International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 13, 2019

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Special Issue: Fifth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing


Volume 13, 2019

Title of the Paper: A Computational Study of a Prebiotic Synthesis of L-Isoleucine


Authors: Nigel Aylward

Pages: 101-107

Abstract: The magnesium ion metalloporphyrin complex is shown to bind the ligands pentdiyne nitrile and pentdiynimine in weak van der Waals complexes on the metal site. When carbon monoxide is also bound to the complex as a high energy compound whose particular structure has been dictated by the magnetic vector of the exciting radiation, photochemical excitation may enable both adducts to combine to give a substituted aziridine-3one. Further photochemical excitation allows the formation of bicyclic and tricyclic adducts. Hydrogenation of this complex allows the opening of the rings to give an aziridine-3one that may easily hydrolyse to the zwitterionic form of L-isoleucine with the correct configuration. The reactions have been shown to be feasible from the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the HF and MP2 /6-31G* level, and with acceptable activation energies.

Title of the Paper: A Survey on Marketing Characteristics and Production System Strategies-case Study: Cans Production


Authors: Laleh Tashakori, Abouzar Arabsorkhi

Pages: 92-100

Abstract: The companies try to obtain competitive advantages by producing customized products which meet customers’ requirements. In addition, they ought to utilize their maximum capacity and reduce storage costs. According to the demand of product, selecting the appropriate production strategy can help to achieve these goals. In this paper, we examine the market to identify competitors. Then, we examine different strategies and present a model for selecting production strategy. The idea of the algorithm "Knapsack" is used to select production strategy. Moreover, we have attempted to utilize simple numerical method for solving model. We interpret the diverse production strategies such as, MTS, MTO, ATO and ETO. Finally, the numerical experiments reveal to show the advantages of the applied mathematical programming model.

Title of the Paper: Skin Lesion Segmentation and Classification Based on an Improved Multi-scale Approach


Authors: Y. Filali, A. Ennouni, M. A. Sabri, A. Aarab

Pages: 82-91

Abstract: Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancer; its incidences have reached epidemic proportions and causes many deaths. Skin cancer can be categorized into three main types; Actinic Keratoses, Basal Cell Carcinoma, and Melanoma. The Melanoma skin cancer is the most aggressive and the deadliest form of skin cancer compared to the others. Early Melanoma detection and diagnosis often allows for more treatment options and can decrease the number of deaths significantly. Many researchers proposed to use image processing for skin lesion detection. The process can be divided into three main stages: lesion identification based on image segmentation, features extraction, and lesion classification. Segmentation and features extraction are the key-steps and significantly influence the outcome of the classification results. In this paper, a new approach for automatic segmentation and classification for skin lesion will be proposed. The proposed approach consists of a preprocess based on a Multi-scale decomposition that is separating the input image into two components. The geometrical component will be used in the segmentation stage and the texture component in the features extraction, also the asymmetry and color of the lesion are extracted to improve the accuracy of our approach. The classification will be performed using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The efficiency and the performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated in comparison with recent and robust dermoscopic approaches from literature

Title of the Paper: Sonication-assisted Perfusion Decellularization of Whole Porcine Kidney


Authors: Sreypich Say, Nathaniel P. Dugos, Susan A. Roces, John Martin Mondragon

Pages: 78-81

Abstract: Bioengineering of kidneys is a potential treatment option in addressing common problems such as incompatibility and shortage of donor organs. The first step in the kidney bioengineering process involves perfusion decellularization wherein the use of chemicals is considered the most preferred preparation method to date. However, the use of chemicals alone requires long treatment time and excessive chemical usage hence, in this study perfusion decellularization was enhanced by sonication treatment at varying sonication power (150, 200 and 250 W). Scaffolds produced were evaluated for cell removal and preservation of structural integrity. Results revealed that decellularization with sonication using 150 W, 200 W and 250 W required a treatment time of 24 h, 16 h, and 12 h respectively compared to the 28 h treatment time of decellularization without sonication. Cells were almost and completely removed as indicated by histological analysis. Meanwhile, preservation of renal structures such as glomerulus, tubules, and blood vessels were observed except for the kidney scaffolds produced from decellularization with 250 W sonication where minimal disruption of the glomerular basement membranes and thinning of blood vessels were observed. Overall, decellularization with 200 W of sonication power resulted in an acellular renal ECM scaffold and preserved ECM structure. It can also be concluded that the higher sonication power used, the shorter is the decellularization time needed to prepare a kidney scaffold thus reducing the amount of chemicals used.

Title of the Paper: A Mathematical Model on the Effect of Non-Adherence to Drugs on Diabetes Control


Authors: Gilbert Makanda

Pages: 70-77

Abstract: A compartmental mathematical model for diabetes is developed. The model describes the dynamics of the spread of Type- 2 diabetes. A theoretical investigation in the non-adherence to drugs is investigated. A system of differential equations is analysed by stability analysis, the non-trivial critical point obtained is locally asymptotically stable under the given conditions. In-host mathematical model for glucose tolerance test (GTT) is considered, actual glucose data values are fitted using Matlab least squares curve fitting technique. Two methods are used to numerically compute the distributions of steady states of diabetic sub-populations. The Gauss- Seidel method is more accurate than the Jacobi method. The results show that more than 50% of clinical diagnosis effort need to be applied to have more diagnosed population than undiagnosed. Nonadherence to drugs make the control of diabetes difficult. Other nonclinical activities such as campaigns against unhealthy lifestyles can help control diabetes. The GTT model show that if strict diet and medication is followed diabetes can be controlled.

Title of the Paper: Computer Simulation of Complexation of Lysine Dendrigraft of Second Generation with DS Dipeptide Molecules


Authors: M. Yu. Ilyash, V. V. Bezrodnyi, E. I. Fatullaev, S. E. Mikhtaniuk, I. I. Tarasenko, I. M. Neelov

Pages: 63-69

Abstract: Dendrimers and dendrigrafts are frequently used for drug and other molecules delivery to different target cells or organs. In our previous papers we used computer simulation to study the complex formation between dendrimers and dendrigrafts with different short regulatory peptides. The goal of present paper is to study the possibility of complex formation between lysine dendrigraft and molecules of therapeutic DS dipeptide. The system consisting of one lysine dendrigraft of the second generation and 16 therapeutic DS dipeptide molecules in water with explicit counterions was studied by computer simulation. The method of molecular dynamics and full atomic model were used for this goal. It was obtained that DS dipeptide molecules become adsorbed by lysine dendrigraft and form stable complex with it. Structure and conformational properties of this complex were studied. It was demonstrated that formation of complex occurs mainly due to electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged dendrigraft and dipeptide molecules. Such complexes could be used in future for delivery of these or similar peptide molecules to the targeted tissues and organs.

Title of the Paper: Evidence based Intervention to Prevent Anemia Among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Developing Countries; Review


Authors: Mubashir Zafar, Eltigani Osman Musa Omer, Osama Ahmed Labib Ibrahim, Arafat Mohammed Goja

Pages: 58-62

Abstract: Anemia in developing countries is biggest public health problem. The most vulnerable group of population is women and children. Problem Statement: The woman in developing countries has high prevalence of anemia due to high rate to fertility. There are various interventions are working in different countries but don’t know which intervention are most cost effective. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the cost-effective intervention for reduction of anemia among women of reproductive age group. Methodology: A review of the literature was done for identifying various preventive strategies regarding anemia among women of reproductive age group and its implementation barriers in low- and middle-income countries. Google scholar, PubMed, web of science and Scopus were used as search engines. Results: The result of the review shows that most cost-effective method for prevention of anemia among women are iron fortification of food, iron supplementation, community-based health promotion of healthy nutrition. Women empowerment is the best tool for implementation of all above method for prevention of anemia. The most effective way to reducing the maternal anemia is community-based intervention for health promotion and women empowerment. Conclusion: Community based intervention in which all stakeholders on board are the best strategy to reduce the anemia among women of reproductive age group. There is need to develop the policies to improve the health promotion activities and involvement of women in the society.

Title of the Paper: Automated Color Balance and Contrast Enhancement of Retinal Images for Visual Diagnosis


Authors: P. Vonghirandecha, M. Karnjanadecha, S. Intajag

Pages: 46-57

Abstract: Color retinal image enhancement plays an important role in creating an image suitable for medical diagnosis for the early detection of eye disease. For this problem domain, we propose histogram-based color balance and contrast enhancement (CBCE) which automatically adjusts the intensity values under psychometric constraints by employing generalized extreme value functions. The results show that our algorithm performs color retinal image enhancement well, while retaining a pleasing natural appearance for visually diagnosing the image. The performance of our method has been evaluated against data from the Structured Analysis of the Retina and the Diabetic Retinopathy image databases.

Title of the Paper: Variable Complexity Neural Networks Comparison for Pollen Classification


Authors: Aysha Kadaikar, Yan Pan, Qiaoxi Zhang, Patricia Conde-Cespedes, Maria Trocan, Frederic Amiel, Benjamin Guinot

Pages: 38-45

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of classifying the pollen grains observed in a microscope view acquired by a collector of ambient air particles. This classification is usually performed by a highly skilled human operator observing the microscope slide to detect the presence of pollen grains, count them and sort them according to their taxa. However these tasks become particularly heavy in the mid-season because of the huge quantity of pollen produced. This paper compares the use of three neural networks (NN) to classify the pollen grains observed which are a modified version of LeNet5, ResNet50 and AlexNet. The first two have been conceived more for non-natural images and the last one for natural images. Simulation shows that ResNet50 and AlexNet particularly lead to good performance in terms of accuracy for this kind of images. AlexNet is finally a good compromise for pollen classification when adding a constraint on the computational complexity.

Title of the Paper: SOA based Multi-Agent Approach for Biological Data Searching and Integration


Authors: Veska Gancheva

Pages: 32-37

Abstract: Major challenge in the analysis of biological data is to propose an integrated and modern access to the progressively increasing amounts of data in multiple formats, and efficient approaches for their processing. Models for extraction and integration of large amount of genomics data, as well as problems related to heterogeneity, distribution and compatibility of data are presented in this paper. SOA based multi-agent approach for biological data searching and integration is proposed. A conceptual architecture for integrating of distributed biological data based on SOA is designed. The architecture is aimed to automate the data integration and allows the rapid management of large volumes of diverse data sets represented in different formats - relational, NoSQL, flat files. The integration of different databases is solved by using multi-agent architecture. The integration system consists of services for transforming the common request into a specific language request for each local database, depending on its type. The conceptual database integration is solved by applying translating query approach. Each integrated database is represented by a separate conceptual scheme called a virtual scheme. This scheme is generated in the collating process, which compares structural elements from the database to the conceptual model. Service oriented multi-agent system for searching of biological data from different sources that sends queries to multiple databases and then compiles the results into a list, depending on the type of source is developed. The system allows the user to set search criteria and access multiple databases simultaneously. The services allow the system to be accessed over the Internet by multiple clients (mobile phones, web browsers, desktop applications) and serving a wide range of users simultaneously.

Title of the Paper: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Interaction of Lysine Dendrigraft of 2nd Generation with Stack of Amyloid Peptides


Authors: I. Neelov, D. Khamidova, V. Bezrodnyi, S. Mikhtaniuk

Pages: 26-31

Abstract: In present paper, molecular dynamics simulation is used to study destruction of stack of short amyloid peptide molecules by oppositely charged dendrigraft of 2nd generation. Dendrimers and dendrigraftss are often used in biomedicine for delivery of drugs and other biological molecules. They also could be used as antibacterial, antiviral and antiamyloid agents. Since lysine dendrimers and dendrigrafts are less toxic than many other conventional synthetic dendrimers they were chosen for present study and two systems consisting of 2nd generation dendrigraft and stack of 8 or 16 short amyloid peptide molecules were simulated by the method of molecular dynamics in water. It was demonstrated that lysine dendrigraft destroys both studied amyloid stacks and forms stable complexes with their peptide molecules. The final structures of the complexes in equilibrium state were studied also. It was shown that peptides in complexes stay mainly on the surface of dendrigrafts and do not penetrate into them. The results obtained in present paper could be useful for elaboration in future the anti-amyloid agents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, since it is believed that one of the sources of this disease is the formation of toxic amyloid oligomers and fibrils.

Title of the Paper: On the Use of Anatomage Table as Diagnostic Tool


Authors: Alexandre Taoum, Rihab Sadqi, Mustapha Zidi, Alexandra d’Anglemont de Tassigny, Kawtar Megdiche, Nabil Ngote

Pages: 20-25

Abstract: Anatomy is one of the most important course in medical curriculum. To be effective, medical student must do several hours of practice on human cadavers. However, today, less and less corpses are available to be dissected. Therefore, Anatomage has developed a virtual dissection table known as Anatomage Table. In addition to filling the lack of corpses and being a very useful tool in anatomy classes, this table can open pathological images. The main purpose of this article is to show the investigation carried out to be able to use the table as a diagnostic tool. Before opening DICOM image into the table, Matlab was used to make the files readable by the Table. This paper deals with the opening of patients pathological images from differents type of medical imaging modalities. Indeed, the opening of pathological images turns the Anatomage Table into a very relevant tool in the diagnosis of several pathologies. Experimental 3D reconstruction of pathological patients are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. After opening pathological patient files, some hard tissue and soft tissue pathologies were diagnosed thanks to the use of Anatomage Table. That’s why the obtained results are largely satisfactory, indicating a promising use in the healing process.

Title of the Paper: Light Harvesting Complex LH2 - Simulation of Spectral Profiles


Authors: Pavel HeĊ™man, David Zapletal

Pages: 10-19

Abstract: Absorption and steady state fluorescence spectra are simulated for relatively simple circular molecular system. It can be treated as a model of peripheral light harvesting complex LH2 from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. Both rings (B850 ring and B800 one) are included in our model. The spectra are calculated within full Hamiltonian model and compared for two types of slow fluctuations. Gaussian fluctuations in local excitations energies and Gaussian fluctuations in positions of bacteriochlorophylls are considered. Fast fluctuations, interaction with phonon bath, is also taking into account for low and room temperature. The resulting spectra show strong dependence on temperature. Splitting of both spectra are visible at low temperature. The differences caused by static disorder type are also remarkable. Localization of exciton states contributing to the steady state fluorescence spectra is investigated by thermally averaged by participation ratio.

Title of the Paper: An Iterative Map Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in the Neighborhood of Stress Induced Chaos


Authors: Theophilus A. Fashanu, Olagoke K. Ale, Ayo Oyediran, Viyon Dansu

Pages: 1-9

Abstract: This work examine the viability of one-dimensional Poincare section as an iterative tool for the inversion of electrocardiogram obtained from stressed cardiovascular system. The response of Heart Rate Variability to induced stress in a healthy subject on a Modified Bruce Treadmill Protocol was processed to derive R-peaks in six batches of 5.06 minutes per batch. For each stage, a corresponding iterative map was constructed with the sequenced R-peaks using the Kubios software. With increasing intensity of induced stress, the maps outline the nonlinear dynamic response of the subject’s autonomous nervous system. At the combined warm up stages one and two of the protocol, 1.6% offshoot in ANS activities is indicated with higher rate of parasympathetic activities. Response to low intensity stress condition showed symmetric ANS activities. However, with high intensity stress at the fifth stage, the map indicated an exponential increase in the number of heart beat orbits. However, the increment is characterized by skewed ANS activities with 15% acceleration of sympathetic ANS and 5% deceleration of parasympathetic activities. This profile is preserved at the final stage. In effect, the topology of the iterative maps of stages five and six of the protocol shows an inner ANS dynamical structure that is characterized by positive Lyapunov exponent. This limiting dynamical response determines the cardio-pulmonary reserve of the subject. Thus, Poincare iterative maps provide high resolution computational tool for identifying the onset of chaotic motion in stressed cardiovascular systems.