ISSN: 1998-4510


                                           Year 2007

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.
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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 1, 2007)


Cytochemical studies on underutilized carrageenophytes (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)
Leonel Pereira, Fred van de Velde and José F. Mesquita

Abstract: In opposition to the relatively hard cell walls of other algae, those of the majority of red algae are flexible and soft, what is due to the co-existence of great quantities of amorphous material and relatively scarce fibrilar components. The intercellular matrix of carrageenophytes is mainly composed of highly sulfated polygalactans, with D-galactose and anhydro-D-galactose, in contrast with the less sulfated agars, where the anhydro-L-galactose is predominant. In the scope of a larger work on underutilized carrageenophytes (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), chemical and spectroscopic analysis (vibrational and nuclear resonance spectroscopy) was carried out to the extracted and purified phycocolloids of these algae. As a complement of this work, the results of a cytochemical study on distribution of the main components of cell wall and intercellular matrix in the thalli are herein presented for the following carrageenophytes: Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus, Gigartina pistillata, Gymnogongrus crenulatus and Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis.


Image Feature Extraction Techniques and Their Applications for CBIR and Biometrics Systems
Ryszard S. Chora´s

Abstract: In CBIR (Content-Based Image Retrieval), visual features such as shape, color and texture are extracted to characterize images. Each of the features is represented using one or more feature descriptors. During the retrieval, features and descriptors of the query are compared to those of the images in the database in order to rank each indexed image according to its distance to the query. In biometrics systems images used as patterns (e.g. fingerprint, iris, hand etc.) are also represented by feature vectors. The candidates patterns are then retrieved from database by comparing the distance of their feature vectors. The feature extraction methods for this applications are discussed.


A Biomathematical Study of a Controlled Birth and Death Process Describing Malignancy
J. Quartieri, S. Steri, M. Guida, C. Guarnaccia, S. D’Ambrosio

Abstract: In this paper we deal with a mathematical model which describes the malignancy of a cellular clone controlled by drugs or radiant therapy. We first discuss some general ideas which led us to the choice of this model. Furthermore we emphasize the integration method, which uses generalized Lie series to represent the components of the solution, also in sight of possible extensions to similar cases in the theory of stochastic processes


An Improved Very-Low Power Pre-amplifier for use with Un-gelled Electrodes in ECG Recording
Cédric Assambo, Martin J. Burke

Abstract: This paper describes the development of an extremely low-power pre-amplifier intended for use in un-jelled electrode recording of the human electrocardiogram. For a lead-II ECG configuration the signal level catered for extends from 100μV to 10mV. The amplifier has a gain of 42dB with a 3dB bandwidth of 0.05Hz –1.7kHz and an differential input impedance of 340MΩ. The CMRR exceeds 85dB. Its gain and phase characteristics meet the requirements of the AHA and EU 601 standards. It has a power consumption of 20μW operating from a 3V supply. It is intended for use in light, portable electrocardiographic and heart-rate monitoring instrumentation.


Effect of the intense anaerobic exercise on nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in studies of oxidative stress
Ana Valado, Leonel Pereira, Paula C. Tavares and Carlos Fontes Ribeiro

Abstract: The physical exercise is considered beneficial contributing for physical, psychological and social wellbeing and balance of the individual, being able to delay the aging process. The physical exercise unchains a physiological stress situation, to which, the sympathetic nervous system activity answers activating adaptation mechanisms. The availability of oxygen and the nitric oxide release, provide the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), related with the origin of cellular and tissue injuries. In order to evaluate the effect of the exercise we selected a set of sixteen healthy young individuals, voluntary, that they had constituted two distinct groups: the athletes, constituted by Futsal athletes; and the control group, formed for individuals that did not practice any type of sport with regularity. The main objective of this work was to investigate if the acute and intense exercise originates, in both the groups, in the production and release of NO and in the production of free oxygen radicals. With this purpose the Wingate test is used (supramaximum anaerobic test executed in 30 seconds). After that, the concentrations of blood lactate, platelet and plasmatic nitric oxide and the plasmatic malondialdehyde (MDA) had been determined. All the determination had been made in two blood samples: one harvested before the exercise and the other 15 minutes after the Wingate test; with the exception of lactates, which was executed 5 minutes after the test. The innovation of the present study showed in the plasmatic malondialdehyde levels, which revealed in the athletes a significant reduction, in rest and after exercise, relatively to the control group. A significant reduction in the blood lactate concentration was verified in the athletes, after exercise, in relation to the control. On the other hand, the concentrations of total intra-platelet nitrites and released for the platelet, presented in the athletes a significant increase, in rest and after exercise, relatively to the control. The differences are related with the physical training, seeming to stimulate the adaptation mechanisms and the antioxidation defenses of the athletes, conferring bigger cardiovascular protection and enhanced protection against physical and oxidative stress, comparatively to the individuals that did not practice sport with regularity. Thus, in young individuals, seems to us that the regular physical activity and the intense exercise develop a physiological adaptation, such that, after a maximum acute exercise, has pointers of an enhanced cardiovascular protection and against oxidative stress.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 1, 2007)


Cooperative neural network and low-level feature extraction scheme
Maher I. Rajab

Abstract: One of the advantages of using prototype edge patterns in NN training set is that it may also be suitable to analyze the behavior of the NN investigated because of the generalization and the flexibility to alter the training set structure (size, orientation, and also the amount of random noise added). The strategy of minimizing the complexity and ambiguity in the training set is a significant factor in the success of neural network recognition. A neural network NN training set is designed and tested on a variety of real images and with different training set sizes. Experiments are carried out with a neural network edge detector NNED applied to general real images after being trained with simple and small data sets containing prototype edge patterns. Image fusion has been applied to segment a clinical skin lesion image by combining features from multiple features of NN outputs. The NNED and image fusion scheme may improve visual image interpretation for the identification and classification of benign or malignant lesions.


Modeling signal transmission and robustness in biological neural networks
Christos Kotsavasiloglou, Alkiviadis Kalampokis, Panos Argyrakis and Stavros Baloyannis

Abstract: In this paper we present computational model based on first principles with the purpose to study the behavior of biological neural networks. A network is constructed using as elementary building blocks DLA clusters, a structure well known in solid state physics, giving thus the network spatial structure, and in this way differentiating the model from most previous studies in this field. The blocks are paced randomly on 2D-space and synapses are formed where neighboring blocks overlap. The behavior of the network is studied, focusing not only on signal transmission and analysis, but also on the results of synapse loss, common in biological systems under certain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. The network’s response follows the same basic characteristics as real biological systems under similar circumstances, and the importance of the spatial structure of the network in this behavior is examined.


RMSD computation for clusters of identical particles
Eun-Jong Hong, Kyu-hwan Lee, Wolfgand Wenzel

Abstract: The root mean square deviation (RMSD) is nowadays universally used to assess the similarity or difference of different conformations of clusters, molecules, nanostructures and macromolecular assemblies. However, surprisingly, after decades of use of this method there is no available implementation to compute the RMSD of sets of identical particles, which are not covalently bonded. Since the computational effort of enumerative techniques grows exponentially with the number of particles, straightforward generalizations of established alignment procedures cannot be applied to this problem. Here we developed a computational strategy that employs branch-and-bound algorithms for the solution of this problem and demonstrate the feasibility for clusters of up to 60 particles. In test calculations our algorithm succeeds to find the global solution of the RMSD problem by sampling (on average) just 120 of 1080 possible permutations.


Studying of Chromosomal Substitution on protein Banding Patterns of high molecular weight-glutenin's (HMW-GS) subunits in wheat
Mahmood. Solouki., Abbasali. Emamjomeh

Abstract: Substitution lines use for chromosomal location of genes. A storage protein of wheat seed contains gliadins and Glutenins. Glutenins is consisted of high molecular weight and low molecular weight. We extracted proteins from 27 substitution lines related to kapla – shayen substitution lines and Chinese Spring as control samples using laemmli et al (1970) protocol. After protein extraction, the samples were electrophoresed using SDS-PAGE. We stained the gels both commassie blue R250 and silver nitrate methods. We scored the bands based on 0 for absence and 1 for presence of each band. Then similarity matrix was calculated using Jaccard coefficient. Payne scoring system was calculated for each line. We observed 11 polymorphic bands. The ranges of coefficients of similarity were 0.55 -1. The coefficients of similarity were 1 for the most of lines. The coefficients of similarity of substitution lines of kapla and parent were 1 but about kapla 3A was 0.736. The coefficient of similarity of kapla 3A and other lines was low. These lines and control were clustered to 3 groups that kapla 3A and shayen 4B were in 2 separate and single groups. Based on silver staining, the range of coefficients of similarity were from 0.7 - 1. The coefficients of similarity of almost all lines were 1. Kapla 3A, kapla 4B and shayen 7B had lowest similarity. According cluster analysis, these lines and control were clustered to 2 groups that kapla 3A was in the separate group. Based on Payne scoring system, only kapla 3A had 2* and 10 bands that can be main reason of difference to other lines and control. According to these scoring the bands of all lines (except kapla 3A) were similar to parent kapla and Chinese Spring .But some of lines of shayen and control were different and these lines were clustered to 3 groups that shayen 7A , shayen 4B and kapla 3A were in the separate group. In the kapla cultivar, 3A substitution chromosome and in the shayen cultivar 7A and 4B chromosomes had high variation in the band pattern.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 1, 2007)


Control-Theoretic Results on Dynamic Decision Making
S. Y. Xu, Z. P. Jiang, Y. Yang, L. Huang, D. W. Repperger

Abstract: Several approaches to learning in dynamic decision making tasks are developed in this paper on the basis of the application of feedback control theory to the case study of the Sugar Production Factory task. Previous experimental models are not robust to workload change and require a large amount of information to be stored. The control model presented here not only avoids such shortcomings, but also significantly enhances the system efficiency, adaptivity and robustness. On the other hand, as trust and self-confidence are closely linked to the capacity of automation and manual control in a supervisory control system, it behooves us to develop a dynamic model to assist the operator in gaining a better understanding of capacities. A quantitative model of trust in automation is then proposed to accurately characterize operator’s reliance on automation. Those results are demonstrated through simulation within a framework of a Sugar Factory supervisory control system.


A Model on Controlled Evolution of Malignant Cells and on Drug Balance between Blood and Tumor
Quartieri J., Steri S., Volzone G., Guarnaccia C.

Abstract: A theoretical model for the evolution of a colony of tumoral cells is presented. From a bio-physical point of view, we improve the Dubin model in its form of a Kolmogorov system of equations by adding the action of an external control (e.g. drug therapy), and we write a stochastic system able to give us mean and variance of the random variable (r.v.) describing the number of tumoral cells in the colony. In the second part of the paper, a suitable model for the evolution of drug concentration both in blood and in tumor, is presented. Therefore this last system is coupled to the first one, which means, from a mathematical point of view, the mixing of a stochastic process (generally non-linear and non-autonomous evolutionary equations) with a deterministic one (drug balance equations). The linkage between these two sections is given by the stochastic parameter E(X), the mean value of the r.v. . The solution of the final system allows us to find the time history of the drug control factor which could be used in order to develop a strategy for its optimization.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007)


Stochastic Algorithms for Adaptive Lighting Control using Psycho-Physiological Features
Ovidiu Grigore, Inge Gavat, Marius Cotescu, and Corina Grigore

Abstract: Light has a real important impact on our life, determining the circadian rhythm, the rhythm of our daily activity. Light is benefic for healthy people, but it can be also very helpful for treating disease or for enhancing the comfort and wellbeing. In the frame of our European project, ALADIN, light is intended to be a support for the elderly, in order to enhance their daily performance. The performance is appreciated by activity specific values of psycho-physiological features that can be modified by light. This paper will describe the signal processing techniques deployed for extracting useful features and the algorithms used for developing an adaptive light controller. Two algorithms were used to implement the light controller: Monte Carlo and Simulated Annealing. Experimental results obtained using the Simulated Annealing algorithm will be presented.


Numerical Analysis of Factors which Influent the Biotic Systems Using the Ferment Activity of Beer Yeast
Mariana R. Milici, Rodica Rotar, L. Dan Milici

Abstract: The beer producing is one of the eldest technological process which uses the beer yeasts to transform the fermentable glucides into ethylic alchool, carbon dioxide and aroma compound. The alive cells are open sistems, separated by environment through the cytoplasmatic membrane, and them physiological state is determined by controled transport of nutritives to the inside of cell or of the metabolism products to the outside of cell. The study proposes to find the most efficient way to grow the intracellular trehaloze content through beer yeast suspending into trehaloze solutions by different concentrations, at different thermo-stating temperatures and in different contact times, taking into account that this technique allows the passive transfer of exogenetic trehaloze inside the cells both at a new propagated cell population, and at cells resulted from an industrial inoculums.


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