas Navratil

Abstract: Phytoremediation belongs to relatively modern and frequently used methods of possible treatment of environmental problems (mainly caused by human activities). It consists in mitigating pollutant concentrations in contaminated soils with plants, which are able to accumulate or eliminate metals and various other contaminants. Nevertheless, the fundamental principles of this technique, i.e., transport of pollutants from soils into the plant cells have not been elucidated. These processes can be studied using model solutions of cadmium, lead and oxalic acid and the conditions in the rhizosphere can be studied within the artificially prepared phospholipid bilayer membrane on polycarbonate support. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to monitor the formation and stability of phospholipid membrane, whereas voltammetric methods can detect species, which are transferred across the membrane.


The Influence of Urban Form in Urban Noise Propagation
Marta F. Oliveira, Ligia T. Silva

Abstract: The urban form affects directly the natural habitats, ecosystems and the different species. Indirectly the urban form influences the behavior of the trajectory, which in turn affects the air quality, the global climate and of course the noise propagation. This paper seeks to address the problems of the urban environment as an area of interaction between urban forms and urban noise. This interaction is intended to be monitored by urban indicators, comparing the effects of noise propagation in model of urban forms. The model of noise prediction (NMPB96), allowed to develop studies about noise in facades (Ld, level of noise during the day), resulting in colors associated to noise categories. The study will allow the creation of different scenarios and foresee still in the draft fase, the facades exposed to a higher noise level. The effects of noise in facades can be then minimized in advance, by adjusting the layout of their typology.


The Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Sources Deployment in the Czech Republic with the Support of Balanced Scorecard
Ticiano Costa Jordao, Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras Sampedro, Estefania Rodriguez Gonzalez, Robert Bata

Abstract: As part of the EU common energy policy adopted in 2007, the Czech Republic has established a commitment to achieve an 8% share of electricity generated from renewable energy sources (RES) in domestic electricity generation by 2010 and achieve a share of 13% of energy made from RES per final consumption before 2020. This contribution suggests a balanced scorecard (BSC) model aimed to set up a group of strategic objectives, initiatives, key performance indicators (KPIs) and targets that can be adopted in the Czech Republic in order to foster a sustainable deployment of renewable energy technologies. The model provides a strategy map showing four perspectives over which the objectives are organized and aligned through a cause-effect relation: Learning and Development, Energy Supply Systems, Energy Services Consumers, and Welfare.


Olfactory Comfort Assurance in Enclosed Spaces
Ioan Sarbu, Calin Sebarchievici

Abstract: That is why the closed spaces must insure the possibility for both physical and intellectual work, as well as for some recreation activities, for rest and sleep under most favourable conditions. The achievement of these conditions depends on very many factors that decisively influence the sensation of comfort perceived, the work capacity and man’s regeneration capacity. This paper approaches the indoor air quality simulation and control. It is developed a computational model for indoor air quality numerical simulation, as well a methodology to determine the outside airflow rate and to verify the indoor air quality in enclosed spaces, according to the European Standard CEN 1752. On the bases of this mathematical model there was elaborated the COMFORT 2.0 computer program, implemented on compatible microsystems IBM-PC. The COMFORT 2.0 program computes the outside airflow rate for a room ventilation, the air exchanges rate, and the variation in time of contaminants concentration of room air according to European and national norms and analyses influence of different parametres on these sizes. The performance of the developed computational model and the advantages of the proposed computer program is illustrated by using a numerical comparative application for one constructive type building.


Thermal Tests on Borehole Heat Exchangers for Ground–coupled Heat Pump Systems
Ioan Sarbu, Horia Bura

Abstract: The mechanical vapor compression heat pumps are modern systems, recently used as an alternative to the thermal fossil fuel stations. The incorrect determination of the vaporization thermal power needed for the ground–coupled heat pumps with vertical closed–loops leads to unfavorable effects for this systems: under– sizing the catching system used for the vaporization of the refrigerant determines the reduction of heat pump nominal thermal power; over–sizing catching system leads to additional investments that puts under discussion the opportunity of using such systems. Therefore is very important to know the thermal conductivity of the soil and the thermal resistance of the vertical ground loop for establish the right number of loops to be realized, depending on energy to be transfered to the heat pump. For this purpose is needed to be made a ground thermal response test, using a prove borehole. In this paper is presented a working methodology and is developed an analytical model for evaluation of the soil thermal conductivity and the borehole thermal resistance, based on which can be calculated the vaporization thermal power that has to be assured from the ground and also the length of the vertical loops. Also, this paper presents an equivalent–time method to remove the effects of the interruption and estimate soil thermal conductivity, along with borehole resistance.


Perspectives for Biobutanol Blends used in Small Scale Cogeneration Plants
N. Lontis, T. Gavrila Tordai, I. Ionel, F. Popescu

Abstract: Reducing the fossil fuel consumption is the major debate of nowadays governments. Each liter, gallon or tone of fossil fuel is worth saving. Less fossil fuel used in the industry transfers to less pollution impact on the environment. One way to produce energy and save fossil fuel consumption is cogeneration with reciprocating internal combustion engine. The most efficient reciprocating internal combustion engine in converting fossil fuel into energy is the diesel engine. One major advantage of the diesel engine is that it can be operated with other unconventional fuels, based on oleaginous plants. Another aspect that must be highlighted is that, the diesel engine can operate with blends of conventional fuel and bio fuels. The paper’s approach is cogeneration with biofuel, thus highlighting even more the benefits of the solution proposed in reducing fossil fuel consumption. The biofuel used to operate the internal combustion engine is made by a blend of biobutanol and diesel in volume parts. Studies regarding the efficiency, environmental pollution.


Experimental Approach for Biogas Production from Biowaste
Adrian Eugen Cioabla, Ioana Ionel, Gavrila Trif-Tordai

Abstract: Biomass represents one of the most important sources of clean energy which can be used in order to obtain, using different technologies, unconventional fuels which can replace, partially or totally, the existing fossil fuels that are used today. Connected with the existing status and importance for biomass, in the paper are underlined aspects regarding the usage of different types of material (degraded cereals, peelings, etc.) for obtaining biogas using the anaerobic fermentation process. The paper highlights also the general presentation for a pilot installation and a small-scale installation, both intended to be used for the further analysis of the characteristics for the presented materials.


Direct Measurements an Numerical Simulations Issues in Airport Air Quality
Francisc Popescu, Ioana Ionel, Livio Belegante, Nicolae Lontis, Viorica Cebrucean

Abstract: The paper highlights how numerical simulations applied as pollution dispersion modeling in airport areas is a reliable solution in solving complex problems concerning air quality situations and status of strategies or perspectives for sustainable urban development where traffic areas can be included. The article reveals a methodology used to evaluate the concentration of major pollutant species within an international airport environment, using mathematical analysis, and informs about the validation possibilities of the results and tool by direct measurements. The software tool ISC3View used in this scientific paper has a global acceptance and approval by all the scientific community in the matter of air quality. The software was developed in the United States by the Environmental Agency. In the article, a case study is presented for the International Airport from Timisoara, consisting from different representative episodes of several days in the year 2008 and 2009. The study is making a short introduction of the general air pollution issues and the fleet functioning as emission factors.


Cellular Automata Applications for Renewable Energy Monitoring
P. L. Milea, M. Teodorescu, R. Muller, M. Dragulinescu, O. Oltu, G. Tiplea, G. Stefan, S. Pompilian

Abstract: The cellular automata model is a very usefull tool for various artificial intelligence applications, especially those with an important statistical behaviour. The cellular automata have proven to be dynamic systems with a very vast phenomenology and in same time a extremely elegant mathematical model that allows the modeling of apparent complex real processes. The paper presents the characteristics and advantages of the cellular automata model and, also, the principles of two applications of an artificial intelligence model, the cellular automata, in the field of renewable energy resources & consumption monitoring, for development purposes of power facilities in a distributed generation area. This activity implies to wireless monitor a set of energy sensors, which can offer real time information about primary energy potential, generated and consumed power for the case of hydro, wind and solar energy distributed low-power generators. The sensors stations are periodically sending data to a data center, which stores and process it. This communication period, as well as some sensors parameters can be wireless configured from the center. To avoid measurements or configuration data to be corrupted by an intruder, we designed an encryption algorithm based on cellular automata, which comprises a dynamic key encryption generator. The received data is also processed using a cellular automata prediction algorithm, in order to obtain useful data about generated and consumed power trends. The applications with cellular automata can be hardware implemented using hardware devices or circuits which permit such a level of parallelization, like the FPGAs. For research purposes, we evaluated the reliability and performances of these applications and tested a complex implementation using a top level FPGA development board.


Developing a Business Plan for Bio-Energy Companies
Pasi Ojala

Abstract: Business plan is important tool for managing any business. This is due to the fact that it form up a basis for the business as well as discusses how important challenges should be solved. To be successful it needs to take into account several different business factors and finally all these factors need to be presented in written format and in synchrony. Rather often also third parties like financing institutions are interested in of the business plans as they form a solid basis for making funding decisions. This paper discusses about the business as concept and outlines the importance of a business plan for an entrepreneur. After motivating entrepreneurs for making a business plan, this paper discusses about the content of it and links it into the daily management of a company. Especial emphasis in the discussion is in giving writing instructions for entrepreneurs having an interest for writing a business plan. As all business plans need to be usable in practice, this paper discusses also about the characteristics of bio-energy business where the proposed plan is tested in practice. Industrial experiences from the bio-energy seminar show that proposed business plan is seen usable in bio-energy companies. They also show that designed writing instructions given step by step are helping in the writing work. As a whole proposed business plan serves bio-energy entrepreneurs and financing institutions as an action plan, road map and sales tool and also informs customers about the bio-energy company’s ways of working. The theoretical discussion in this paper has been written using a constructive research method. Therefore the theoretical part of this paper constructs a new reality by using results which in part have been presented before and have proven to be usable. The industrial experience part of this paper is a case study. The case study method has been seen usable as it gives rich qualitative understanding to the phenomena examined. As well when presented in chronologically proceeding style gives a logical outlook to the seminar kept in real life.


Numerical Modelling of Two Dimensional Heat Transfer in Steady State Regime
Ioan Sarbu

Abstract: Solving the differential equation of heat conduction the temperature in each point of the body can be determined. However, in the case of bodies with boundary surface of sophisticated geometry no analytical method can be used. In this case the use of numerical methods becomes necessary. The finite element method is based on the integral equation of the heat conduction. This is obtained from the differential equation using variational calculus. The temperature values will be calculated on the finite elements. Then, based on these partial solutions, the solution for the entire volume will be determined. Using this method we can divide into elements also fields with any border. Also, numerical modelling with boundary elements is used for analysis of heat conduction. In this paper are developed basic ideas of numerical analysis with finite elements and boundary (constant) elements of conductive thermal fields generated or induced into solid body in steady state regime. The temperature distribution in some solid bodies and in pipe insulation is analyzed using analytical method and finite element and boundary element methods, implemented in two computer programs developed by the author. This shows the good performance of the proposed numerical models.


Correlations for Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer on Modified Surfaces Tubes
Ioan Sarbu, Emilian Stefan Valea

Abstract: The paper treats the method of decreasing the size of surfaces of heat exchangers in general by increasing the heat transfer coefficients, the importance of heat transfer enhancement in general and for vaporization in special, also the used methods. This increase is achieved in our case by passive methods applied to heat transfer surfaces, namely mechanical processing, covering with sle-eves made by metallic tissues or covering with metallic porous layers, made using welding methods. These tube surfaces are used for increasing heat transfer coefficients from inner heating source to outer vaporizing liquids. Are mentioned also the most important particularities for vaporizing enhanced heat transfer from metallic porous layers. Results for tests made with improved heated surfaces, comparison between different surfaces are presented after personal research. Are proposed specific heat transfer correlations and results obtained with it compared with other researchers’ results. Are described the way of establish and the correlations that could be used in the work of design for heat exchangers which are to be made from tubes having the described and used types of surfaces.


Nodal Analysis of Looped Water Supply Networks
Ioan Sarbu, Emilian Stefan Valea

Abstract: There are three methods for analyzing flow and pressure distribution in looped water supply networks (the loop method, the node method, the element method) taking into consideration hydraulic parameters chosen as unknown. For all these methods, the nonlinear system of equations can be solved by iterative procedures (Hardy–Cross, Newton–Raphson, linear theory). In the case of extending or rehability distribution networks the unknown parameters being the piezometric heads at nodes, the node method for network analysis is prefered. In this paper is formulated a generalized classic model for the nodal analysis of complex looped systems with nonstandard network components and the solvability of new problems, alongside the determination of pressure state in the system. Also, this paper shows a different approach to this problem by using the method of variational formulations for the development of an improved model based on the unconditional optimization procedures. This mo-del has the advantage that it uses a specialized optimization algorithm which minimizes directly an objective multivariable function without constraints, implemented in a computer program. The paper com-pares proposed models to the classic Hardy–Cross method, and shows the good performance of these models. Based on these models a study regarding implications of pipe network longtime operation on energy consumption is performed.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 5, 2011)


Safety and Environmental Risk and Reliability Model for Inland Waterway Collision Accident Frequency
O. O. Sulaiman, A. H. Saharuddin, A. S. A. Kader, A. R. N. Laily

Abstract: Marine vessel collisions cover the largest part of accidents scenario in waterways. Waterways accidents expose vessel owners and operators, as well as the public to risk. They attract possibility of losses such as vessel cargo damage, injuries, loss of life, environmental damage, and obstruction of waterways. Collision risk is a product of the probability of the physical event its occurrence as well as losses of various nature including economic losses. Environmental problem and need for system reliability call for innovative methods and tools to assess and analyze extreme operational, accidental and catastrophic scenarios as well as accounting for the human element, and integrate these into a design environments part of design objectives. This paper discusses modeling of waterways collision risk frequency in waterways. The analysis consider mainly the waterways dimensions and other related variables of risk factors like operator skill, vessel characteristics, traffic characteristics, topographic, environmental difficulty of the transit, and quality of operator's information in transit which are required for decision support related to efficient, reliable and sustainable waterways developments. The probability per year predicted is considered acceptable in maritime and offshore industry, but for a channel using less number of expected traffic, it could be considered high. Providing safety facilities like traffic separation, vessel traffic management could restore maximize sustainable use of the channel.


Some Synoptic Aspects of Electric Technical Applications as a Confluence of Industrial and Natural Ecosystems
Cornelia A. Bulucea, Doru A. Nicola, Nikos E. Mastorakis, Marc A. Rosen

Abstract: Although science has not clarified the relations between and unified technical and ecological viewpoints, a set of conditions for the performance of sustainable electrical systems needs to be formulated. The work reported here aims to enhance the paradigm and thinking that human activities cannot be separated from the functioning of the entire system on Earth. Learning from nature means to accept that the technical systems and processes involving energy conversion and matter transformation need to be linked to environment engineering. This paper adopts a dualist view, incorporating technical and environmental dimensions, to describe the applicability of exergy to electrical ecosystems. Industrial ecology permits an alternate view of human applications, related both to technical and environmental reference systems.


Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mangrove Forest at Three Estuarine Sites in Campeche, Mexico
R. M. Ceron-Breton, J. G. Ceron-Breton, R. C. Sanchez-Junco, D. L. Damian-Hernandez, J. J. Guerra-Santos, M. Muriel-Garcia, A. V. Cordova-Quiroz

Abstract: This study assesses the carbon storage rate in mangrove forest soils located within the Natural protected are named “Terminos Lagoon” in Atasta Peninsula, Campeche-Mexico. Twelve sampling areas were considered within mangrove forests located in Nuevo Campechito, Puerto Rico y Xicalango, respectively, in Atasta peninsula. Samplings were carried out from February to August during 2009 and 2010 at 30 and 60 cm depth during three different climatic periods (“Norths” season, dry season and rainy season). Seasonal variations in the different physico-chemical parameters analyzed were: CE (4-14.8 dS/m), pH (6.5-8.2), Nitrogen (0.05-0.27%), Carbon (1.5-9%), C:N (33.0-44.0), C.A (59-190 Kg C m-2) and soil granulometric classification: Sand (29-71%), Silt (5-30%), and Clay (22-41%). The carbon storage was high and influenced by type of vegetation. Soil with associations of red and black mangrove speies showed the largest carbon storage (350 Kg C m-2 ) while the lowest carbon storage was found in buttonwood mangrove (45 Kg C m-2). The ratio C/N showed a low degradation rate of organic matter in all sampling sites studied. The obtained results in the studied ecosystem are the first estimates of carbon storage in the zone, and suggest the potential of this site as a carbon pool.


The Environmental Effect of Mine
Soheila Khoshnevis Yazdi, Bahram Shakouri

Abstract: With all of the news reports of global warming and other environmental troubles facing society today, one might wonder if mineral science has any role to play in solving these problems. It certainly does! Traditionally, the major application of minerals and mineral science has been in the understanding of how rocks form (petrogenesis) and behave. This is essentially the study of the solid part of the earth, or petrology. Environmental mineralogy is by no means new, but it is certainly seeing an impressive rise in scope and activity. Monographs review the immense literature and diverse applications of environmental mineralogy. Recently, the Mineralogist published special “green” issues that focus on environmental mineralogy. The important role of minerals in many interesting environmental problems makes today a very exciting time for mineralogy .Environmental mineralogical topics as the effects of minerals on human health, minerals that form in surficial acidic environments, and microbe–mineral interactions. Mineral resources are an important source of wealth for a nation but before they are harnessed, they have to pass through the stages of exploration, mining and processing. Different types of environmental damage and hazards inevitably accompany the three stages of mineral development. The negative effect on the environment of the activities involved in harnessing the minerals. An attempt will also be made to examine the possible precautions and remedies that can be applied in order to mitigate the effect of adverse environmental impact of mining activities. Clearly, the major goal of this special issue is to highlight some of the important research that is occurring in the new, multidisciplinary field of environmental mineralogy. Another goal is to reveal to the members and officers of the mineralogical societies an indication of the range of mineralogical research that can be considered pertinent to the environmental sciences. Lastly, the society officers and the journal editors want to encourage the submission of more manuscripts on this challenging topic. Environmental mineralogy is by no means new, but it is certainly seeing an impressive rise in scope and activity. One indication of this is the number of recent books and monographs that review the immense literature and diverse applications of environmental mineralogy. The sidebar lists numerous examples of such review volumes.


Heavy Metals Trace Element Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry in Eaf Dust
Cristiana-Zizi Rizescu, Zorica Bacinschi, Elena Valentina Stoian, Aurora Anca Poinescu, Dan Nicolae Ungureanu, Cristi Petre Fluieraru

Abstract: Analysis of heavy metals from dust electrofilter by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is an elemental analysis technique with broad application in science and industry. XRF is based on the principle that individual atoms, when excited by an external energy source, emit X-ray photons of a characteristic energy or wavelength. By counting the number of photons of each energy emitted from a sample, the elements present may be identified and quantitated. EAF dust represents one of the most hazardous, since it contains heavy metals such as Zn, Fe, Cr, Cd and Pb. The goal of the present work is to characterise the waste through chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy ( XRF). Modern XRF instruments are capable of analyzing solid, liquid, and thin-film samples for both major and trace (ppm-level) components. The analysis is rapid and usually sample preparation is minimal. Axios-Metals performs even the most demanding XRF applications; from high-precision metals analysis to accurate trace element determination. Sensitive, reproducible and stable, it provides consistent high quality data across the full elemental range, from fluorine to uranium and from ppm to 100 wt%. XRF instruments are valuable tools here, from measuring traces for environmental reasons to the analysis of heavy metals in dust electrofilter to ensure environmental control. Elemental analysis using XRF is well established in the metals industry. Now, PANalytical's Axios-Metals wavelength-dispersive XRF spectrometer provides a powerful analytical solution, specifically for the steel and metals sectors.


Comparative Assessment of Development Risks in Lignite Basins of Danube Region in Serbia
Slavka Zekovic, Tamara Maricic

Abstract: The paper identifies the global factors of development risks in the lignite basins of the Danube region in Serbia, whose effects are enhanced due to the global economic crisis. Paper presents comparative assessment of development risks in the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins, by application of the comprehensive development framework approach, SSIA (Strategic Spatial Impact Assessment) and Spyder method. Increasing risks and dynamics of market and regulatory changes (especially acceptance of the Kyoto Protocol and other mechanisms), as well as the renewal of interest in the recovery of coal sector indicates an increasing pressure on the transformation of the mining and thermo-energy sector: structural, property-management, socio-economic, technical, institutional, environmental and territorial aspects. Paper argues that management of development risks in basins has an essential role in increasing competitiveness and sustainable development of the Danube region in Serbia.


Catalytic Pyrolysis of Xylan-Based Hemicellulose over Zeolites
Xiujuan Guo, Shurong Wang, Yan Zhou, Zhongyang Luo

Abstract: Xylan, poly (β-D-xylopyranose [1>4]) extracted from the beechwood, was selected as the model compound of hemicellulose to investigate its thermal behavior over zeolites by using the thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR), and an analytical pyrolyzer coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The chemical structure of xylan and characterization of catalysts were first studied. All the three catalysts, HZSM-5, H-β and USY, had obvious influence on deoxygenation and fragmentation reactions during xylan pyrolysis. The dehydration in the initial stage was enhanced and the char formation was suppressed. USY had the best effect on dehydration with the consumption of oxygenated compounds, such as acids and furans. The presence of HZSM-5 and H-β catalyzed the formation of water, CO2 and alkanes, with the degradation of char residues.


Ferrous Waste Processing by Pelletizing, Briquetting and Mechanically Mixed
Ana Socalici, Teodor Heput, Erika Ardelean, Marius Ardelean

Abstract: Industrial processes in steel making, energetic and mining are highly polluting. Steel making and energetic machinery release large quantities of gas and dust, the latter being retained by modern purification installations. As to the small size and powdery wastes resulting from the technological fluxes of the industrial branches mentioned above, this paper had as a main target to reduce pollution in industrial areas and to turn to good account the wastes containing iron, carbon and basic oxides, by their recycling in the steel making industry and, finally, to return the areas occupied at present by slag dumps or ponds to the natural environment. From the point of view of their chemical composition and granulometry, waste recycling proved profitable technologically, economically and ecologically.


Assessing the Impact of Water Efficiency in Energy Efficiency and Reducing Ghg Emissions: A Case Study
A. Silva-Afonso, F. Rodrigues, C. Pimentel-Rodrigues

Abstract: Nowadays humanity uses about 50% of existing drinking-water, but in the next 15 years this percentage will reach 75%. Consequently, hydric stress risk will rise significantly across the entire planet. Accordingly, several countries will have to apply efficient hydric measures in the water-supply sector, including at the building level. These measures, in addition to reducing water consumption, will contribute towards increasing energy efficiency and decreasing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially CO2 emissions. This paper is focused on the study of a region in the center of Portugal (Aveiro). Its aim is to assess the impact of the implementation of efficient devices in buildings in the urban water cycle, as well as improving energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions.


Visual and Environmental Quality Perception and Preference in the People's Republic of China, France, and Portugal
Fei Mo, Gaelle Le Cleach, Marjorie Sales, Gina Deyoung, Jon Bryan Burley

Abstract: Planners, designers, environmental specialists, governmental agencies, non-profit environmental organizations, and citizens are interested in scientifically based tools to assist in the study of the landscape. In this investigation, we present a science based visual and environmental quality predictive model useful in understanding and assessing landscape treatments of the contemporary Chinese, French, and Portuguese populations. We developed respondent based equations of visual and environmental quality preference that explain between 20 and 40 percent of respondent preference, with an overall p-value for the equation <0.0001 and a p-value < 0.05 for each regressor. Regressors employed in the equation include an environmental quality index, foreground vegetation, area of vehicles, area of water, and area of humans in an image. The French and Portuguese have similar perceptions but in many respects the Chinese response is quite different than equations that explain Western landscape preference where the equations can predict much more of the variance. The study suggests that Chinese landscape perception may be quite different than Western perception. In addition, more thought may be required to develop predictors of both Chinese and European preference.


The Strategy of European Union Regarding Climate Change
Iuliana Pop, Madalina-Teodora Andrei, Charlotte-Valentine Ene, Radita Alexe, Florin Vartolomei, Petronela-Sonia Nedea

Abstract: Global warming is a global problem and only global action can be effective. A post-2012 global agreement is needed between all major polluters after the Kyoto Protocol expires. A global agreement is necessary for the business community in terms of investments and technological innovations. The EU should make clear its continuing commitment to winning the battle against global climate change and to honouring its existing commitments. The EU should show its determination to take on deeper and longer term reductions in its greenhouse gas emissions in the context of an international agreement on a future strategy post-2012 which will deliver global reductions commensurate with the 2°C target. The EU will continue to play a leading role in the multilateral approach to climate change, but wider participation on the basis of common but differentiated responsibilities is urgently required. Moreover, policies to tackle climate change must be consistent with and contribute towards other important objectives (e.g. poverty reduction), accommodating the rather diverse conditions of current and future major emitters.


A New Algorithm for Smart Grid Protection based on Synchronized Sampling
Francesco Muzi, Antonio De Sanctis, Pasquale Palumbo

Abstract: Conventional distribution systems are usually radially operated, supplied at one end through a main source. The presence of a massive Distributed Generation (DG) from renewable sources radically changes the radial operation of these systems. Indeed, from passive the network becomes active, and bidirectional power flows can appear in the distribution system, which causes a number of problems related both to normal and fault conditions. In this paper, a new protection procedure is proposed, based on distance protection concepts and synchronization of the voltage and current samples coming from the two terminals of the faulted MV line segment. The fault identification algorithm suitably exploits the model equations of the lumped parameter circuit by applying the Recursive Least Square approach. A thorough set of simulations are carried out in order to validate the proposed algorithm, which is able to estimate the fault distance with good performances and great speed, even in case of high distortion of the acquired voltage and current waveforms. Moreover, the algorithm provides a very good estimate of the fault resistance, which means it works correctly also whenever high fault resistances appear in the distribution systems herein examined.


Numerical Simulation of Convective Airflow in an Empty Room
Kana Horikiri, Yufeng Yao, Jun Yao

Abstract: Numerical simulation of airflow inside an empty room has been carried out for a forced convection, a natural convection and a mixed convection respectively, by using a computational fluid dynamics approach of solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes fluid equations. Two-dimensional model was studied at first; focusing on the grid refinement, the mesh topology effect, and turbulence model influences. It was found that structured mesh results are in better agreement with available experimental measurements for all three scenarios. Further study using a three-dimensional model has shown very good agreements with test data at measuring points. Furthermore, present studies have revealed low-frequency flow unsteadiness by monitoring the time history of flow variables at measuring positions. This phenomenon has not yet reported and discussed in previous studies.


Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Al Jahra Governorate, for 2008
Raslan Alenezi, Aamir Ashfaque

Abstract: Air pollution is considered to be the one of the most vital problem to all kinds of life. Air pollutants have no borders and can severely influence life on the planet earth. This work analyzes the air pollution yearlong hourly mean continuous data from one of the monitoring station located at the top of polyclinic in Al-Jahra city in the State of Kuwait. The measurements cover major pollutants such as carbon monoxide, methane, particulate matters (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Furthermore the study also includes meteorological parameters, solar intensity, temperature, and wind speed and wind direction. The seasonal variation for the year of 2008 is investigated (winter, spring, summer and autumn) for these pollutants. The study show daily averages and hourly maximum concentrations for each season of year 2008. The impacts of the diurnal variation of these pollutants and overall ambient air quality of this urban area in different season have been presented in detail. The road traffic was confirmed from the results as a major source of air pollution in the Al-Jahra area.


Sustainable use of Energy in the Storage of Halophytes Used for Food
Custodia Gago, Ana R. Sousa, Miriam Juliao, Graca Miguel, Dulce C. Antunes, Thomas Panagopoulos

Abstract: Soil salinity has become an important issue in agriculture. Water and soil salinity adversely affects the growth and the yield of most crop plants, which are highly salt-sensitive. The idea of grow special crops using saline soil and brackish or saltwater for irrigation can bring high areas into human or animal food production. It has been recognized the potential of some halophytes for desalinization of soils or use in salty soils and also its use as food crops. Some of them are consumed today in Europe as fresh or cooked gourmet foods. For consumption as fresh food those plants, which are highly perishable, need refrigeration from harvest till they reach consumers. Refrigeration needs energy consumption with consequent economical cost and damage for the environment. The objective of this work was to use efficiently the energy for preserving the quality of the halophytes Salicornia ramosissima and Sarcocornia perennis used for fresh salads. Fresh branch tips were stored at 1, 4 and 9?C for up to 21 days. In both species, fresh tips were of good consumer acceptability for up to 14 days at 9?C. At 1 and 4?C fresh tips could be stored in good conditions up to 21 days. It is concluded from this work that both Salicornia ramosissima and Sarcocornia perennis are suitable for consumption as fresh, in salads, replacing the salt. For energy saving, if they are to be in the market for up to 7 days, they can be stored in the higher temperature 9?C with good quality. For longer storage periods temperatures of 4 and 1?C shall be used.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 5, Volume 5, 2011)


The Paradox of the Certification Process: Knowledge Management Approach to Sustainable Development of Mass Social Events
Veronika Jasikova, Vladimir Bures

Abstract: Currently, the sustainable development represents a topical issue. Tourism is not the exception and the initiatives of sustainable development of tourism have been noticeable within last few years. This phenomenon might be exemplified by the mass event arrangement. The certification process assists the organizers of events such as conferences, sport events, cultural events, festivals or various trade shows since it helps to ensure their sustainability. The sustainability grounds in monitoring of economic, environmental, and social objectives. However, the analysis of selected certifications revealed that most of them do not promote the social aims. This fact might result in various problems such as regional disparities. Therefore, their aim is not the achievement of sustainability, but only of the “greenness” of the organized event. Nevertheless, the certification might be perceived as a source of knowledge which does not necessitate to be shared using the formal certification process. The employment of the knowledge management principles and related tools and methods during the event arrangement enables the utilization of such knowledge and provides their sustainability achievement. The parameter setting of particular certification processes might paradoxically lead into the non-certification ensuring higher level of sustainability and simultaneously also the elimination of regional disparities.


Different Approach to Thermal Modeling of Transformers - A Comparison of Methods
Vlado Madzarevic, Izudin Kapetanovic, Majda Tesanovic, Mensur Kasumovic

Abstract: This paper presents a thermal models to simulate a thermal behaviour of different type of transformers. Heat disipated is always problem in transformers, esspecialy in large power transformers. Coupled physical and mathematical models would assist in the development of a system that was both accurate and simple to implement. Material proporties, the geometry of the model, heat transfer coefficients for each surfaces are introduced as the input values. For the accurate results of the temperature distributions, the exact values of heat transfer coefficients are required. However this can be managed by solving the flow field equation by using any means, i.e. numerical methods, analytical methods. The performances of the models are compared to the analytically determined performance of transformer or to the experimentally determined performance of transformer and the results obtained are in a good enough agreement with open literature. The thermal models based on finite element analysis are shown to be more accurate then the model based on equivalent electrical circuit. Finite element software, as CAD tool or other application modes for fundamental physics provide several benefits: reduction of the costs for designing a new device, reduction of number of prototype, reduction of price, simplification of the manufacturing process, increase technical performance.


The Silent Language of Artistic Representations in Landscape: Alentejo (Portugal), Yellowstone (USA) and Kaifeng (P. R. of China)
Fabienne Jeanne Joliet, Wes Landon, Yu Wang, Jon Bryan Burley

Abstract: Investigators are interested in the interdisciplinary relationships and interactions between professions and how these knowledge bases influence each another. Such interaction has occurred between landscape painting and landscape architectural planning and design. The representation of landscapes by artists has assisted in the management of the landscape. In our study, we present three examples: the Alentejo area of Portugal painted by a variety of landscape painters, the Yellowstone area of the United States of America painted by Thomas Moran, and Millennimu City Park in Kaifeng, China featuring a setting recreating a Song Dynasty painting by Zhang Zeduan. The analysis of the Alentejo is examined through structural elements of the painting, revealing the essential perceived composition and characterization of the landscape. The story of the Yellowstone paintings is presented as color documentation of landscape images for the American federal government and aesthetic evaluation during an era when color photography did not yet exist. The results suggest the perception of the Alentejo is comprised of a hilly oak savanna of green and brown, fenceless, with a building or two on the horizon. This landscape character is now appreciated, preserved, and managed in part by various governmental agencies and NGOs. The Yellowstone region is a surreal environment composed of unusual colors, landscape formations, geysers, and hot-springs, where the watercolor paintings contributed to the federal formation of an iconic national park. The historic scroll painting by Zhang Zeduan is 17 feet long depicting life in the Northern Song Dynasty capital during the riverside festival. The Millennium City Park, celebrates the images from this painting. Paintings from each of these areas throughout the world have influence current day landscape practices and artifacts.


Ventilating with Room Units in Educational Institutions
Allan Hani, Teet-Andrus Koiv, Alo Mikola

Abstract: In current article the results of the research about indoor climate in educational institutions are presented. The study is mostly concentrated on the research of different ventilation systems and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. CO2 is one of the most important indicators about air quality in buildings. The correlation between air change rate and CO2 levels in certain rooms is already well proven fact. European Standard EN-15251 about indoor climate conditions requirements gives the basis for new and renovated buildings. The renovation process in reality can either improve or deteriorate the indoor climate. The success lays in the renovation measures used. Demand based ventilation gives better energy conservation possibilities. Therefore, room based ventilation solutions are studied. The research results show carbon dioxide levels in educational institutions with different ventilation systems.


Possibilities of Producing Energy from Renewable Sources in Rosia Career
Luminita Georgeta Popescu, Adrian Gorun, Cristinel Racoceanu, Cristinel Popescu

Abstract: This paper presents the possibility to produce energy from renewable sources in Rosia career. Rosia career is the biggest surface mining of lignite from the mining basin of Oltenia. In this career monthly are evacuated very big quantities of water through some specific works and equipments. Those quantities have values approximately constant of about 1.250.000 m3 /month. Considering those big quantities of water discharged, the problem is to use them, through not very complicated hydraulic improvements, in order to produce energy from renewable sources. Another reason to responde to this challenge is the Law no. 139/2010 regarding to modify and complete the Law no. 220/2008 for the establishment the system of promoting the production of energy from renewable energy sources, according to that, for every 1 MWh produced and delivered, in hydroelectric plant with installed powers of at most 10 MW new, the producer receives 3 green certificates. A green certificate is a document which shows a quantity of 1MWh of electricity produced by renewable sources of energy (the minimum value of a certificate is 27 EUR, and the maximum value is 55 EUR).


Polysulfone-C60 and Polysulfone-Magnetic Particles Composite Membranes for Decontamination Techniques
Aurelia Cristina Nechifor, Sergiu Sava, Stefan Ioan Voicu, Gheorghe Nechifor

Abstract: New polysulfone composite membranes (with fullerenes respectively functionalized magnetic particles) are presented in this paper with uses for pervaporation of volatile amino compounds and for removal of lead and mercury from aqueous solutions. The membranes were obtained by phase inversion technique and were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Thermal Analysis. The membranes exhibits good performances in the tested processes and showed that are suitable for these applications.


GIS Application with a Geospatial Database for Improving the Waste Management in Sibiu Surrouding Area
S. Borza, C. Simion, I. Bandrea

Abstract: This paper creates a role model to simplify and streamline how waste management is currently in Romania. This model can be further improved and extended to larger scale. To begin an analysis was made concrete in the Sibiu Surroundings on the current situation of waste management. Following tests have found new ways to improve the management process. One of them is to use GIS techniques to centralize and analyze data for a permanent significant improvements in this area. Also we present notions of geospatial databases. The work is highlighted in the use of GIS techniques in goal. Another method involves the implementation of specific rules from which all the inhabitants of studies should be encouraged to practice composting individual.


Traditional Akseki Houses and Cultural Heritage Tourism
R. Eser Gultekin, Aydin Ucar

Abstract: As well as being buildings to meet shelter people need, they reflect social structure, culture livelihood, traditions, history and geography of those who constructed them or who had them built. In formation of houses variations appear in material used and their functions due to various elements in Anatolia. Different architectural constructions emerged in various parts of Anatolia based on environmental and climatic factors, distinctive traditions and cultures, which are all infact interrelated and integrating regional features as different elements of the whole Turkish building traditions. Visual variations are suggestive of richness of architectural plan. Considering the house built together with settlement, geography, landscape, composed of gardens, orchard, mountains, rivers, forest, people and animals or beasts; it tends to be of different quality. In other words house is a combination of significant values included in the culture and geography to which it was born. Traditional Akseki houses as a regional architecture unique to the Mediterranean zone of Turkey discussed in the communique are of a distinctive and privileged nature. The houses concerned were constructed considering history, geography and socio-economic parameters of the region in which Turkish Mediterranean architecture appeared. They were examined and analyzed in terms of their general aspects, constructive material and elements, types of plan, exterior orders and embroidery characteristics. The tourism sector which has economic importance all over the world is dependent on natural, historical and cultural resources and at the same time is a means connecting culture, heritage and economy one another. In order to enable sustainable tourism it is necessary to plan the tourism in a conscious way and to handle it in an integrated way with the management of cultural heritage which functions as a resource for tourism. The trends here will not affect the view from the street but generally will affect the interior side of the yard as the changes in the lower floor and exterior sofa are effected. Adaptation is gaining recognition as an effective strategy to improve the sustainability of cultural and historical heritage and historical and existing buildings.


Natural and Cultural Heritage Tourism Potential and Sustainable Planning Proposal for Elmali, Antalya
R. Eser Gultekin, Aydin Ucar

Abstract: In Turkey’s tourism centre, Antalya, within the framework of country’s tourism policies, other than Sun-Sea-Sand trilogy, encouragement of alternative tourism possibilities has been brought to the agenda. Concepts like eco- tourism, upland tourism, congress tourism have been developed, however as country and province, Cultural heritage tourism has remained as a potential which cannot be used efficiently. The purpose of this announcement is to put forward the proposal in order to bring in one of Antalya’s rural settlement areas, Elmal?, in the context of Natural and Cultural Heritage wealth. Being established in the proximity of Elmal? Mountain and reflecting the culture of Anatolia, Elmal? is an old settlement place with it’s historical houses, narrow streets and old Ottoman arkets. The region carries the magnificence of the past to our recent days and it assumes a great tourism potential with its climate, natural beauties and Cedar Forests. Elmal? takes place in the rural region and to the question of ‘’How should Sustainable Planning be?’’ in the context of tourism and protection, application of the relevant international codes have been used as the method with the Presentation of Cultural Tourism and Cultural Heritage by making the assessments of powerful and weak sides of the region. The tourism sector which has economic importance all over the world is dependent on natural, historical and cultural resources and at the same time is a means connecting culture, heritage and economy one another. In order to enable sustainable tourism it is necessary to plan the tourism in a conscious way and to handle it in an integrated way with the management of cultural heritage which functions as a resource for tourism. In Elmal?, not having adequate number of touristic facilities such as the ones for accommodation and vacation, inadequate publicity, transportation difficulty from the main tourism centre and not being able to present the possessed natural, historical and cultural heritage assets within the framework of a concept have prevented the development of natural and cultural heritage in terms of tourism. Tourists come here on daily basis and they mostly continue their ways without accommodating here. With a sustainable planning to be prepared, nature, history and cultural protection, regional progress, social development and economy will be influenced positively in the result of publicity of the region, it’s application to tourism within the framework of protection, protection of authenticity, formation of a self-sufficient economical cycle, formation of sustainable presentation interpretation and by building up accommodation and social facilities.


Biodiversity Protection Actions in Lower Prut Basin
Florin Vartolomei, Madalina-Teodora Andrei, Iuliana Pop, Petronela-Sonia Nedea, Radita Alexe

Abstract: This paper summarizes a large amount of information which constitutes the basis of documenting a report aimed at arranging a pilot wetlands area to protect biodiversity in the southern basin of Prut river. The issue of environmental protection and biodiversity conservation in the catchment of Prut river has both environmental and geopolitical implications due to the geographic position. Premises are represented by the natural elements that support the development of sub-basin Horincea as pilot wetland basin in the Lower Prut sector (the conditions of relief, climate and hydrological features, flora and fauna composition, focusing on ichtyofauna). The advantages and threats regarding the development of these wetlands are presented based on legislative criteria as well as from the point of view of the exploitation of natural resources in this basin. There are presented both tehnical and institutional solutions. The institutional decision makers are identified as the two relevant ministries (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Environment and Forests), two national companies (Romanian Waters National Company and Romsilva National Company) and entities within the general jurisdiction of the local authorities. The responsibilities of each of the above and the types of action required to fulfil the objective are presented further in this paper.


Calculus and Evaluation Methods for Forest Roads Execution Impact upon the Environment
Valentina Ciobanu, Valeria Alexandru, Stelian A. Borz, Marius Mihaila, Adela-Eliza Dumitrascu

Abstract: The paper presents the impact influence upon the environment determined in the execution process of forest roads and their exploitation. The quantification methodology of the impact intensity upon the main environment factors, respectively air, water, soil and biodiversity is also mentioned.


Monitoring the Launching Points of the Anti-Hail Units
Constantin Sulea, Gheorghe Manolea, Ionel-Laurentiu Alboteanu, Alexandru Novac

Abstract: This paper presents a system for monitoring national hail system. It is proposed a specific information system for anti-hail network in Romania witch completes the known systems with information subsystems specific for both coordination missiles, release automation, and also power supply. The computer system comprises two main components: a system for taking the decision of launch and the system for assisting the launch decision. The integrated information system for monitoring the launch anti hail rockets units enables: an increased efficiency by shortening the time for action, a good organization, a high degree of security. Also, there are presented the monitoring and management system for the available energy in the photovoltaic supply system and one device of the system for assisting the launch decision.


Residential Interior Occupant Health Criteria Review and Assessment in Holland, Michigan
Morna Hallsaxton, Jon Bryan Burley

Abstract: Investigators are interested in the environmental quality of interior spaces. At present, scholars have developed limited metrics in assessing interior environments. For our study, we examined the environmental quality of residential environments in Holland, Michigan. We examined houses in four separate age groups; 1900 to 1930, 1940 to 1965, 1965 to 1985, and 1989 to 2050. In addition, we examined the age groups based upon size of the house: under 111.48 m2 (1200 sq. ft.) and over 185.8 m2 (2000 sq. ft) for a total of eight treatments. Three houses were measured in each treatment. Fourteen variables were measured in each structure. Friedman’s analysis of variance was employed to assess the statistical difference between the treatments. The results revealed that homes built from 1965 to 1985 with over 185.8 m2 were healthier (p<0.05). The least healthy homes were those aged from 1903 to 1940, and 1940 to 1965 and smaller than 111.48 m2. We encourage investigators to assess other types of residential environments.


Postindustrial Landscape Redevelopment: Addressing the Past, Envisioning the Future
Luis Loures, Jon Burley, Thomas Panagopoulos

Abstract: Investigators of site design and planning projects are shifting their scholarly emphasis from the design of single case study projects and isolated objects towards focusing upon meta-studies by examining the design of larger urban surfaces and the results from many projects, thus increasing the understanding concerning the impact of such interventions. This meta-studies process facilitates building landscape architecture theory, providing a widely accepted theoretical framework based on specific design principles and norms from which might influence and guide practical development. The analysis of postindustrial land transformation case studies considering both design principles and strategies used in redevelopment, constitutes a relevant framework towards the definition of new design and planning normative theories. For this reason, this research, was based on the examination of 346 case studies across the globe, and a closer examination of six postindustrial case studies (Duisburg, Germany; Lisbon, Portugal; Amsterdam, Netherlands; Cleveland, Ohio, USA; Toronto, Canada; and Chicago, Illinois, USA), in order to build a normative theory based on a set of planning and design principles that might inform future post-industrial land transformation practice. Our study reveals 37 design and planning principles applied across the six case studies.


Examples of the Research Works on LCA at Poznan University of Technology
Zbigniew Klos, Jedrzej Kasprzak

Abstract: The directions of the world development, as many cases have shown, should be forestalledly assessed. It deals also to the technology and it means that the whole development process, strongly effected by innovation and research, should be monitored and deeply considered. The problem has the complex nature. Therefore the concept of life cycle is supposed to be the best format for this problem solving. In the paper, the research works done in the field of application of the method used in this situation – Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) at Poznan University of Technology (PUT) are overviewed. The Research Group on Ecobalancing and Quality, based at PUT, is the Polish and Central and Eastern European pioneer of the reseach focused on applying the idea of LC concept in development of technical objects. The examples of research works are presented in the paper.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 6, Volume 5, 2011)


The Impact of Total Equivalence Ratio on Environmental Behavior of a Natural Gas Dual Fuel Diesel Engine
Roussos G. Papagiannakis, Dimitrios T. Hountalas

Abstract: Towards the reduction of exhaust emissions from diesel engines, automotive engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of natural gas as a supplement for the commercial liquid diesel fuel (Dual Fuel Operation-DFO). In a dual fuel compression ignition engine, auto-ignition of the injected diesel fuel provides ignition centers for turbulent flame propagation throughout the lean homogeneous gaseous fuel-air mixture. Engine performance, for any quantity of diesel fuel improves with the increased admission of natural gas. This improvement appears to be dependent on the total equivalence ratio. In the present work, experimental results are provided concerning the effect of the total equivalence ratio on performance characteristics and environmental behavior of an existing compression ignition engine modified to operate under diesel-natural gas DFO operating mode at various combinations of load and engine speed. By comparing the results, an important effect of the total equivalence ratio on some critical engine performance parameters (i.e. cylinder pressure and total heat release traces, ignition delay period, duration of combustion, brake efficiency, NO, CO, unburnt HC and soot emissions) is observed. The main objective of this comparative assessment is to record and to comparatively evaluate the relative impact each one of the total equivalence ratio, brake torque and engine speed, on engine performance characteristics and emitted pollutants. Furthermore, the present investigation deals with the determining of optimum combinations between the aforementioned parameters referred before since at high brake torque and high engine speed, the simultaneous increase of the total equivalence ratio may lead in undesirable results about engine performance characteristics. The conclusions of the specific investigation will be extremely valuable for the application of this technology on existing DI diesel engines.


Operating Characteristics of Multivalent Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources
Petr Mastny, Lukas Radil, Zuzana Mastna

Abstract: Software support for simulations and evaluation of energy systems operating states in modern low-energy construction has – within specific conditions in the Czech Republic – increasing importance. Multivalent energy systems have the most significant importance for investors. Designs of such systems are – regarding energy and economy balance – very demanding and therefore there have been by the project engineers set requirements to assemble knowledge base in this field. In the paper there are explained possibilities of usage of thermal processes mathematical modeling in Mathematica® software environment for design and analysis of operating characteristics of multivalent thermal systems using renewable power sources. Each step of mathematical description of thermal system – including heat pump, solar and accumulation system – comes from the real measuring on physical model of heat pump. The results of mathematical simulation are compared with results of energy analysis on physical model of combined system.


Local Nature, Resources, Cohabitation and Ethnicity as Firm Marks of Ecotourist Occupations. Analysis of Some Gipsy Communities in Romania
Iulian Dinca, Camelia Teodorescu, Adina Popovici

Abstract: The present study represents the attempt to present the authentic values of the gipsy culture from the Romanian space, a nation which seems to be controversial enough in terms of lifestyle or occupations. Nevertheless, what is known is that each gipsy nation has its own culture worth analysing and why not, valorized or at least emphasized by means of agrotouristic activity. Proceeding from this idea, the study touches the cultural particularities related to residential architecture, occupations, garments, alimentation and family customs of certain gipsy communities located in various geographic areas on the territory of Romania. The gipsies’ lifestyle, irrespective of the area where they live, is quite particular, which is easy to observe, but this doesn’t mean they are known. Their culture is quite little known, due to the weak cultural collaboration and exteriorization. Lately, tourism could represent a possibility of communication, exteriorization and presentation of the authentic cultural values and why not, of raising the educational and professional level, which could in the end lead to material gains able to influence the quality of life of gipsy populations.


Pictorially Depicted Landscapes and Vegetal Environment in the Mural Works of the Churches of Romanian Monasteries
Iulian Dinca, Adela Tuduce, Camelia Teodorescu, Adina Popovici

Abstract: The study intends to tackle in an interdisciplinary, respectively geographic – environmental, botanical, economic, and cultural-artistic manner, the subject of the information “offer”, other than the religious one, of five churches with exterior frescoes belonging to some Romanian monasteries. This mural work was selected according to the mural vegetal criteria (trees, shrubs, plants from the spontaneous or cultivated flora) and criteria concerning the type of landscape generated only by vegetation and also by the other natural or anthropic components of that particular place. Also, we had in view whether the environment in which the monastery complexes provide enough information regarding the influence of the medieval painters and the depiction of the influence in the scenes painted. The artistic considerations together with the scientific ones related to the frescoes could be filtered and synthesised so that the result is a possible detection of an ecumenical touristic sub-programme centred on the subject of art-environment local-vegetation-landscapes marked by vegetation.


Healthcare Waste and Extended Producer Responsibility: The Specific Case of E-Medical Equipment
Elisabeth Lefebvre, Alejandro Romero, Louis-A. Lefebvre

Abstract: The extended producer responsibility implies more than the mere take-back and recycling programs tailored towards the end-of-life management. It requires the producers to design products that are environmentally friendly during all stages of their life cycle, namely manufacturing, usage or consumption, and final disposal. In particular, it implies that products at the end of their useful life should be easily dismantled, recovered, reused, and recycled. This paper examines how the producers of electronic medical equipment (e-medical equipment) attempt to reduce the environmental impacts of their products during its entire life cycle through different initiatives. The main objectives are as follows: to gain a better understanding of these environmentally proactive initiatives, to assess their relative importance, to analyze the main drivers and to examine the key benefits that are derived from such initiatives.


A Comprehensive Integrated Framework Linking Vehicle Emissions and Traffic Simulation Complemented with Socialinstitutional Analysis
Bhuvanachithra Chidambaram

Abstract: The transport sector in the Indian Megacity of Hyderabad contributes extensively to climate change through greenhouse gases emitted by vehicles. Though recent research shows that traffic congestion is one of the major contributors to the vehicle emission in the city, they do not provide any concrete methods or primary data to measure and derive the relation between vehicle emission and traffic congestion. Hence, Urban planners use outdated records and statistics, for traffic simulation to forecast the travel demand in order to propose development action plans. These include mostly infrastructure projects like construction of flyovers, expansion of the existing roads, laying new roads, improvement of vehicle technology etc. Nevertheless these solutions do not sufficiently address the problem of congestion or vehicle emission in the city, as these developmental plans are only based on physical aspects like roads or vehicles. However, there is always a human behaviour factor, which is influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, and values that tends to make decision either individually or collectively, during the travel on road. This novel thought has provided an insight for the author to advance the discourses on sustainable traffic solutions by sparking a discussion on the value of a comprehensive integrated framework that is capable of depicting a ‘near to real’ social interaction in the form of a vehicle emission estimation based on a social-institutional analysis. This framework could then be used in combination with traffic simulation tools for analyzing the results to an actual scenario in order to derive an efficient analysis based solution. Results for the vehicle emission estimation of four representative stretches to be used for the social-institutional analysis in Hyderabad are discussed in this paper. The author also provides an overview of the transport route-mode choice game that is currently being developed as a tool for this social-institutional analysis.


Design Code Calibration of Offshore, Coastal and Hydraulic Energy Development Infrastructures
Defu Liu, Huajun Li, Guilin Liu, Fengqing Wang, Tao Zou

Abstract: With an increasing tendency of the natural hazards frequency and intensity, risk analysis of some design codes for offshore oil, nuclear power plant and hydro energy development infrastructures should be of paramount importance for about half of the population gross domestic product and environmental protection in China. Comparisons between some disaster prevention criteria for offshore platform, coastal defense for nuclear power plant and the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGDP) by widely used traditional design codes of China and abroad with predicted results by our proposed Multivariate Compound Extreme Value Distribution (MCEVD) show that any one of the American Petroleum Institute (API) recommendations for fixed platform , China Nuclear Safety Regulations for coastal nuclear power plant and China Hydraulic Design Codes (CHDC) cannot satisfy the safety requirements with the increasing tendency of the extreme natural hazards.




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