ISSN: 2308-1007


Published by NAUN

Year 2007

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 1, 2007)


Mapping Bamboo in Berangkat Forest Reserve, Kelantan, Malaysia using Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Sensor
Kamaruzaman Jusoff

Abstract: Bamboo mapping in the forest is neglected by the public and there are only a few research conducted regarding bamboo. Thus, an assessment of the distribution of bamboo resources is necessary for the utilization of bamboo and aid in the development of bamboo product manufacturing. Bamboo is ranked second to rattan in economic importance in Peninsular Malaysia. The general objective of this study is to assess the capability of UPM-APSB?s AISA airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor for bamboo mapping in the forest while the specific objectives are to identify, quantify and map out the distribution of natural bamboo growing areas in Berangkat F.R, Kelantan. A False Colour Composite (FCC) image the study area was used in the study. Sobel filtering was used to enhance the image. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) was then used to classify the bamboo species among other vegetative species within the Berangkat F.R. A thematic map of bamboo distribution was produced and the bamboo species was identified as Gigantochloa scortechnii. The areal extent of bamboo acreage in the study area was 2.12 ha. With an estimated bamboo culms of 4 009 at a mapping accuracy of 60%. Bamboo mapping using UPM-APSB?s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensing has a great potential and should be integrated with a GISbased decision support system to support future decision making, development and utiliz tion of bamboo by Kompleks Perkayuan Kelantan management.


Lightning Signature Assessment to Forecast Tornado Formation
Richard Snow, Mary Snow, and Nicole Kufa

Abstract: Recent research suggests that a maximum rate of lightning strikes occurs at least 15 to 20 minutes prior to tornado formation within a supercell storm. These maxima are associated with strengthening updrafts as they appear in radar measurements. An increase in lightning rates correlates with an increase of shear in the lower part of the storm. In combination with a strong updraft or downdraft, this shear can provide the ingredients for rotation and possibly a tornado. Polarity reversal of lightning around the time of tornado touchdown also has been examined. Thus, increasing lightning flash rates and reversal of lightning strike polarity are potential indicators of possible tornado formation. This research examines these findings by conducting a GIS analysis of tornado and lightning data from a severe storm event on 9 May 2006, which occurred near the rural town of Anna, Texas. This storm produced several tornadoes ranging from F0 to F3. The lightning data show three distinct patterns in the 50 minutes prior to the first reported tornado touchdown, which include an increase in lightning strikes, an increase in the percent of positive polarity strikes, and a spatial concentration of strikes prior to touchdown along the path of the tornado. As the study of lightning signatures becomes more refined, forecasters can use real time lightning data to compliment radar signatures in an effort to predict tornado development in severe storms.


Models for Plasma Control in Fusion Reactors
Aitor J. Garrido, Izaskun Garrido, Oscar Barambones, F. Javier Maseda and Patxi Alkorta

Abstract: The control of plasma in nuclear fusion has revealed as a promising application of Control Engineering, with increasing interest in the control community during last years. In this paper it is outlined a control-oriented linear model for the control of plasma current. For this purpose, it is firstly provided a summary of the background necessary to deal with control problems in tokamak-based nuclear fusion reactors as it is the case of the future ITER tokamak. Besides, it is also given a review of the most used simulators and plasma models, with the aim of providing an adequate background for control engineers to derive their own control-oriented model or to choose the appropriate existing one. Finally, a simple linear model based on loop control voltage is derived.


Improved BP neural network for forecasting industrial electricity consumption in China
Xingpi g Zhang, Rui Gu

Abstract: An improved BP Neural Network with additional momentum and adaptive learning is proposed in the paper to predict the growth rate of industrial electricity consumption. Firstly the industry is classified into I, II and III sectors based on the developmental economics. In the BP neural model, the growth rate of current year industrial value-added output, and the growing ratios of I, II and III sector electricity consumption are taken as input variables, and the output is the growth rate of next year industry electricity consumption. Matlab7 is used as modeling tool to design the model. The simulation result is compared with that of traditional BP Neural Network model, which show the feasibility of the model proposed in the paper. Furthermore, superiority of improved BP Neural Network is validated.


Simulating Long Term Reactive Transport of CO2 in Saline Aquifers with Improved code RCB
Shunping Liu, Bjorn Kvamme

Abstract: The geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers is believed to be one of the most promising ways to reduce the concentration of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Injection of CO2 will, however, lead to dissolution of minerals in regions of lowered pH and precipitation of minerals from transported ions in regions of higher pH. The geomechanical implications of these changes on the stability of the reservoir are of crucial importance in the evaluation of potential injection reservoirs. The possible injection rate for given over-pressures of the injected CO2 depends on the porosity and permeability of the rock matrix in the vicinity of the injection well. Local fracturing in this region can be a tool for increasing the injection flow rate but a geomechanical analysis will be needed in order to make sure that this fracturing will not affect the geomechanical stability outside this limited region to a significant degree. This paper presents a new application of improved code RCB (RetrasoCodeBright) to simulate CO2 storage in saline aquifer. According to specification of carbon dioxide under injecting, gas density and gas solubility have been corrected in code RCB. Newton- Raphson method used to solve the flow and mechanics in RCB has been improved so as to make the solutions always converge even under high gas injecting pressures. A 2D hydro-chemical-mechanical problem is respectively solved by the original and the improved RCB code. The results are presented and compared.


Numerical Simulation of Building Performance under Different Low Energy Cooling Technologies
Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury, M G Raul and M M K Khan

Abstract: Numerical simulation on building performance under different low energy cooling technologies are carried out in order to reduce the energy consumption and peak demand associated with the building cooling. The simulation is based on a heat and mass balance principle and verified by measured data. In simulation, the building zones, air-handling systems, central chiller plant and other equipments are integrated in the heat balance equations sequentially and the Euler formula is employed to solve and complete the numerical calculation. Various measures such as focusing on chilled ceiling, pre-cooling of building thermal mass and economiser systems are taken into account to evaluate the energy consumption, the indoor environment and greenhouse emission by office buildings in a subtropical climate - Central Queensland, Australia. Chilled ceiling, a radiant cooling system, is modeled using time series solution by extending the conduction transfer function method. A specific on-off control strategy is used to model pre-cooling and economizer system in the building simulation. The results indicate that low energy cooling techniques save operating energy in subtropical climates and also provide better thermal comfort for building occupants.


Modeling and Simulation of Thermodynamic Processes of Vertical Shaft Kiln Used for Producing Deadburned Magnesia
M.G. Rasul and D. Saotayanan

Abstract: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and simulation of thermodynamic processes of vertical shaft kiln used for producing deadburned magnesia is presented. The model developed is a 2D steady state model. The combustion, particle-gas dynamics and heat transfer processes which occur inside a vertical shaft kiln are modeled by Eulerian multiphase model, and Species transport and finite volume chemical reaction model. Segregated solver is employed to solve and couple the numerical calculations from each model. Numerical approach and computational methodology are detailed. The simulated results on gas and granular bed temperatures as a function of kiln height are discussed and compared with the designed data. The simulated results show a reasonably good agreement with the designed data supplied by reference plant.


An Aspect of Sustainability in the Hospital Maribor - Optimization Supplying of Electricity and Heat Energy
Davorin Kralj, Gregor Pivec

Abstract: The environment management is the consequence of EU Environmental Policy and Slovene Environmental Policy. Energy is a critical element essential to the delivery of quality healthcare services. Organizations assume responsibility for their economic success as well as for the environment and society. This paper presents a model that is developed to optimize the operation of electricity and heat energy in a Hospital Maribor. The model can be used for decision support regarding in both design and operation of hospital energy systems. The approach is composed of an aspect of Sustainability, Sustainable Management and optimization model to optimize the selection and operation of electricity and heat energy. For the Hospital Maribor, sustainability management means using resources efficiently and sparingly, acting in a socially responsible way and thus enhancing the Hospital's reputation.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 1, 2007)


rediction of the Power Ratio in Wind Turbine Savonius Rotors Using Artificial Neural Networks
J. Sargolzaei

Abstract: The power factor of wind turbines are estimated using artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on experimental that are collected over seven prototype vertical Savonius rotors. This device could be used for local production of electricity. In this research, the rotors having different features in the wind tunnel and the tests are repeated 4 to 6 times for reducing error. All experiments are done on six blades in different Reynolds number and wind speed varied from 8 to 14 m/s. Input quantity for the estimation in neural network is tip speed ratio (TSR). Rotor's power factor was simulated in TSR numbers and different angles of blade in proportion to blowing wind in a complete rotation. The simulated Results were compared with the corresponding experimental data shows that the simulation has the capability of providing reasonable estimations for the maximum power of rotors and maximizing the efficiency of Savonius wind turbines. According to results, increasing Reynolds number leads to increase of power ratio.


On The Speed Stability of Wind Driven Induction Generators Connected to Distribution Systems
A. Kuperman and R. Rabinovici

Abstract: The output power and mechanical torque of a wind turbine driven induction generator, connected to a distributed system, change with the rotation speed. Furthermore, in the region corresponding to speeds above the one resulting in maximum output power, the wind turbine output power and torque decrease in a drastic manner when the rotation speed increases. Hence, the induction generator speed stabilizes even when the power system is heavily loaded and the generator terminal voltage is much lower than the nominal value. Simulation results are presented to prove the correctness of the mentioned assumptions.


Combination study of Fuzzy Cognitive Map
Lin Chunmei

Abstract: Multi-expert constructing Fuzzy cognitive map is a typical multi-expert knowledge combination problem. In this paper, we investigate the use of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory as a tool for multi-expert knowledge combination. In proposed method, we use each expert opinion as a evidence, the possible value of weight as frame of discernment, the expert?s evaluation to a weight on frame of discernment as basic probability assignment, and Dempster-Shafe rule as combined basis of basic probability assignment m. Finally, the weight is given according to combined basic probability assignment. The strategy can gradually reduce the hypothesis sets and approach the truth with the accumulation of evidences, which make the result of decision more all ?around and more scientific. The experimental result is shown that the method can keep exactitude information, reduce conflict factor and improve knowledge quality.


Evaluation the use of fytofoam on the water management, turfgrass germination and reestablishment in golf courses
C. Guerrero, C. Antunes, and M. Pereira

Abstract: To evaluate the fytofoam turfgrass application on the effect on the water management and in turfgrass germination and reestablishment some experiments had been carried out in two golf courses in the Algarve region [Herdade dos Salgados (Albufeira) and Pinhal Golf (Vilamoura)]. In the Salgados golf course it was done an evaluation of the fytofoam application on Agrostis stolonifera ("Penncross") obtained by seed and transplantation. Soil moisture, turfgrass germination and soil bulk density were compared where fytofoam was and was not applied. It was also evaluated the turfgrass germination and reestablishment on lawns obtained by seed and transplantation, respectively. In the Pinhal Golf course it was done a comparative evaluation on the turfgrass establishment speed in the following situations: with fytofoam; with turf + sand and only with sand, on Cynodon dactylon (?Bermuda Tifton 419?) lawn obtained by transplantation. According to the results (visual and laboratorial), it was observed that the application of fytofoam sped up the germination of the two tested turfgrass species and the root development was higher both in Cynodon dactylon and in Agrostis stolonifera lawns; the soil moisture had been higher at 5, 15 and 25 cm depth when fytofoam was used and the soil bulk density was smaller where fytofoam was incorporated.


Sugarcane pulp residue as a horticultural substratum and as an organic corrective
J. Brito, I. Chada, P. Pinto, C. Guerrero, and J. Beltr?

Abstract: This work aims to justify the use of sugarcane residues as soil organic amendment and the possibility to be applied as a substratum in the green pepper culture Capsicum annuum L. Several treatments of mixtures of soil and sugarcane residues were used, with increasing doses in the following percentages 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and of 100% of sugarcane residues. Weekly evaluations of the biometrical parameters of each treatment were determined, such as the height, the stem diameter, the number of leaves and number of floral buttons, the SPAD units in new and old leaves and the number of developed fruits. Laboratorial analysis were done in order to evaluate chemical parameters on the end of the experimental work ? pH, the electric conductivity and the concentration of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn e Zn soil and sugarcane residues mixtures. It can be concluded that sugarcane residues have characteristics of a good soil organic compost, and can be used in soils poor in organic matter, and t6contribute to increase the soil fertility level. Moreover, it was observed some root development, according to the increase of sugarcane residues applied in the mixtures. Plants growing in the 100% sugarcane residues mixture showed a satisfactory behavior, probably due to a better soil aerification, which had promoted root development.


Prediction of the pollutants generation in natural gas/residual steel gases co-combustion
Ion V. Ion, Florin Popescu, Lucian Georgescu

Abstract: The effect of co-combustion of residual steel gases (blast furnace and coke oven) and natural gas on the pollutant formation: CO, NOx, SO2 was examined in the paper. The residual gases of blast furnace and coke oven are characterized by reduced lower heating values and high content of carbon monoxide and dioxide (CO2, CO), nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Combustion of these fuels leads to an increased emission of pollutants (CO, SO2, NOX). As formation of these pollutants is influenced by O2 content in flame, the case with less excess air (10% excess air) was numerically simulated on a steam generator furnace. The boiler under investigation is a 230MW, water-tube boiler having two, respectively three vertically aligned burners. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy, and equations representing the transport of species concentrations, turbulence, combustion and radiation modelling in addition to CO modelling equations and models describing thermal NO formation, were solved together. The simulation study provided the temperature, NO, CO and SO2 distribution in the combustion chamber. The simulation results were compared with the actual boiler furnace measurements (corresponding to 25% excess air).


Researches regarding the physiological response induced by atmospheric pollutants on Gymnosperm species in the industrialized areas of Romania
Zenovia Olteanu, Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache and Lacramioara Ivanescu

Abstract: In this paper we studied the physiological reaction of the foliar photosynthetic apparatus for four different Gymnospermes species (Pinus nigra Arn., Pinus sylvestris L. Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Abies alba Mill.), coming from the outskirts of the Borzesti (Bacau county), Bicaz and Tasca (Neamt county) industrial platforms. In the studied areas the polluting agents are special from a physic point of view: in the first location are mostly gases (sulfur dioxide, chloride, ammoniac), and solid (black smoke, soot), and in the other two locations, mostly solid (sedimentation lime dust and cement). The placement of the three industrial centers in depression areas, along with other specific geographic characteristics, contribute to the stability of the pollution nucleus with maximal pollution agents concentrations on the vegetation on these platforms; these realities induce the most powerful impact between the pollution agents and vegetation, fact shown by specific functional disturbances of the foliar photosynthetic apparatus (the amount of assimilating pigments)


Physiological modifications induced by atmospheric pollutants on Gymnosperm species in the industrialized areas of Romania
Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache, Lacramioara Ivanescu and Zenovia Olteanu

Abstract: In this paper we present the critical situation of some species of Gymnosperms (Pinus nigra Arn., Pinus sylvestris L. Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Abies alba Mill.) which can be found in areas of industrial zone from Borzesti, Bicaz and Tasca Districts, Romania. The pollutants are in the first location mainly gaseous (sulfur dioxide, chlorine, ammoniac), but also solid (carbon black, soot); in the other two locations, the noxious substances are mainly solid ones (lime or cement powders prone to sedimentation). Our investigation it is about the physiological modifications of the leaves (needles). We want to stress the fact that the large quantity of dry substance from the leaves isn?t always related to the distance from the polluting source; moreover, this quantity is not directly related to the necroses which we can see on the leaves and that means that in some cases the changes of physiological functions is quickly followed by defoliations and withering and in other situations the defoliation occurs after the necroses occupy important areas of the foliar surface.


Cito-histological changes due to the action of atmosphere pollutants on three species of gymnosperms
Lacramioara Ivanescu and Irina Gostin

Abstract: In this paper we have studied three species of gymnosperms, spontaneous and cultivated ones ? in areas adjacent to industrial platforms: Borze?ti (Bac?u county), Bicaz and Ta?ca (Neam? county), Romania. Our investigations (have focused during the period 1996 ? 2005) concerning the histo-anatomical changes induced by the (gaseous and solid) atmosphere pollutants on the needles; the changes have been observed in protecting tissues, assimilator tissues (the palisade layer and the lacunose tissue), vascular and mechanical tissues. Some needles have presented disorders in all the component tissues, while in others, the structure changes have only appeared in part of the lamina


Dust Storms Impacts on Air Pollution and Public Health under Hot and Dry Climate
Abbas Miri, Hassan Ahmadi, Ahmad Ghanbari, Alireza Moghaddamnia1

Abstract: The commencement of drought in the Sistan region, Iran in 1999 created suitable conditions for dust storms to form. They carry clouds of dust in the wind over the region that causes severe air pollution and makes breathing very difficult for local residents, in particular, for those who have respiratory diseases. In such conditions, people use mouth masks even inside their homes. The effects of air pollution arising from dust storms on people in the area of research were studied by completing questionnaires and visiting hospitals in stormy days. The results show that about half of residents have been subject to respiratory diseases due to dust storms during the period of interest. The research indicates that the number of people affected in rural areas is more than in urban areas. Some patients had to call on a doctor during stormy days and approximately 55 percent of them visited a physician more than 20 times per year. About 40 percent called on a doctor a couple of days after a dust storm and 32 percent mentioned that they can not call on a doctor due to financial and economic issues. Also, the results derived from hospital studies show that in stormy days most of the patients were respiratory patients, including those who were affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma. The percentage of these diseases in summer (July and August) is more than other months due to more severe dust storms. The amount of financial losses due to these respiratory diseases has been estimated at over 73.5 million dollars during 1999-2004. Finally, we conclude that dust storms have an important role in spreading respiratory disease in the Sistan region.


Evaluation of the Bacillus thuringiensis based insecticide in the control of Lepidopterous caterpillars on golf courses
C. Guerrero; D. Pereira; and L. Neto

Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis was tested as a biological insecticide in turfgrass. A field experimental work was carried out at the Benamor Golf course, in the Algarve region, where it was evaluated the lepidopterous larvae biological control effectiveness of an EIBOL product, designated RET-BT. Best results, were obtained using the highest biological pesticide concentration (2 L.ha-1).


Analysis of Single and Double Passes V-Grooves Solar Collector With and Without Porous Media
Bashria A, A. Yousef, Adam N. M, K Sopian, A. Zaharim and M. Alghoul

Abstract: The present study involves a theoretical study to investigate the effect of mass flow rate, flow channel depth and collector length on the system thermal performance and pressure drop through the collector, on V-groove absorber at single and double flow mode. This study has been conducted by using a developed internet based mathematical simulation. It is concluded that in V-groove absorbers types, the double flow mode is 4-5% more efficient than the single mode. On the other hand the using of porous media in double flow increase the air heater efficiency to be 7% efficient than air heater in single mode, and 2-3% more in double flow mode without porous media. The analyses results and the graphs obtained in this paper can be a helpful tool for a designer engineer to construct economical and efficient solar air heaters with technical dimensions.


Comparison between Linear and Non-Linear Crop Acreage Estimation Methods
H. Roosta, R. Farhudi, and M. E. Afifi

Abstract: This study employs sub-pixel classification methods to estimate crop acreage using low resolution satellite images. Linear mixture and Neural Network Methods examined the relationship between the value of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the context of Iran and crop acreage that reported by administrative office. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers a unique combination of spectral, temporal, and spatial resolution compared to previous global sensors, making it a good candidate for large-scale crop type mapping. However, because of sub-pixel heterogeneity, the application of traditional hard classification approach to MODIS may result in significant errors in crop area estimation. Fars province in south of Iran was selected as test zone, because of the cover type of the large majority of agricultural fields. Neural network model and Linear Mixture model were investigated and result in area fraction images (AFIs). The AFIs contain for each 250 m pixel the estimated area proportions occupied by the different cover types (crops or other land use). The algorithm was trained with both of reference data and in situ data which collected by GPS in Marvdasht District. For the major classes (winter wheat, maize and other crops) the obtained acreage estimates showed good agreement with the true values (NNR2390% and LMMR2385%). These methods seem attractive for wide-scale, regional area estimation in the countries that appropriate data are not available.


Protection of Natural Wetland within Development Area: A Case Study of Tasik Melati
Maisarah Ali, Noor Shakilah Mohd. Radzi and Kamaruzzaman Jusoff

Abstract: Wetlands provide an important ecological function that contributes to watershed functions, most notably in pollutant removal, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge and discharge, shoreline protection, and wildlife habitat. However, despite of the many watershed services wetlands provide, the pressure from the development of a city is great. This research is carried out to identify the threats that will affect wetlands and the surrounding area undergoing development by using several methodologies, namely observations, photograph analysis and interviews. The area chosen for the study is a wetland in Tasik Melati near the township of Kangar Perlis which is located in the Northern Peninsular Malaysia. The area was originally fresh swamp forest and in 2001 has been designated as recreational area. Currently 50.4 acres has been developed and another 33.3 acres is for future development. This event more or less provides an attestation to the function and the role of this wetland and the impacts that may occur if it were to undergo any changes. There is a need to compromise between conservation and development as conservation of wetlands is of great significance in preventing flooding.


Impact of Wetland Urbanization in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Maisarah Ali and Kamaruzaman Jusoff

Abstract: Wetlands provide an important ecological function that contributes to watershed functions, most notably in pollutant removal, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge and discharge, shoreline protection, and wildlife habitat. However, despite of the many watershed services wetlands provide, the pressure from the development of a city is great. This research is carried out to identify the threats that will affect wetlands and the surrounding area undergoing development by using several methodologies, namely observations, photograph analysis and interviews. The area chosen for the study is a wetland in the township of Kota Damansara, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, the commercial city of Malaysia. The undergoing development of the area, reclaiming17.66 acres of the total 45.89 acres water retention lake to build 6 blocks of apartment and commercial units will create adverse impacts to the area down stream. Moreover, it is believed that the collapse of a bund in the wetland in 2006 had compounded towards the massive flood situation in other cities located down stream. This event more or less provides an attestation to the function and the role of this wetland and the impacts that may occur if it were to undergo any changes. There is a need to compromise between conservation and development as conservation of wetlands is of great significance in preventing flooding.


Ranking Accident Blackspots With Reference To Cost Of Accidents Using Hierarchical Bayesian Approach
Noorizam Daud, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim

Abstract: Road accident is an unfortunate event which is a matter of serious concern to the authority. A proactive measure taken in reducing the rate of accidents is to identify hazardous locations for treatment. In order to allocate resources wisely when treating accident locations, engineers usually rank accident locations based on the mean number of accidents observed over a period of time. Identification, ranking and selecting hazardous accident locations from a group under consideration is a fundamental goal for traffic safety researchers. The search of a better method to carry out such tasks is the main aim of this study in order to improve road safety in the country. The number of accident varies within and between locations, hence making Bayesian hierarchical model suitable to be applied when allowing for these two stages of variation. This study will illustrates the use of posterior mean to rank accident blackspots.


Energy Conservation and Power Consumption Analysis in China Based on Input-output Method
He Yong-Xiu, Zhang Song-Lei, Li Tao, Li Fu-Rong

Abstract: To achieve the sustainable development of society, the 11th five-year plan of national economic and social development of China raised the energy-saving target of decreasing 20% energy consumption per unit GDP in 2010 than the end of 2005, to what extent the power demand will be affected is the main problem to be solved when power industry polices are being made. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets high, moderate, extensive and 20% energy-saving scenarios to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations of China in 2010.By computing, we get energy-saving level and power demand under different scenarios. The analysis results show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure and improving energy efficiency, it is possible to achieve the energy-saving target. China's power consumption will maintain a stable growth trend during 2006-2010. The proportion of power consumption to the total will also increase during this period, and it is expected to reach over 17.5% in 2010.


Harmony Search and Ecological Optimization
Zong Woo Geem and Justin C. Williams

Abstract: Harmony Search, which is a music-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm, was first applied to an ecological conservation problem for preserving species and their habitats. The problem was formulated as an optimization problem of maximal covering species problem (MCSP) in order to maximize covered species under the limited efforts. Then, it was solved by an improved harmony search algorithm which includes problem-specific operators. When applied to real-world problem (State of Oregon, USA), the harmony search algorithm found better solutions than those of another meta-heuristic algorithm, simulated annealing.


Global Marketing and Environmental Excellence
Davorin Kralj and Mirko Marki?

Abstract: Environmental issues have become an important element in the management of both private and public organizations. The Global Compact?s environment principles are derived from the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The process of market globalization has lead to many changes. The global economic system needs to show a more human and environment friendly face. Companies mu