ISSN: 1998-4499


All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 3, 2009)


Cosmopolitanism of the Planktic Foraminiferal Species Globigerinita Glutinata – A Testimony by Q-Mode Cluster Analysis
Abhijit Mazumder, Neloy Khare, Pawan Govil

Abstract: Planktic foraminifera species Globigerinita glutinata (Egger, 1895) was analyzed from 22 surface sediment samples from 9.69° N to 55.01° S north-south stretch along the Indian Ocean. Different morphological parameters; viz. average size, mean proloculus size, number of chamber and coiling direction of G. glutinata were measured and this data were analyzed using a Q-mode cluster analysis. Samples were differentiated into two main clusters, and eventually five sub-clusters. Despite these clusters are defined by particular morphological characters of the species, there is no ecological control for the morphological variations. The study suggests that the ecological parameters does not have any major role on the morphological variations of planktic foraminiferal species G. glutinata. This signifies the cosmopolitanism of this species.


Control of Dispersivity of Soil Using Lime and Cement
T. S. Umesha, S. V. Dinesh, P. V. Sivapullaiah

Abstract: Dispersion of a sodic soil occurs when it is wetted and the clay particles are forced apart. Thus dispersive soils erode under small seepage velocity leading to problems of stability of earth and earth retaining structures. The extent of dispersion depends on mineralogy and clay chemistry as well as the dissolved salts of the pore fluid. Soil dispersivity is mainly due to the presence of exchangeable sodium present in the structure. The attractive forces are less than the repulsive forces under saturated conditions and this will help the particle to segregate and to move in suspension. The use of lime and cement to bind the soil clay particles and reduce the dispersivity and improve the strength of soil has been studied. The relative performace of them depends on the type of soil and the pore fluid chemistry. It has been shown that 3 percent lime or 3 percent cement can improve the strength of the soil. The rate of improvement of strength is rapid for the first three days and gradual with further curing up to 14 days. The Young’s modulus of the soil also increases with the addition of lime and with curing. There is good correspondence between the unconfined compressive strength and Young’s modulus for stabilized soils. For the soil under study it was shown that lime is a better additive than cement.


Soil Protection and Anti-Erosion Techniques for Cotton Irrigation
Mukhamadkhan Khamidov, Dilshod Nazaraliev, Ahmad Hamidov

Abstract: In the Republic of Uzbekistan, irrigation erosion is one of the most commonly occurring problems adversely affecting agricultural productivity. This environmentally dangerous phenomenon is spread for over 660 thousand hectares in the country. In order to prevent the negative effects of irrigation, it has been developed an anti-erosion technique for cotton irrigation on eroded soils. A zigzag furrow irrigation technique was seen as the most productive and efficient way to prevent soil erosion and subsequently, increase the production. The results reveal that using zigzag furrow irrigation practices, the yield of cotton reached to 3.35 tons/ha, about 0.6 ton/ha more than the traditional straight furrow irrigation. Furthermore, this technique significantly contributed to the improvement of agro-physical properties of the soil in the experimental stations of the Uzbek Research Institute of Cotton Growing.


A Commonsence Knowledge Modeling systems for Qualitaive Risk Assessment
D. S. Kalana Mendis, Asoka S. Karunananda, Udaya Samaratunga

Abstract: Knowledge is the fundamental resource that enhances to function intelligently. Knowledge can be defined into two types such as explicit and implicit. Commonsense knowledge is one type of in implicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be presented formally and capable of effective (fast and good quality) communication of data to the user where as implicit knowledge can be represented in informal way and further modeling needed for gaining effective communication. Constructions of risk assessment using spatial data for disaster management have a problem of effective communication because of implicit knowledge. Risk assessment is a step in a risk management process. Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized hazard. Quantitative risk assessment requires commonsense knowledge related with the hazard. This complicates the effective communication of data to the user in real-time machine processing in support of disaster management. In this paper we present an approach to modeling commonsense knowledge in Quantitative risk assessment. This gives three-phase knowledge modeling approach for modeling commonsense knowledge in, which enables holistic approach for disaster management. At the initial stage commonsense knowledge is converted into a questionnaire. Removing dependencies among the questions are modeled using principal component analysis. Classification of the knowledge is processed through fuzzy logic module, which is constructed on the basis of principal components. Further explanations for classified knowledge are derived by expert system technology. We have implemented the system using FLEX expert system shell, SPSS, XML and VB. This paper describes one such approach using classification of human constituents in Ayurvedic medicine. Evaluation of the system has shown 77% accuracy.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 3, 2009)


Advanced Data Analysis for Geological and Engineering Hazard Study
Ray Ruichong Zhang

Abstract: This paper presents the rationale of an advanced data analysis, i.e., Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), for analyzing ground acceleration recordings and subsequently for studies of seismology and earthquake engineering. In particular, this paper first uses hypothetical and real wave recordings to illustrate features of HHT analysis in nonlinear, non-stationary data processing. It then examines causes of dominant HHT-based components of earthquake recordings as they relate to geological source, and engineering implications of HHT-based features of ground motion from the perspective of the motion’s damage potential to civil structures.


Using ASTER Image Processing for Hydrothermal Alteration and Key Alteration Minerals Mapping in Siyahrud area, IRAN
Mohamad Boloki, Rashed Poormirzaee

Abstract: Many ore deposits are first detected in the field by the recognition of hydrothermally altered host rocks, and are typically zonally distributed. Ore deposits are often produced by fluid flow processes that alter the mineralogy and chemistry of the country rock. One of the main reason for extention using a multi-spectral and hyperspectral sensor is due to detect the optical characteristics of the Earth’s surface using several of spectral bands. All previous studies show that remote sensing has a important impress to detection alteration zones. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radimeter (ASTER) sensor measures reflected radiation in VNIR, SWIR and TIR electromagnetic energies. It is cheap and easily available. The alteration minerals in Siyahrud area have been successfully investigated in the field and have been successfully detected by processing of Aster data. The finding shows hydrothermal alteration, which can be a model in indicating the productive units in this region. This Alteration mapping have been used by principal component analysis method , band ratio and False Color Composit method. this study and field investigation shows the hydrothermal alteration zone related to: iron oxide-bearing & hydroxide-bearing minerals and mineral endmembers related to epithermal gold include phyllosilicates minerals ( Kaolinite,Illite, Alunite minerals). Results indicates ASTER,s capability to provide information on alteration minerals which are importance for mineral exploration activatites.


An Investigation of Seismicity for the Aegean and Mediterranean Regions
Nilgun Sayil

Abstract: In order to investigate the seismicity of Aegean and Mediterranean regions limited with the coordinates of 35°-39°N, 26°-38°E, Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, seismic risk and recurrence period have been computed. The data belonging to both the historical period before 1900 (I0 ³ 5.0 corresponding to MS ³ 4.4) and the instrumental period until 2007 (MS ³ 4.0) has been used in the analysis. The study area has been divided into 15 sub-regions due to certain seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic models and geology of the region. All the computations have been performed for these sub-regions, separately. According to the results, a and b values in the computed magnitude-frequency relations are in the intervals 3.10?0.24-5.29?0.52 and 0.39?0.03-0.73?0.08, respectively. The highest b values have been determined for sub-regions 7 (Gokova Gulf-Mugla-Golhisar) and 1 (Izmir- Sak?z Island). The lowest b values have also been determined for sub-regions 15 and 8 (Antakya and Bodrum-Istankoy). Finally, seismic risk and recurrence period computations from a and b values have shown as expected that sub-regions 15 and 8 which have the lowest b values and the highest risks and the shortest-recurrence periods.


Local Development in Calabria from Desertification to Sustainibility: An Economical Approach
M. Lopreite, A. Scarpino

Abstract: The aspect that characterize the desertification is not only the discomfort related to the depleted of territory’s portion, but also the verification that it depends on causes that they are tightly connected of intrusion to the men’s levels. Actually many theories put in evidence that the desertification is economically connected to poor areas. Our analysis consider, in fact environmental factors related to the ground, vegetation that they are the basic element of phenomenon’s organization. The Medalus Procedure will furnish the impact level of every factor differentiating it for grade of interference and intensity expressing the evaluations for sectors with criterions of gradualness inside the same. At the end of our analysis we can conclude that the Medalus procedure modified considering in particular the men’s influence it is an important instrument to individualize and to analyze the phenomenon of the desertification on various levels.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 3, 2009)


Earthquake Monitoring System Using Ranger Seismometer Sensor
Iyad Aldasouqi, Adnan Shaout

Abstract: As cities become larger and larger worldwide, earthquakes cause serious threat to lives and properties for town areas near major active faults on the land. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) can be a useful tool for dropping earthquake hazards, if the relation between cities and earthquake sources in terms of location is constructive for such warning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages. In this paper we present an automation of earthquake monitoring system using Ranger Seismometer sensor. For high precision monitoring, we have developed a Labview application. Sensor nodes of the system sample acceleration with less than 0.5 jitter. The system provides earthquake engineering researchers the ability to measure vibrations of structures during earthquakes at less cost and higher node density compared with other systems.


Sustainable Development, Systems Thinking and Teaching for Sustainable Management
Zhu Song, Davorin Kralj

Abstract: Leading global corporation are embracing sustainable business development as a strategic framework for integrating their business enterprises, creating innovative solutions to the complex needs and requirements of the business environment, and thinking strategically about leading change. The theory on the basis of the practical experiences envisages sustainable development planning as a process of continuous improvement.The last three decades have witnessed a radical change in world and regional circumstances as well as in social and entrepreneurial ones. Consequently, following a holistic approach to competitiveness, it is of utmost importance to consider all the relevant factors of competitiveness. These factors could be subdivided into systemic thinking, production processes management, sustainable management and business /environmental excellence. Moreover, competitiveness is the basis for successful company performance as well as for a better quality of life. Modern trends requiring systems thinking and integrated system approach to sustainable management. Finally, innovation systems approaches emphasise the importance of institutional factors in influencing the rate and direction of innovation and sustainable development. The organization must provide an environment to “incubate” ideas which mature and translate through implementation into products or services.To be successful this must be viewed as a holistic approach that affects, and involves, everyone – employees, customers, suppliers, shareholders and society. Teaching for Sustainable Development Management can and should happen at various levels in the organization. Successful organizations have a teaching process working its way through all levels of the organization. The contribution focuses on teaching for Sustainable development management and on the issue of importance of environmental sustainable management.


Obtaining and Characterization of Composite Materials with Polymeric Matrix
Elena Valentina Stoian, Cristiana Zizi Rizescu, Jana Pintea, Dan Nicolae Ungureanu, Cristi Petre Fluieraru

Abstract: Composite material has attracted increasingly remarked interest over the last few decades and set it apart in its own class due to its distinct properties. World annual production is over 10 million tonnes and the market has in recent years been growing at 5–10% per annum. The paper shows up the research results on processing and characterization of composite materials with polymeric matrix (silicone rubber). The synthetic polymeric matrix used at the obtaining composite is represented by a bicomponent silicone elastomer that strengthens itself at the room temperature by means of a poly condensation reaction. The materials obtained in laboratory contain metallized nettling like reinforcement material and powdery nanocarbon and iron silicon as filling agent. Measurements were conducted to determine the transmision diminishing carried out and X-ray diffraction.


Analysis of Noble Gas Accumulated in the Irradiated UO2 Fuel and in Mineral Materials Containing Fissile Atoms
Marcin Szuta

Abstract: Both the old mineral materials containing fissile isotopes and the neutron irradiated uranium dioxide fuel hold fairly a lot of noble gases. Appreciable fraction of the inert gases is immobilized in the uranium dioxide fuel after irradiation exposure in excess of 1015 fissions/cm3. Noble gas atoms can be trapped by the point defects, clusters of the point defects, clathrates and small bubbles in the irradiated material. It is suggested that above a fission fluency threshold about 1015 fissions/cm3 occurs an additional trapping process based on the irradiation induced chemical bonding process. It is inferred further that as well in the minerals and in the irradiated UO2 fuel the gas release kinetics is determined by the kinetics of thermal recovery of the radiation induced defects in the low temperature range. It is surmised that the same amount of damage caused by alpha decay of uranium is much less effective than caused by fission of uranium for the immobilization of noble gases since only during fissioning there are formed conditions for strong chemical binding between the noble gas atoms and the mineral materials. Finally it is concluded identical nature of noble gas accumulation mechanisms in the irradiated UO2 fuel and in the old mineral materials containing fissile atoms. Spontaneous fission fluency for the minerals containing fissile atoms of about 2 billions years old is about 10 15 fissions/cm3. Alike the old minerals containing fissile isotopes and the irradiated UO2 fuel reveal during annealing three peaks of gas release in the low temperature range. In the range only several percent of the total amount of gas as well in the mineral materials and the uranium dioxide fuel is released. It still holds significant part of noble gases after annealing at a temperature about 1400 oC.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 3, 2009)


Geoscientific Investigations on North of Balcova Geothermal System in Turkey
Umran Serpen, Niyazi Aksoy, Tahir Ongur, Mete Yucel, Ilhan Kayan

Abstract: The Balcova geothermal system is located on the 30 km long Izmir fault within the graben that formed Izmir bay in Turkey. In this study, the results of geophysical surveying conducted are discussed with the aim of exploring possible extension of low temperature geothermal system created by a fracture zone on the Izmir fault. SP, geoelectric, and CSAMT surveys were undertaken by MTA to explore the area from geothermal energy viewpoint. Both the north of the Balcova fracture zone system and the depth of deep Paleozoic basement underlain the dominating formation of area, Izmir Flysch are investigated. SP survey showed some shallow anomalies (30-300 m) along the bed of the Ilica creek starting from the Izmir (Agamemnon) fault, indicating geothermal fluid’s flow to the north. The interpretation of Schlumberger resistivity survey, while confirming the deep concealed outflow is confined in the southern Balcova close to the Hot Springs, indicated a shallow concealed outflow far reaching north of the Izmir-Cesme highway. Moreover, two conductive zones detected by resistivity survey around 1000 m depth were interpreted as two low resistivity sedimentary sections in the northern area of interest. CSAMT survey identified two conductive zones, one between 300 m and 500 m and the other below 3000 m depth. The high resistivity zone detected between 500 m and 3000 m in CSAMT survey was interpreted as the Izmir Flysch, and a deep structure was identified between 1500 m and 2000 m. The conductive zones indicated by Schlumberger and CSAMT surveys are discussed from the geological standpoint, and new interpretations for geophysical surveys are recommended.


A Method to Fit a Nonlinear Curve to NDVI, SST and LST
Masao Igarashi, Eiji Nunohiro, Jong Geol Park

Abstract: The sensors of Terra/MODIS send us various data since 2000 year, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the land surface temperature (LST) and the sea surface temperature (SST). These data usually change periodically in a year. We apply a nonlinear curve to the data and give a practical method to evaluate the coefficients and period of the curve. A criterion to determine the period of the curve is given.


Blow-Up Regimes by Non-Isothermal Gas/steam Filtration through the Underground Particle Layer with Internal Heat Sources
Ivan V. Kazachkov

Abstract: Two-dimensional non-stationary model for the non-isothermal gas/steam filtration through a monospherical particle layer with internal heat generation is considered with a particular emphasis on the non­thermal gas/particles local equilibrium, taking into account the real non-linear properties of the media. The boundary problem for the multiphase system of gas and particles is formulated and solved numerically using the effective finite-difference fractional time-step method. It is shown that some initial thermodynamic perturbations in the system may cause localization of a gas heating (mainly due to a non-linear heat conductivity), which will lead to a temperature escalation in a specific spatial subdomains. Furthermore, the effects of other parameters such as particles’ size and porosity of the layer, an amplitude and a form of an initial temperature perturbation, the level of an initial temperature difference between the gas and solid phases, etc. are analyzed. The model considered can be comparably easily modified for the three-dimensional non-stationary case using the numerical algorithm applied. An examples of computer simulations are presented for the cases of the volcanic geological mains and for the nuclear power safety. The phenomenon of the blow-up regimes due to non-linear heat conductivity causing local abnormal heat escalation in a narrow domain may be of great interest for some natural, as well as technical systems and processes.


A Development of Earthing-Resistance-Estimation Instrument
Hitoshi Kijima

Abstract: Whenever earth construction work is done, the implanted number and depth of electrodes have to be estimated in order to obtain the required resistance value. We call this earth resistance estimation. Under conventional method of earth resistance estimation, special knowledge and manpower are needed. And also, measurement error of values of apparent resistivity cannot be checked. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal resistivity sounding cannot be done simultaneously. To overcome these problems, we have developed a new instrument. This instrument does not need an operation with any special knowledge, because the entire procedure is automatic. That is, it can automatically measure the values of apparent resistivity at the ground surface, analyze the resistivity and thickness of each layer of soil, and estimate earth resistance. The instrument effectively reduces the time and manpower needed for this type of estimation.


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