ISSN: 1998-4510


                                           Year 2011

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.
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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 5, 2011)


Midurethral Sling Procedure (Tension Free Vaginal Tape –Obturator) in the Management of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence
Shahla Kareem Al Alaf

Abstract: Urinary incontinence is a common condition affecting 20 to 40% of older women. Sufferers tend to become social recluses, not wanting to socialize for fear of embarrassment and ridicule. Tension-free vaginal tapes have revolutionized the treatment of female Stress urinary incontinence. The aims of this prospective observational study were to determine efficacy and post operative complications of Tension free vaginal tape –Obturator (TVT-O) after minimum one year follow up. Between March 1st 2006 and January 1st 2009, 30 patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate to sever SUI and mixed with predominant Stress incontinence who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent TVT-O Procedure. Preoperative and post operative evaluation included physical examination, post void residual measurement, post operative complications, severity of urinary stress incontinence, and quality of life questionnaires (QoL). 50% of women were menopause, their mean age was 52±11.105 year, their mean body weight was 81.066±13.59 kg, and their mean parity was 5.53±2.58. Three cases had anterior vaginal wall prolapse (grade 2 and 3 cystocel), anterior colporrhaphy was done for them before TVT-O procedure. No significant intra and post operative complications were observed. One year minimum follow up revealed a highly significant difference between pre and post operative stress incontinence severity grades and QoL scale scores (P value <0.001). The TVT-O procedure is a safe and efficient treatment of female SUI, with a high cure rate after a minimum one year follow up and a low post-operative complications and no risk to intra-abdominal organ injury.


Tensile Testing, A Method used to Demonstrate the Effect of Organic Solvents on Acrylic Teeth Denture Base Resin Bond Strength
Adelina Elena Stoia, Cosmin Sinescu, Mircea Pielmusi, Marius Enescu, Anca Tudor, Roxana Otilia Rominu, Mihai Rominu

Abstract: The evaluation of the artificial acrylic teeth denture base repair resin bond strength in tensile represents the main reason of this study. Large size artificial acrylic molars were used to mille 50 acrylic cylinders. The cylinders were randomly assigned in five experimental groups, ten cylinders each. The bonding areas represented by the flat surfaces of the cylinders were submitted to a different treatment. Group 1: polished (control group), Group 2: polished+methyl methacrylate, Group 3: sandblasting + methyl methacrylate, Group 4: sandblasting+universal repairing adhesive (Clearfil Repair-Kuraray), Group 5: polished+dichlormethane. The sandblasting procedures were realized using 50 µm alumina, 30 seconds, from 10 mm distance. Self-cured denture base repair resin (Duracryl – Spofa Dental) was used for manufacturing the bonding test specimens, according to the ADA specification No. 15. Each specimen was stored for 30 days in distilled water and then tested in tensile at a speed of 1 mm/min. The mean values of the tensile bond strength test registered were statistically significant among groups, ranging from 13,5 MPa (group 4) to 35,9 MPa ( group 5). Dichlormethane treatment enhanced bond strength to the artificial teeth, for this reason could be considered as a laboratory and clinical procedure in order to improve the quality of bonding.


Estimation of Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Mango Pulp Freeze- Dried
Rangel–Marron M., Welti–Chanes J, Cordova–Quiroz A.V., Ceron-Breton J.G., Ceron-Breton R.M., and Anguebes–Franseschi F.

Abstract: The static gravimetric method, along with different saturated salt solutions, was used in a range of water activity (aw) of 0.11–0.88, and at 288.15, 298.15 y 308.15 K, to obtain sorption isotherms of freeze-dried pulp of mango. At a given aw the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. BET, G.A.B, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Smith were evaluated to determine the best fit for the experimental data. A nonlinear regression–analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of equations. The BET and GAB models were the most suitable to described the sorption curves; the monolayer-content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated. The isosteric sorption heat was determines for adsorption of freeze-dried pulp of mango using the relevant thermodynamic relations (i.e., Clausius Clapeyron equation).


Psychosocial Variables and Vaccination: A Life Course Approach
Anna C. Phillips

Abstract: It is a widely held view that experiences and emotions can affect our health. However, only over the past twenty years or so has research shown how psychosocial factors such as stress, social support, and personality directly influence the body. The immune system was historically thought to act independently of other bodily systems, but it is now known that psychosocial factors can influence numbers of immune cells and even the function of the immune system. This paper will present contemporary evidence for an association between immunity and sources of chronic stress, social support, and personality using the antibody response to vaccination as a model. It will illustrate that the specific psychosocial factors which influence immunity, and thereby health, vary across the life course and act in synergy with ageing to influence the effectiveness of the immune system.


Dental Maturity- A Biologic Indicator of Chronological Age: Digital Radiographic Study to Assess Dental Age in Romanian Children
Ana Emilia Ogodescu, Alexandru Ogodescu, Kinga Szabo, Anca Tudor, Elisabeta Bratu

Abstract: The assessment of dental age is useful in the planning of orthodontic treatment, in pediatric dentistry, pediatric endocrinology and forensic medicine. It also adds important knowledge of growth and development to human biology. The aim of our study was to investigate the applicability of Demirjian method for estimation of dental age in Romanian children and if the tables developed for French-Canadian population are not applicable, to develop new equation and tables for our boys and girls. Our survey was conducted on a final sample of 441 radiographs of patients aged between 5.5 and 14.5 years (218 girls and 223 boys). The sample was divided in groups, considering an age interval of one year. All dental pantomograms were scored by two examiners and intra- and inter- examiner calibration was made. We used dedicated software for scoring, dental age determination and for creating a database. A paired t-test was used to assess any difference between chronological and dental age. On average, the Romanian girls showed an overestimation of 0,36 years, meaning 132 days, p=0,129, α = 0.05 and boys an underestimation of 0.04 years, meaning 15 days, p = 0.852, α = 0.05. New tables were developed in order to convert dental maturity calculated according to Demirjian method into dental age of contemporary Romanian children.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 5, 2011)


Inhibition of GRP78 Sensitizes Colorectal Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel-Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-4
Nizar Mhaidat, Saied Jaradat, Ahmad Aldaher, Abdulhameed Ghabkari

Abstract: Resistance of colorectal cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is largely mediated by the activation of MEK/ERK signalling pathway. Inhibition of MEK/ERK pathway sensitized CRC cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of GRP78. In the present study, we report that induction of apoptosis by paclitaxel when GRP78 is down-regulated involves activation of the caspase cascade. In cells, where GRP78 is inhibited, paclitaxel induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-9. Caspase-4 seemed to be the apical caspase in that caspase-4 activation occurred before activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Moreover, activation of caspase-4 was upstream of the mitochondria and its inhibition led to the inhibition of mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP) and caspase-9 activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that GRP78 is physically associated with caspase-4 before and after treatment with paclitaxel. These results indicate that GRP78 might be a novel mechanism underlying resistance of CRC cells to microtubule-targeting drugs by binding to and inhibition of caspase-4. Combination of compounds capable of suppressing GRP78 might be a golden approach for improving the effectiveness of taxanes in treatment of CRC.


Chitosan Effects on Bioactive Glass for Application as Biocopmosite Biomaterial
Hassane Oudadesse, Xuan-Vuong. Bui, Yann. Le Gal, Amani Mostafa, Guy Cathelineau

Abstract: The objective of this work was to synthesize biocomposite composed by bioactive glass (BG) and chitosan (CH) as biomaterials for medical applications. 17 wt% of chitosan polymer was added to the glass matrix by using an original method to obtain BG/CH biocomposite. The obtained biocomposite was investigated by using numerous physico-chemical methods. The homogenous distribution of bioactive glass particles within the matrix of chitosan polymer was clearly showed in this study. “In vitro” assays without cells were employed to evaluate the effect of chitosan polymer addition on the glass matrix by studying the chemical reactivity and bioactivity of the BG and BG/CH composite after different times of soaking in SBF solution. Ionic exchanges and kinetic of bioactivity were highlighted. Also, “in vitro” assays with presence of celle were studied for the cytotoxicity evaluation. The obtained results showed the formation of a biological active hydroxyapatite (HA) layer and highlighted the bioactivity of bioactive glass, particularly after addition of chitosan polymer. The composite based on bioactive glass and chitosan polymer has excellence ability to form an apatite layer on its surface. SEM analyses showed a dense layer of HA on the surface of BG/CH biocomposite. ICP-OES highlighted the effect of chitosan on the dissolution of the glassy network after different times of soaking. The results indicated that the presence of chitosan polymer delayed the silicon release from glassy network toward the synthetic physiological solution. The chitosan acts as capping agent.The non toxic character of this biocomposite was confirmed.


Thermal Stability of Chemically Precipitated Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders
Dan Nicolae Ungureanu, Nicolae Angelescu, Zorica Bacinschi, Elena Valentina Stoian, Cristiana Zizi Rizescu

Abstract: In this paper we present a synthesis method for obtaining hydroxyapatite nanopowders by chemical precipitation. As the starting reagents, analytical grade Ca(OH)2, H3PO4 and NH4OH were used. The proposed method led to obtaining a hydroxyapatite with a high degree of crystallinity and purity. The crystallinity degree was great than 90%, in case of sample thermal treated at 12000C. Also, the resulting hydroxyapatite powder exhibits an average crystallites size of about 28 to 47 nm, after heat treatment at 12000C. All hydroxyapatite nanopowder samples obtained were thermally stable up to 12000C. The XRD patterns presented did not reveals the transformation of hydroxyapatite in secondary phases, such as: α – tricalcium phosphate, β – tricalcium phosphate, after heat treatment at 8000C and 12000C. A small amounts of calcium oxide has been or CaO Moreover, the products was characterized by a good stoichiometry. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other techniques.


Correlations between Clinic Categories of Late Spontaneous and Therapeutic Abortion and C-Reactive Protein
Carmen A. Bulucea, Nikos E. Mastorakis, Mariana F. Paun, Alina D. Neatu

Abstract: In the first part of the paper there are synthesized the six forms of clinic presentation of the spontaneous abortion: threatened abortion, abortion in progress, incomplete abortion, dead fetus retention, spontaneous recurrent abortion and septic abortion, with an emphasis on late spontaneous recurrent abortion. In the second part there are presented the results obtained by the quantitative measurement of the serum C-reactive protein with the Tina-quant immunoturbidimetric technique on pregnant women in the second trimester of normal pregnancy, with threatened abortion of unknown cause, that evolved or not towards spontaneous abortion during the hospitalization, with recurrent abortions in priors, with subclinical chorioamnionitis with broken or intact membranes, with acute pyelonephritis, subclinical mixt vaginitis or mammary abscess or hospitalized for medical abortion induction for fetal reasons (for instance dead fetus retention). The obtained results suggest that a repeated measurement of the serum CRP could be a valuable and practical predictive marker for intrauterine infection, both in the late periabortum period as well as in the latency phase of the extremely premature rupture of the membranes or even when the fetal membranes are intact in the second trimester of pregnancy.


Study Concerning the Incidence of Knee Sprain and the Biomechanical Analysis during Running at Sportsmen who Suffered from Knee Sprain
Corina Pantea, Adrian Ivan, Stelian Pantea, Mihaela Faur

Abstract: In the field of sports traumatology, the knee sprain represents one of the most frequent injuries, with particular implications in what the performances of the sportsmen are concerned, the inactivity period and the recovery process of these sportsmen. Knee sprain is the main cause of inactivity at athletes. This type of injury occurs more frequently in team sports like: football, basketball, handball or rugby. This frequency is also influenced by field surface, physical state, the non-compliance to diet and medication.


The Tandem: Telocytes - Stem Cells
Lawrence M. Popescu

Abstract: We have recently described a novel type of interstitial (stromal) cells – Telocytes (TC) – in several cavitary and non-cavitary organs from humans and other mammalians. TC have a small cell body, but specific (unique) prolongations that we named Telopodes (Tp). Therefore, the simplest definition for TC is: cells with Tp. Tp are characterized by: a) number (1-5/cell, frequently 2 or 3); b) length (tens up to hundreds of mm); c) moniliform aspect – an alternation of thin segments, podomeres (with caliber under 200 nm, below the resolving power of light microscopy) and dilated segments, podoms, which accommodate mitochondria, (rough) endoplasmic- reticulum and caveolae, the so-called “Ca2+ uptake/ release units”; d) dichotomous branching pattern forming a 3D network, a labyrinthine system with complex homo- and heterocellular junctions, revealed only by electron tomography. Significantly, TC (especially Tp) release shed vesicles and exosomes, sending macromolecular signals to neighbor cells, thus modifying their transcriptional activity, eventually. The lenght and ramifications of Tp together with the intercellular junctions and the releasing of shed vesicles or exosomes suggest an essential role of TC in intercellular signaling and coordination. Noteworthy, at least in some organs (e.g. heart and lungs) TC and stem cells (SC) are located in tandem within the so called stem cell niches, where Tp surround stem cells (SC). TC heterocellular contacts, as well as the impulsion of shed vesicles assure TC - SC sinergy. Presumably, TC “nurse” SC in stem cell niches.


Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative Activities of Monensic Acid and its Metal (II) Complexes against Drug Sensitive and Multidrug Resistant Human Tumor Cell Lines
Radostina I. Alexandrova, Tanya Zhivkova, Ivayla N. Pantcheva, Mariana Io. Mitewa

Abstract: In the present study for the first time the anticancer activity of the polyeter ionophorous antibiotic Monensic acid (MonH) and its complexes with Ca(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) ions was evaluated against the drug sensitive human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 and its multidrug resistant clones that express MDR1, MRP1 or ABCG2 gene. For comparative purposes the non-tumor human cell line Lep3 was also included in the experiments. The investigations were carried out using MTT test and colony-forming method. The results obtained reveal that applied at concentrations of 0.5-25 μg/mL for 24-72 h the compounds investigated decrease the viability and proliferation of the treated cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The investigated metal(II) complexes (especially those of Mn(II) and Co(II)) has been found to express higher cytotoxic and cytostatic activities as compared to the non-coordinated MonH.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 5, 2011)


Physico-Chemical Assessment of Biomimetic Nano-Hydroxyapatite/polymer Matrix for Use in Bony Surgery
H. Oudadesse, A. Mostafa, X. V. Bui, E. Foad, G. Kamal, Y Legal, G. Cathelineau

Abstract: Millions of people are suffering from bone defect arising from trauma, tumor or bone diseases. Therefore, there is a growing need for the development of biocomposites with excellent bioactivity and compatibility. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite was elaborated by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) under mild temperature condition. Comparison with pure nano-hydroxyapatite prepared by precipitation method was investigated. The main goal is to highlight the effects of the introduction of polymers on the physico-chemical properties, morphology and on the chemical reactivity and bioactivity for applications in bony surgery. TEM showed a nanosphere hydroxyapatite with an average diameter 45 nm obtained by using PVA. Nano-rods HA with an average dimensions 13 nm width and 156 nm length were obtained by using, PVP. “In-vitro” physiological stability and solubility of the investigated samples was performed by soaking powder in Simulated Body Fluid under physiological condition. Characterization by XRD, FT-IR SEM-EDS and ICP-OES were performed to identify phases, microstructure and then the chemical reactivity and bioactivity after soaking in SBF to evaluate the bioactivity kinetics. Crystals on the polymer fibril matrix exhibited certain orientation. Bone like apatite layer onto the surfaces is confirmed after post immersion in SBF by FT-IR, SEM-EDS and XRD. The polymer matrix controlled the dissolution precipitation reactivity with specific rate without change on the pH of the surrounding physiological body fluid.


The Influence of Acute Exposure to Moderate Altitude upon the Oxidants/antioxidats Balance and upon the Effort Capacity
Alina Martoma

Abstract: The experiment aimed to dissociate the effects of acute hypoxic stress from the hypoxic stress associated with physical stress caused by exercise and the implications for the oxidants/ antioxidants balance. The induced sympathoadrenal activation can lead indirectly to acute hypobaric hypoxia and oxinit oxidative stress, in addition to the direct effect of the hypobaric stress. In the case of the hypoxic stress associated with physical stress the effect of the hypobaric stress and physical stress interferes directly on the oxinit oxidative stress and the indirect effects produced on the one hand by physical stress and activation sympathoadrenal and the sympathoadrenal activation on the other hand which generates oxinit oxidative stress.


Bioresorbable Microspheres as Devices for the Controlled Release of Paclitaxel
Giulio D. Guerra, Caterina Cristallini, Niccoletta Barbani, Mariacristina Gagliardi

Abstract: The release of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) from microspheres of both a bioresorbable poly(ε-caprolactoneoxyethylene- ε-caprolactone) tri-block copolymer and of polyurethanes containing either copolymers with the same composition and different molecular weights or poly(ε-caprolactone) diol as soft segments was studied. The microspheres, both loaded and not with PTX, were prepared by emulsion-evaporation technique, then characterized by SEM and DSC. The quantities of PTX released were measured by HPLC. The results showed slow and very regular releases, which fit very well the Peppas equation, Mt/M? = k · tn, where Mt is the amount of solute released at the time t, M? is the amount of drug released at the plateau condition, k represents the Peppas kinetic constant and n the diffusion order. Most n values are consistent with non-Fickian release mechanisms, with the exceptions of two less hydrophilic polyurethanes.


Epidemiology of Exercise-Induced Hypoxemia in Elite and Non Elite Athletes
Gerard Coneys, Peter Lu, Cris LaBossiere, Sat Sharma

Abstract: Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is a recognized phenomenon in healthy subjects, although its epidemiology and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed the prevalence rates of EIAH among various populations. Eighty-two subjects underwent incremental exercise protocols to maximum volitional fatigue while being monitored using forehead pulse oximetry. Pre- and post-exercise spirometric testing as well as serum lactate measurements were utilized. Results were stratified by severity of oxygen desaturation, gender, age, training, fitness level, and mode of exercise, and statistically compared to determine EIAH prevalence and characteristics of the desaturating populations. The prevalence of EIAH in our study population was 35.4% (37.1% for males and 30% for females), which was significantly lower than that reported previously. We additionally observed a higher prevalence of EIAH in moderately fit individuals than previously documented (32.7%) and a low prevalence in the least trained subjects (36.8% vs. 12.5%). Younger subjects displayed a trend towards greater development of EIAH, contrary to past observations. Spirometric analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in lung volumes and flow rates between individuals with normal saturation and those who displayed desaturation. Serum lactate measurements did not differ significantly between normal and desaturating populations. Our documented prevalence of EIAH is significantly lower, but more common in less fit and younger individuals, compared to previously published findings.


Physiological Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Hypoxemia in Athletes
Peter Lu, Gerard Coneys, Cris LaBossiere, Sat Sharma

Abstract: Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), defined as a significant decrease in oxygen saturation (<95%) during maximal and sub-maximal exercise, is a phenomenon observed in moderately and highly trained athletes. The consequences of EIAH on exercise performance relate to its negative influence on maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and impairment of oxygen delivery. The causes of EIAH are yet to be completely elucidated. Proposed mechanisms include ventilation/perfusion inequality, relative alveolar hypoventilation, right-to-left shunt, and diffusion limitation. We hypothesized that development of interstitial pulmonary edema during maximal exercise triggers the physiological mechanisms leading to EIAH. Eleven subjects, who had previously developed EIAH during a similar testing protocol, performed an incremental cycling or running protocol to exhaustion, and pre- and post-exercise lungs scanned using computed tomography. Scans were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively for the development of pulmonary edema. We employed two different procedures for lung density assessment, specifically, lung sampling technique (Method A) and whole lung measurements (Method B). The lung density measurements were as follows: 0.088±0.008 g/cm3 pre-exercise, 0.090±0.008 g/cm3 post-exercise (p=0.27) with Method A, and 0.190±0.018 g/cm3 pre-exercise, 0.178±0.010 g/cm3 post-exercise (p=0.94) with Method B. These results do not support the presence of interstitial pulmonary edema in individuals known to develop EIAH. Development of interstitial pulmonary edema cannot be conclusively identified as a significant cause of EIAH in moderately and highly trained athletes.


Application of Ammonium Sensor for Environment Analysis
Eugenia Eftimie Totu, Rares Girdea

Abstract: The need to analyze some chemical species in complex systems has brought a rapid advance in new analytical tools. Ammonium sensor for determination of ammonia in fertilizer samples is described in such context. It is based on a polyimide (PI) matrix selective device and it is compared with an ion-selective electrode (ISE) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane. Attempts to obtain also a workable ammonium selective membrane using polyetherimide (PEI) were unsuccessful due to poor solubility of the electroactive component. The polyimide based device shows good results for the ammonium content of the complex fertilizer samples when compared with those ones obtained with PVC based ISE. The sensor shows a slope of 55.13 mV.dec-1 and a good selectivity against potassium.


Measurement and Behaviour Classification of Tremor Patients
A. Cheraghizanjani, A. As’arry, Z. M. Yusop, M. Z. Md. Zain, M. Hussein

Abstract: This study is intended to assist neurologist in measuring and identifying the level and range of tremor in some patients who suffer neurological diseases. Prior to quantifying, a tremor test rig was designed and fabricated. Two laser displacement sensors are used to quantify tremor behavior at hand in X (horizontal) and Y (vertical) directions. In this paper, two types of tremor condition which are postural and rest tremor were investigated and discussed. The appropriate programming is used to analyze, classify and show range and type of the disease.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 5, 2011)


Chemical Treatment of Acrylic Teeth Ridge Lap Area Trough Tensile Strength Investigations
Adelina Elena Stoia, Sorin Lakatos, Mircea Pielmusi,Cosmin Sinescu, Adrian Gheorghe Podoleanu, Mihai Rominu

Abstract: The purpose of this study was associated to the surface treatments effect evaluation of three different organic solvents on the bond strength of artificial acrylic teeth to denture base repair resin. 40 large size acrylic molars (Spofa Dental complete denture kit) were used to mille 40 acrylic cylinders. The milled cylinders were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, ten cylinders per each group. The cylinders flat surfaces were considered bonding areas. The surface treatment regimens were: Group 1: polishing (control group), Group 2: ethylene chloride treatment; Group 3: ethyl acetate treatment; Group 4: acetone treatment. A self-cured denture base repair resin (Duracryl – Spofa Dental) was used for manufacturing the bonding test specimens, according to the ADA specification No. 15. Each specimen was stored for 30 days in distilled water and tensile tested at a speed of 1 mm/min. The mean values of the tensile bond strength test registered were statistically significant among groups, ranging from 13, 67 MPa (group 4, acetone) to 29, 14 MPa (group 2, ethylene chloride). The chemical treatment of acrylic teeth ridge lap area with ethylene chloride, leaded to an enhanced bond strength of artificial teeth to the denture base resin reported to the control group, group 3 (ethyl acetate) and 4 (acetone), but has reached lower value levels compared to the ANSI/ADA Nr. 15 according to which tensile strength value must be, if statistically significant, 31 MPa.


Orthodontic Bracket Bonding from a Different Angle - An Optical Coherence Tomography Investigation
Roxana Rominu, Cosmin Sinescu, Meda Negrutiu, Emanuela Petrescu, Daniela Pop, Mihai Rominu, Adrian Gheorghe Podoleanu

Abstract: Bracket bonding has become routine procedure in fixed orthodontics over the past couple of decades. The choice whether to receive ceramic or polycarbonate brackets is mainly the patient’s but the issues related to bonding them are part of the practitioner’s responsibility. Recurrent bracket debonding can unduly prolong treatment or even lead to compromised results. Therefore, we collected human extracted premolars and bonded them with aesthetic brackets and investigated them by a new, non-invasive method – optical coherence tomography (OCT) in order to assess the quality of the bracket-tooth interface. The OCT investigation revealed a series of gaps within the adhesive at the bracket-tooth interface. The importance of our research resides in the fact that this type of investigates opens a totally new perspective in dentistry due to the fact that samples are left intact and ready for further testing unlike of the majority of investigation methods available nowadays.


Image Mosaicing for Evaluation of MRI Brain Tissue Abnormalities Segmentation Study
Shafaf Ibrahim, Noor Elaiza Abdul Khalid, Mazani Manaf

Abstract: Image segmentation and its performance evaluation are vital aspects in computer vision although they are challenging to resolve. Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain images is essential to facilitate the neurological diseases diagnosis. Nevertheless, evaluation of segmentation accuracy has been fundamentally subjective that leads to difficulties in judging the effectiveness of the techniques implemented. This paper proposes an implementation of evaluation method known as image mosaicing in evaluating the MRI brain abnormalities segmentation study. Fifty seven mosaic images are formed by cutting various shapes and sizes of abnormalities, and pasting it onto normal brain tissues. The knowledge of pixel sizes of abnormalities is used as the ground truth to compare with various segmentation results. Three methods of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) are used to segment the mosaic images formed. The accuracies of image mosaicing segmentation are assessed using statistical analysis methods of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The statistical results obtained exhibit some variations that reflect the methods implemented. Thus, the proposed implementation of image mosaicing method is found to be acceptable as it produces potential solutions to the current difficulties of brain abnormalities segmentation performances evaluation.


Personalized Neurological Diagnostics from Biomedical Physicist’s Point of View and Application of New Non-Linear Dynamics Methods in Biosignal Analysis
Wlodzimierz Klonowski

Abstract: We discuss importance of nonlinear methods of biosignal analysis for medical diagnosis and for assessment of applied therapy. We demonstrate several examples of applying Higuchi’s fractal dimension method in Neurology and in other fields of Medicine. We discuss applications in sleep staging, vigilance monitoring, analysis of evoked EEG (photostimulation), epileptic seizures, neurofeedback, assessment of sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, of psychometric tests, of posturographic signals, as well as of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Other examples concern Anesthesiology - monitoring the depth of anesthesia, Cardiology - analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and of stress level, Psychiatry - assessing effects of electroshocks. We also discuss the limitations of the concept of ‘normal values’ in Medicine. Nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos theory are proper physical frameworks for biomedical applications. Nonlinearity of doseresponse behavior (hormesis) and informational interactions with electromagnetic fields illustrate limitations of ‘normality’ in Medicine and risk of using stiff standardized protocols. So, there is no alternative to Personalized Medicine provided by a well trained Medical Specialist.


New Nonlinear Methods of Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Diagnostics of Atrial Fibrillation
Michal Pierzchalski, Robert A. Stepien, Pawel Stepien

Abstract: Detection of atrial fibrillation in HRV signals needs analysis of irregular time series. Standard time domain and spectral method are not sufficient. We applied three new methods of time series analysis – symbolic method, fractal method, and empirical mode decomposition. Our method enables distinguishing atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and sinus rhythm, and are helpfull in tracking irregular heart rate activity.


Carotid Artery Reactivity Measurement among Healthy Young People Based on Optimized Ultrasound Images
Mohd A. Jamlos, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Carotid artery (CA) reactivity measurement is required to detect the sign of Alzheimer Diseases (AD) in the early stage. Ultrasound (US) has been proposed to be used as the best modality candidate for this measurement due to its safety, cost effectiveness and easiness. US however has limitation in term of resolution and noises. This will lead the inaccuracy and irreproducibility of measurement. In order to solve this problem, an optimized carotid artery ultrasound images are required. This includes the application of thresholding technique, points filtering and hole fulfilling for segmentation. 320 US images from young female and male have been captured using 3D ultrasound machine before and after stimulation. The developed method then applied to the captured images for carotid artery diameter measurement. The result shows that the method can be used successfully to measure the CA reactivity with good accuracy. This is very useful to be used in early detection of AD that gives only carotid artery diameter changes in few millimeter lengths.


Comparison of Renal Size among Different Ethnicities
Adeela Arooj, Jostinah Lam, Yeoh J.Wui, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Renal ultrasonography is a relatively inexpensive, quick, non-invasive and radiation-free imaging modality to diagnose a range of kidney (renal) diseases. There is a close relationship between renal size and its function. Variation in kidney sizes and shape can be associated with different kidney diseases. Studies show that renal size and measurements are influenced by some factors such as age, ethnicity, gender, weight and height. Commonly, measurements of renal size of any age are compared with the measurements that are predicted by standard nomograms. However, the current nomograms which are widely used locally are derived from studies based on western population of relatively small sample sizes. This paper discussed the influence of weight, height and ethnicity to the size of kidney. This study analysed 200 kidney samples after taking ultrasonic images from normal adult Malaysian population. The renal parameters analysed were length, width, thickness and volume which were plotted against height, weight and gender of the respondent. Results show there is a significant direct positive correlation between renal size and body weight & height. The relationship between body weight and height to kidney size also corresponds to other studies that the higher the body weight, the bigger the kidney is. The results show that the kidney size for similar weight and height is different among different ethnicities. This result is very important in the foundation of a nomogram and kidney diagnosis.


Classification of Cervical Cells Based on Labeled Colour Intensity Distribution
Bustanur Rosidi, Noraini Jalil, Nur. M. Pista, Lukman H. Ismail, Eko Supriyanto, Tati L. Mengko

Abstract: Automatic classification system of cervical cells images has been developed by some researchers. The process however takes long time or less accurate. In order to decrease the processing time while maintaining the accuracy of detection, a new method in classification of cervical cancer has been proposed. Before classification, the image is optimized and labeled. This will accelerate the segmentation and classification process. Test result shows the significant reduction of computation time compare to other results, while maintaining the accuracy, specificity, sensitivity and positive predictive value.



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