ISSN: 2308-1007


Published by NAUN

Year 2008

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 2, 2008)


Environmental Awareness at the Protected Area of Brilhante, Brazil
Martin S. Lassen, Thomas Panagopoulos

Abstract: Human occupation in rural tropical watersheds has been contributing to a steady degradation of water and other natural resources. Agricultural expansion, deforestation and a lack of sound sanitary equipments to treat wastewater are conditions that threaten the environmental quality of the Environmental Protection Area of Brilhante (APA Brilhante), located in Santa Catarina, South Brazil. The area, being largely covered by native Atlantic Forest, holds a number of natural springs, important for the overall quality conservation and distribution of water in rural parts of the municipality. In APA Brilhante land use is permitted, but must be done in accordance with the principles of sustainability. To understand the socio-environmental conditions, the possible threats to water quality and to highlight the potential for alternative land uses, a field survey was done based on interviewing families that all lived inside or near the protected area. Results show that degradation of soil and water combined with pollution are the main concerns for the population. If no alternative land use practices are applied, the environmental conditions will continue to degrade. Thus intelligent management, based on socio-environmental understanding, education and effective stakeholder collaboration is needed to protect the landscape and secure the environmental benefits that people can derive from working with nature. The population requests information on how to conserve water, soil and vegetation to protect nature and continue farming for food production. For this reason the study concludes that the Brilhante community possesses great potential for the adaptation of suitable land use practices. This will help APA Brilhante to become a good example of sustainable management for similar protected areas.


Influence of Nitrogen and Potassium on Yield, Fruit Quality and Mineral Composition of Kiwifruit
Cecilia Pacheco, Fatima Calouro, Sara Vieira, Francisco Santos, Nuno Neves, Fatima Curado, Justina Franco, Sandra Rodrigues, Dulce Antunes

Abstract: Fertilization is one of the main factors affecting the yield and quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Therefore, suitable cultural practices, including fertilization, should be studied in order to guarantee high production levels and the maintenance of fruit quality. On the other hand, physiological disorders during fruit storage are common, leading to important losses of marketable yield and can be strongly affected by the mineral composition of fruits. This study lasted for 3 years (2004 to 2006) and experimental data was obtained from a fertilizer trial arranged into completely randomized blocks, with three replications, installed in an orchard located in the Portuguese Region of Bairrada (central Portugal). This experiment was established in order to evaluate the influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on the yield and fruit quality of kiwifruit cv. Hayward. Three levels of nitrogen (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1N) and four levels of potassium (0, 45, 90 and 135 kg ha-1 K2O) were used, arranged into 12 experimental treatments. Since 2004, nitrogen and potassium were applied annually. The total yield of each plot was evaluated and fruits were graded into six categories according to the weight and deformations: fruits < 65g, [65 -75g], [75 -85g], [85 -105g], ?105g and deformed fruits. After harvest, fruits were stored in normal atmosphere at 0?C and 90-95% hygrometry conditions. After 50 days of storage, one sample of each experimental treatment consisting of 10 fruits from [85-105g] size was taken to assess some quality parameters namely, firmness of the pulp, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content, at harvest. Other sample of 16 fruits of each marketable fruit size ([65-75g], [75-85g], [85-105g] and ?105 g) was taken from each plot and analysed for its mineral composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B).The present paper reports experimental results of a study with the main propose of establishing the effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on yield, fruit quality and fruit mineral composition of Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’ at 50 days after storage, corresponding to the experimental period 2004 to 2006. Results showed a significant mean effect of interaction NxK fertilization on fruit yield. The annual mean application of 60 kg ha-1 N, with the highest rate of potassium, 135 kg ha-1 K2O, led to the highest level of marketable fruit yield (19.1 tonnes ha-1). The acidity and soluble solids contents of fruits were not affected by nitrogen and potassium content supply. However, both nutrients decreased the flesh firmness. The interaction NxK fertilization influenced fruit calcium concentration. The lowest level of calcium was observed with 90 kg ha-1 N associated with 90 kg ha-1 or 135 kg ha-1 K2O. Both N/Ca and K/Ca ratios increased with nitrogen and potassium supply.


Ozone Layer Formation through Corona Discharge utilizing Natural Phenomena
Jimit R. Sanghvi

Abstract: Here it has been tried to explain the mechanism of ozone formation, which would travel into the stratosphere where the odd numbered oxygen particles(O3) has a longer lifetime, thus basically serving to the formation, even though gradually, of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. An indepth analysis has been provided on the basis of the current state of perception of various atmospheric characteristics and phenomena that can result or that can obstruct the formation of ozone particles. A theory has been developed and discussed for generation of climatic conditions to induce various phenomena like thunderstorms, lightning, etc.. The results of this phenomena is been tried to explain with greater detail. Static atmospheric conditions are discussed to try to analyse the effects on the resultant theory of ozone generation thus reducing or even curbing the global warming by compensation of the depletion of ozone.


Assessment of Development and Regeneration Urban Projects: Cultural and Operational Implications in Metropolization Context
Roberto De Lotto

Abstract: It has been worldwide demonstrated that metropolization phenomenon is changing in an indelible way the structure, the shape, the livability and the environment of contemporary cities. This phenomenon can not be circumscribed in a specific national context but it involves the urban sphere of the entire planet.
Moreover, the suburban growth and the connected sprawl, have quite everywhere the same shape and present the same problems: the most critical concern the environmental issue, considered in an extensive meaning, that involves both natural and anthropic elements.
Considering the ecological approach the paper explores cultural and operational implications of assessment methodologies able to control and address new developments to sustainability.
First the Metropolization phenomenon is analyzed throughout general data and specific thematic studies, considering the reasons of the birth and diffusion of the suburban model and the related critics; than the level of complexity that integrated assessment principles involve is connected to European Community proposals and to ethical concepts capable to guide aware plans.
Finally a case study is presented with reference to the Italian context and in particular to the city of Pavia in which a research, developed by the author, about renewal plans of urban dismissed area, permitted to define a set of integrated criteria that can support planners and designers in finding sub-optimal revitalization solutions.


Corrosion Analysis and Models for some Composites Behavior in Saline Media
Alina Barbulescu, Lucica Orac

Abstract: Corrosion is one of the main causes of metals degradation, which consists of superficial and structural changes. It causes damages and economic loss and can be prevented mainly by choosing the materials with the best properties for the working conditions.
When a material is introduced in an aqueous medium, an electrochemical attack is produced. It can be combined with other effects, as, for example, that of cavitation.
In this context, we present the results of our corrosion experiments on some composites materials (simple and oil - impregnated) introduced in saline water and in a cavitation field produced by ultrasounds, in an experimental set - up especially build for this purpose.
Also, mathematical models of absolute mass loss in time and on surface for each material are given and comparisons with other copper – base alloys are done.


Exergy Analysis Framework for Underground Transportation Systems
Cornelia A. Bulucea, Daniel C. Cismaru, Doru A. Nicola, Constantin Brandusa, Gheorghe Manolea, Gabriela M. Cismaru

Abstract: The environmental problems are mainly consequences from a too strong belief in traditional engineering and economic growth as the solution. An important human step against ignorance should be to understand that the real world processes involving energy and matter need to be linked to the environmental engineering education, design and operation. Energy systems involving coversion chain processes are highly irreversible and, consequently, they could have low exergy efficiencies. This study aimed at examining an underground railway train as a system where different energy forms occur, so that the successive energy conversion chain is emphasized and the energy and exergy efficiencies, respectively, are compared. Also, because at low speed the mechanical brake can’t be avoid, among the environment issues, from viewpoint of exergy efficiency, a special aspect is represented by an abnormal but frequent situation of train operation, concerning the unequal charge of the traction induction motors. In this application there are presented numerical simulations and experimental data related to unequally charged motors regime. The exergy analysis can help improve and optimize the underground transportation system design and operation, but also represents an environmental engineering education example.


Molecular Design, Synthesis and Analysis of New Hydrophobic Seafoams with Augmented Uptake Capacity
Rasha A. Azzam, Tarek M. Madkour

Abstract: The development of new urethane seafoams to be used in the clean-up of oil spills is the subject of this study. PU prepolymer blends that are hydrophobic in nature are excellent candidates for this technology. The hydrophobicity of the prepolymer ensured maximum encapsulation of the oil droplets within the foam cells during the foaming of the polyurethane materials, which will allow the sea area to be restored to its original state without harming its surrounding habitat or inhabitants. The advantage of the liquid state of the prepolymer blends is to only solidify and foam upon getting in contact with water, which will facilitate its application using fire hoses mounted on fireboats. In order to test the best materials for this type of application, hundreds of organic substrate candidates were tested using molecular modeling techniques in order to evaluate their miscibility with hydrocarbon oil. Elected organic structures based on their higher miscibility with oil will be synthesized in the laboratory and used as the building blocks for the polyurethane prepolymers. The more hydrophobic the prepolymer, the more encapsulation of the oil droplets within the foam cells during the foaming process is expected to be. The organic substrate candidates of various R groups, various diols of different types and lengths, and various hard block sequence length distribution have been modeled in order to evaluate their miscibility with hydrocarbon oil. Prepolymer structures of optimum miscibility with oil and immiscibility with water identified as possible chemical designs and prototypes for this type of application were synthesized in the lab and analyzed. The prepolymers were all analyzed using FTIR and NMR spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results of the modeling investigation.


Sustainable Urban Model through Fuzzy Logic Weights
M. Roscia, D. Zaninelli, Gh. Lazaroiu

Abstract: The scope of this work is to assign, by fuzzy logic, the weights to the different indicators that can be taken in consideration in an environmental impact, so to obtain a significant homogeneity and objectivity. In this paper is illustrated the calculation of the assigned weights that uses a procedure based on fuzzy logic and to define a model that allows us to estimate the sustainability of a city. The environmental indicator choice process for studying a specific context results from a fundamental analysis of the objectives, with the consideration that a good indicator must be specific, sensitive, practical and pertinent to the case under study and carefully defined. The sustainable indicators are characterized by a low degree of aggregation and a high amount of information.


Achieved Energy Assessment and Modeling of Railway Transportation Systems with Three Levels Converters
Daniel C. Cismaru, Doru A. Nicola, Cornelia A. Bulucea, Gheorghe Manolea, Gabriela M. Cismaru

Abstract: This paper emphasizes a number of sustainability-based concepts, such achieved energy and exergy efficiency, related as tools in order to describe, analyse and optimize energy conversion in electric railway transportation systems. For the sustainable railway vehicles, the achieved energy assessment provides a basis for exergy efficiency increasing, reducing both energy losses and environmental damage. Further on, achieved energy and exergy analysis more broadly can help in optimizing designs and modeling decisions. In this goal, the paper describes the mathematical models and structural diagrams of the traction induction motors, useful movement, three levels voltage-source inverter and line-side converter used on the locomotive fed from AC line. The overall structural diagram construction for the principle schemes corresponding to modern locomotives is also presented. At the end are shown the simulated waveforms of the three levels converters and the running diagrams of a high speed train.


Input-Output-based Life Cycle Energy Inventories and Modeling in Electric Trains with Traction Induction Motors Fed from DC Line
Doru A. Nicola, Cornelia A. Bulucea, Daniel C. Cismaru, Gheorghe Manolea, Gabriela M. Cismaru

Abstract: In this paper life-cycle energy inventories and modeling of electric trains with traction induction motors fed from d.c. line on basis of input-output data study are presented. The data– Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) relationship is investigated, and the importance and role of data in LCA is reviewed. There are taken into account the electric trains with traction induction motors fed from d.c. line, not simply in terms of technico-economical growth, but also as achievements of the Sustainable Development. The paper presents data regarding the materials and energies in a lateral wall manufacturing process and assess an exergetic analysis on basis of mathematical models and structural diagrams of the traction induction motor, the voltage-source inverter and line-side converter used on the trains fed from d.c. line. The overall structural diagram construction for the principle schemes corresponding to modern electric trains fed from d.c. line is also presented. Through its rational and meaningful approach, the Life Cycle Energy Analysis, and particularly an Energy Inventory will help improve and optimize the design, manufacture, operation and final equipments deconstruction of a transportation system.


Morpho-Anatomical and Physiological Effects of the Industrial Polluting Agents from Moldavian Industrial Areas – Romania, on Populus Tremula L
Maria Magdalena Zamfirache, Lacramioara Ivanescu, Zenovia Olteanu, Ramona Crina Gales

Abstract: We have studied one specie of wooden angiosperms from the areas next to the industrial platforms in Borzesti (Bacau country) and in Bicaz and Tasca (Neamt country). In the first case, the noxious substances are mainly gaseous (sulphur dioxide, chlorine, ammoniac), but also solid (carbon black, soot); in the other two cases, the noxious substances are mainly solid ones (lime or cement powders prone to sedimentation). Our investigations have focused on observations concerning the Populus tremula L. specie, Salicaceae family, in various phenophases, the state of the leaves surfaces and physiological changes of the leaves under the influence of the above-mentioned atmosphere pollutants.
The polluting agents involved favor the installation of a specific micro flora on the leaves (fungi and algae), micro flora that affects their general functions. The necrosis and the inducted foliar chlorosis by polluting agents represent the clear materialization of some profound physiological modifications which disturb the photo-assimilating structures, the medium content of water, dry substance and assimilator pigments. In agreement with the results of the experiences performed by various researchers, using various concentrations of several noxious substances on herbal and ligneous species, whatever the type of noxious substance may be, the cyto-histological changes in the leaves are almost the same, phenotypising as chlorotic and necrotic spots; in the later case, the structure of all leaves is severely altered, which leads to the degradation of the photo-assimilating structures, and ultimately to the death of the entire plant.


Intelligent Vehicle for Passengers Transport - VISCET
Gheorghe Damian, Dumitru Tapu, Gheorghe Manolea, Ileana Prejbeanu

Abstract: The publication presents the results in a research grant [9] on the specific equipment regarding the communication systems specific to the rail intelligent vehicles. It is presented the computing equipment designed in order to provide a wide range of communication ways between both equipment in the same car but also between different coaches in the same convoy or adjacent convoys.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 2, 2008)


Promoting Sustainability, Heritage, and the Creative Economy τhrough Design
Annaliese Bischoff

Abstract: Through the use of design studios conceptual design assistance was provided to officials in a town in western Massachusetts to promote sustainable design, heritage tourism, and creative economy. This paper will highlight the design process used and its resulting successes.


Testing the Efficiency of the European Carbon Futures Market using Event-Study Methodology
Paul G. Miclaus, Radu Lupu, Sorin A. Dumitrescu, Ana Bobirca

Abstract: The European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) forms the centerpiece of EU climate change policy. Within the new trading system, the right to emit a particular amount of CO2 becomes a tradable commodity - called EU Allowances. We test the AR(1)- GARCH(1,1) model on these young markets and analyze the impact of National Allocation Plans announcements on carbon prices, by applying an event study methodology using daily carbon futures returns. We find that markets are not efficient as far as the correlation test is concerned; nonetheless, the event study proves that, even if past returns reacted to VER announcements, the expectation building has been functioning correctly since investors were able to predict the market dynamics.


Daylight, Solar Gains and Overheating Studies in a Glazed Office Building
Hasim Altan, Ian Ward, Jitka Mohelnikova, Frantisek Vajkay

Abstract: The Glazed envelopes represent a possibility to use solar radiation for reduction of energy consumption in buildings, which is very important especially in regions with temperate climatic conditions. Then again, glazed facades are potential sources of unwanted overheating and glare effects that cause indoor discomfort and result in necessity for ventilation and cooling services which again increase energy consumption in buildings. The paper discusses the analysis of an overheating issues occurred in a naturally ventilated office building in Sheffield, England. The building is designed with a south facing fully glazed facade where solar energy is utilized to provide cooling within the building. In this study, indoor thermal conditions have been measured in order to determine the overheating periods during warm spring and summer months and the findings of thermal discomfort levels are examined on each floor level including open plan floor spaces. The overheating periods are determined in a duration where indoor air temperatures reach to 27?C or above for more than two consecutive hours between 9am and 6pm, and the results of the analysis are presented with a series of overheating studies. The paper also reports the findings of monitoring carried out for indoor environment in such an office building with glazed facades during their summer performance in temperate climatic conditions and presents a comparison study with computer simulation results, and discusses the further solutions suggested for optimization of indoor comfort on the basis of the investigations.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 2, 2008)


Energy Renovation of Office Buildings in Greece – Potentials based on Case Studies
Chris J. Koinakis, John K. Sakelaris

Abstract: The energy renovation and the potentials of the energy savings in two office buildings in Greece are examined in this paper, within the frames of a renovation project for some existing office buildings of the public sector. For this reason energy audits and simulations were performed. Significant energy savings were achieved in both cases. The most effective measures proved to be the energy efficient windows, the solar shading and the natural ventilation strategies, the increase of the insulation of the roof and the external shell, the installation of highly efficient HVAC systems and the upgrading of the artificial lighting. The energy savings could decrease the problems of the increased ventilation that proved to be necessary in the lounge areas and also could decrease the problems of high internal gains due to the new extensive IT equipment. There are potentials for adequate and flexible energy management if a central master plan is implemented for a targeted office building stock of the public sector in Greece.


Retrieving Integrated Water Vapor Using AMSU-B Channels over Arctic Region
Mu Qiao, Jungang Miao

Abstract: In this paper we analyze the influence of ice surface emissivity variation on water vapor retrieval accuracy in Arctic region using AMSU-B channels. The data of ice surface emissivity in Arctic is agree with the result of SEPOR-POLEX campaign, and six types of surfaces including open water, nilas, pancake ice, flat first-year ice, ridged first-year ice, multi-year ice are analyzed respectively. Miao’s method and improved version of Selbach are used to retrieve Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) over each type of surface respectively. Analyzing the IWV retrieved with the two methods mentioned above, several results can be obtained. First, the uncertainty of retrieved IWV results from emissivity variance is calculated over each kind of surface. Second, retrieval algorithms over nilas and pancake need new coefficients independently for their emissivities are relatively larger than that of other surfaces. Third, the IWV retrieved with improved version of Selbach has less average bias but larger variance than that with Miao’s method over five kinds of surfaces except pancake ice.


Channel Frequency Optimization of Spaceborne Millimeter-Wave Radiometer for Integrated Water Vapor Retrieval in Arctic Region
Haibo Zhao, Jungang Miao

Abstract: Water vapor information is very important to understanding global climate change, especially in the climatologically sensitive polar region. In 1998, Miao proposed a method to retrieve Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) content using SSM/T2 channels over the ice covered polar region. It has been proved to be effective in both Antarctic and partial Arctic region by subsequent studies. Unfortunately, with currently available millimeter radiometer channel combinations, the retrievable IWV content can not exceed 6kg/m2 using Method of Miao. In this paper a new group of channel frequencies around 183GHz are established for a future AMSU-B-like radiometer, which is optimized for larger retrievable IWV range in Arctic region. Results show the retrievable IWV range has been expanded. The atmosphere profiles being used in the optimization process are in situ radiosonde data from IGRA, suggesting the optimized channel combination is not only workable in theory but also can be put into practice for IWV retrieval in Arctic region.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 2, 2008)


Reclassifying Forest Type to a New Forest Class based on Vegetation and Lithology Characteristics using Geographic Information System at Southern Johore, Malaysia
I. Mohd Hasmadi, S. Alias Mohd, K. Norizah

Abstract: Recently forest resources management with regard to precision forestry concept has been highlighted by forest managers, in order to fulfill the demand on quality and reliable information about forest area. According to the Malaysian National Forestry Act 1984, forest is classified into several types by general classification which is based on vegetation types broadly into dipterocarp forest, peat swamp forest and mangrove forest. In applying precision forestry approach, details classification and information are required to render more accurate about managed forest. Therefore, this study was carried out to reclassify forest type to a new forest class based on vegetation and lithology characteristic using GIS technique. Ten new classes were successfully generated and mapped by fusing layer of forest vegetation types and lithology layer in Southern Johore, namely Dipterocarp-Igneous, Dipterocarp-Sediment, Dipterocarp-Alluvial, Peat-Igneous, Peat-Sediment, Peat-Alluvial, Mangrove-Igneous, Mangrove-Sediment, Mangrove-Alluvial and Limestone forest. In this study, Syzygium spp. (19.83 %) was found in abundance in two new forest classes; Dipterocarp-Igneous and Dipterocarp-Sediment forest in Hulu Sedili Permanent Forest Reserve (PFR). Beside that, Elateriospermum tapos (9.92 %) and family of Lauraceae (7.22 %) were found to be the most dominant species in the Dipterocarp-Sediment forest, while Macaranga spp. (11.21 %) and Elateriospermum tapos (11.02 %) found dominant in Dipterocarp-Igneous forest. From the sample plot, Dipterocarpaceae family constituted only 3.09 % whereas the non-Dipterocarpaceae family was 96.91 %. Hence, this study indicated that there is variation in species dominancy at different lithology of the same forest vegetation site.


Comparison Study on Moving and Transportation Performance of Transportation Modes
Wei Shi, Douwe Stapersma, Hugo T. Grimmelius

Abstract: The performance of a transportation mode is introduced as the moving (mechanical) performance and the transportation performance, in this paper represented by the mechanical index and the energy index. The paper gives a mathematical deduction of the relationship between the mechanical index and the energy index. In the mechanical point of view, the range of the mechanical index of different transportation modes is calculated. On the basis of a non-dimensional , in both full load and typical load conditions, a comparison of energy indexes of different transportation modes is presented. Then the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of different transportation modes are compared by means of a “ton payload and distance specific factor” versus “Square-Froude number” diagram. Furthermore, the results of a case study demonstrate that low speed operational strategies could improve the mechanical efficiency and the energy efficiency of ships but both the fuel consumption and emission would deteriorate while sailing in part load condition or with fluctuating speed.


Constant Voltage Operation of Self Excited Induction Generator using Optimization Tools
Shelly Vadhera, K. S. Sandhu

Abstract: In this paper MATLAB/ TOOLS such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Pattern Search (PS) and Quasi-Newton optimization tools have been used to predict the behavior of self excited induction generator (SEIG). GA is used to predict the value of excitation capacitance to maintain the rated terminal voltage for any value of load on the machine terminals. Further analysis is extended to predict the behavior of this generator with voltage fluctuations across the load.




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