ISSN: 1998-4499


All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 4, 2010)


Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Index of the Urban Segments of Surat City, India
Neeraj D. Sharma, J. N. Patel

Abstract: The development of urban regions in developing country needs the multifaceted study of qualitative and quantitative stresses on available natural resources there within. In this type of multifaceted study, the emphasize should be focused on relative weightage of concern parameters allied with issue rather than traditional identical weightage system. The present study is intended with similar type of multifaceted approach to determine the Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) for the urban pockets of Surat city situated in Gujarat state-India. Under this study the various seasonal groundwater samples were collected for some consecutive years and the respective physiochemical analysis was carried out for particularly five groundwater quality parameters pH, TDS, Chlorides, Hardness and Electrical Conductivity(EC) suggested and essentially responsible for groundwater quality degradation in the said area. The Groundwater Quality Index for each sampled location was determined by imparting the relative and proportionate weightage to the involved parameters contributing to overall groundwater quality of the area. The outcome of this study indicates that the groundwater of the study area needs respective degree of quality improvement by the most feasible approach like Artificial Groundwater Recharging.


Nonlinear Oscillations and Rotations of a Liquid Droplet
Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract: Nonlinear oscillations and rotations of a liquid droplet are simulated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using the level set method. Mass conservation of droplet is especially taken into consideration for calculations of the level set function. The nonlinear effects of oscillation amplitude and rotation rate on oscillation frequency, which are known as the frequency shift, are shown quantitatively by comparing with theoretical predictions. It is shown for the normalized amplitude and the rotation rate smaller than 0.2 that the simulated frequency shifts are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions and the effects of viscosity and surface tension on the frequency shift are negligibly small.


Tectonic Inversions in the Northern Bend of the Chihuahua Trough
Roberto Ortega, Dana Carciumaru

Abstract: The Chihuahua trough is a deep sedimentary basin of Mesozoic age that lies along the southwestern margin of the North American Craton in northeastern Chihuahua and adjacent regions of Texas, New Mexico and Sonora. Two regions are studied, the East Potrillo Mountains and the Northern Franklin Mountains both being located at the northern rim of the Chihuahua trough. In the East Potrillo Mountains are exposed Permian and Cretaceous rocks that have been strongly deformed during the Laramide orogeny whereas in the Franklin Mountains the Laramide structures outcrop at the western flank of the range. The regions studied in this work underwent substantial deformation from high and low angle normal faults to thrust and extensive folding. This work presents a tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Chihuahua trough via dihedral and stress inversion and by different strain geometrical analyses. The overall results suggest that this region have been under different stress and tectonic regimes. The faults were reactivated at different times, breaking preexisting fractures. The compressional and extensional sequences induced tectonic inversion. These tectonic processes suggest an old lithospheric weakness reactivated during different periods.


Subsoil Damping Ratio Testing and Computing Methods?
Hou Xingmin, Shi Xiangdong

Abstract: Subsoil damping ratio measurement method of dynamic foundations was studied theoretically and experimentally based on the corresponding Chinese testing and design Codes. Results of a foundation testing show that there is a relatively large difference between the Codes method and approximate formulae. To improve the testing and analyzing precision, six-degree-freedom time histories of the center of mass of a foundation are calculated from three-component vibration curves of some points on the foundation surface, which are recommended curves as the damping ratio calculation according to the Code for Dynamic Machine Foundation Design. These studies are expected to improve damping ratio testing and analyzing methods.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 4, 2010)


Paradoxes and Perceptions in Color Identification of Paleo-Redox Conditions in Peletic Rocks from Diagenic to Metamorphic Grade
Pat Wilde, Mary S. Quinby-Hunt

Abstract: Identification of initial sedimentary redox conditions by color in peletic rocks can be potentially misleading particularly in metamorphosed sediments Conventionally, black indicates anoxic conditions; green: slightly anoxic, and red: oxic. Mineral stability fields of common Fe and Mn sedimentary minerals at higher temperatures and pH other than at initial depositonal conditions, as depicted in Eh-Ph diagrams for 0, 25, 100, and 200 degrees Celsius, shows that not all black rocks are anoxic nor red rocks oxic. We recommend that estimations of redox conditions should be based on further mineralogical, chemical, metamorphic grade and/or paleontological evidence and color used only as a descriptor of the color of the rock.


An Accurate Numerical Prediction of Fluid Flow through Porous Media
Nor Azwadi C. Sidik, Mohd Irwan M. Azmi

Abstract: The effects of material’s porosity on the fluid flow behavior were studied numerically in detail. The method of alternative finite different scheme was employed to calculate the velocity and flow profile with high order of accuracy. The numerically calculated velocity profiles for the pure shear-driven cavity flow were compared with the benchmark solutions for the purpose of method validation. To explore the effect of material’s porosity, prediction of fluid flow were made at various values of porosity and a Reynolds number in a shear-driven cavity. The numerical results of velocity profiles and plots of streamline agree well with other reported results indicated the multidisciplinary applications of the present scheme.


Colloidal Transport in a Coupled Sinusoidal Fracture Matrix System
N. Natarajan, G. Suresh Kumar

Abstract: Colloids act as carriers of contaminants in the subsurface media and thus modeling of colloidal transport through fractures has gained importance in the recent decades. Several studies have been conducted on colloid transport in rock fractures using the traditional parallel plate model while only a few have addressed the same in irregular fractures with varying apertures. An attempt has been made to simulate colloidal transport in sinusoidal fracture-matrix coupled system numerically. Results suggest that the sinusoidal fracture model behaves differently from the parallel plate model as the fracture aperture in the sinusoidal fracture is varying spatially along the fracture as well as within the same cross section of the fracture. Filtration and remobilization of colloids has negligible effect on the colloidal concentration in the sinusoidal fracture matrix system. For high diffusion coefficients of the colloids, the concentration of colloids in the fracture is very significant which is different from the usual behaviour resulting from the geometry of the fracture aperture and the proportion of colloids diffusing into the rock matrix


Landslides and Tunneling Geological Failures, During the Construction of Thessaloniki – Kavala Section of Egnatia Highway in N. Greece
M. Chatziangelou, B. Christaras

Abstract: The present paper refers to the major part of the Egnatia Highway, about 100km long, which connects Thessaloniki and Kavala cities, at North Greece. Actually, it is divided in three parts: i)Nymphopetra-Asprovalta, about 40km long, ii) Asprovalta- Strymonas, about 20km long and iii) Strymonas-St. Andreas, about 40km long. The highway has already been constructed. Driving from the west to the east, the highway, at the beginning of Nymphopetra-Strymonas part, passes near by Volvi Lake, at the foot of Vertiscos Mountain. Easterly, it passes through Kerdillia Mountain, Strymona’s river and it leads to Pangeo’s Mountain, ending through Symbol Mountain. The highway also passes through five tunnels; i)Vrasna tunnel, which is located at Nymphopetra – Asprovalta’s part, ii) Asprovalta’s tunnels, which are three tunnels locating at Asprovalta – Strymona’s part and iii) Symbol Tunnel, which is located at the last Strymonas – St.Andrea’s part. The paper describes the support measures against geological failures during the construction of the highway. For this purpose, the mechanisms of sliding and rock falling procedures were studied. As far as slopes concern, the orientation of the discontinuities and the poor quality of the rock mass, that creates cyclic sliding, were responsible for the instabilities. Rainfall also helps landslides to be occurred. During the tunnelling excavation, the sliding along a plane, the decollement from the roof and the fall of wedges were the common failure causes.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 4, 2010)


Hydropower versus Non-Market Values of Nature: a Contingent Valuation Study of Jagala Waterfalls, Estonia
Ullas Ehrlich, Mart Reimann

Abstract: The article discusses the resource utilisation conflict at the example of Jagala Waterfall, which is the highest and greatest natural waterfall in Estonia. There are plans to build a hydro-power plant there, which would conduct most of the water past the waterfall to the power plant’s turbines, reducing significantly the nature values of the waterfall. The authors carried out a contingent valuation (CV) study to identify the monetary equivalent of non-market values related with Jagala waterfall in the natural state.


Numerical Convection of Viscoelastic Magnetic Flows Past a Backward Facing Step Channel
Cheng-Hsing Hsu, Kuang-Yung Kung, Shu-Yu Hu

Abstract: Numerical simulation presented viscoelastic magnetic flow past a backward facing step channel. The parameters of Richardson Number, Reynolds Number, elastic coefficient, buoyancy effects and magnetic field parameters were studied. The larger buoyancy effect was along with a larger Richardson Number. Transient coexistence of multiple second recirculation zone appear in downstream. The four symmetry vortexes appeared on the upper and lower plate. The oscillation phenomena were similar to Karman vortex. Under the same Richardson Number, Reynolds Number, and the elastic coefficient, the higher the magnetic field parameters resulted to the shorter length of the main and second recirculation zone.


Experimental Research Regarding the Evaluation of the Sand Liquefaction Sensibility using the Cone Penetration Test
Mirea Monica, Voicu Cristina Otilia

Abstract: The relationships between the cone penetration type resistance (CPT) and the liquefaction potential of sandy soils are presented to facilitate the use of CPT in liquefaction assessments. The proposed CPT – based relationships were developed to eliminate the need to rely on conversion of standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts to CPT type resistance used by existing CPT liquefaction potential relationships.


Regional Methodologies to Estimate the Sediment Transport Rate in Watersheds in Puglia
U. Fratino, V. Iacobellis, E. Borrino, A. Pagano

Abstract: Soil erosion is a natural physical phenomenon associated to changes in surface earth morphology. It usually develops quite slowly, even if it is often accelerated because of anthropic actions. Erosion depends on many different connected factors, such as climatic conditions, soil type, morphology, hydrology, vegetation, crops and agricultural techniques. Erosion processes can be described both in a qualitative and a quantitative way, and referring to many different spatial and temporal scales of analysis. In this paper, an analysis of erosion and transport dynamics in watersheds in Puglia, Southern Italy, is proposed, with the aim of investigating the most influential parameters in the development of these phenomena on wider scales. Integrating a modeling activity with the analysis of field data, many different relationships are proposed, particularly to relate the solid transport with climate, morphology, hydrological and hydraulic characteristics of the sampling area. This could be particularly useful to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the entity of erosion processes in ungauged watersheds. Moreover, the effects of erosion are also related to some parameters which are strictly connected with the characteristics of the investigated region, such as area and index flood. Furthermore, considering the fundamental mechanisms of flow generation, the relationship between sediment transport rate and areas contributing to runoff are analyzed. Finally, once detected the most influential parameters, some multiple regressions are performed and the results are here critically interpreted.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 4, 2010)


Effect of Horizontal Drains on Upstream Slope Stability During Rapid Drawdown Condition
S. M. Ali Zomorodian, S. Mehdi Abodollahzadeh

Abstract: The rapid drawdown case is one of the most severe loading conditions that an earthen slope can experience and it is quite common in embankment dams. Rapid drawdown can cause a temporary increase in pore water pressure. The increased seepage forces may lead to slope instability, causing the collapse of structure. This paper discusses the effect of horizontal drains on upstream slope of earthfill dams during rapid drawdown using finite elements and limit equilibrium methods. Changing of pore water pressure, outpouring seepage flow and factor of safety are inspected.


An Efficient Detection and Classification Method for Landmine Types Based on IR Images Using Neural Network
A. Mahmoud, H. Farouk

Abstract: Infrared Image characteristics have some interesting capabilities that may assist in the detection of shallowly buried objects, in particular to help in the identification of landmine contaminated areas. This paper presents some preliminary results for the detection of buried Anti-Personnel Landmines (APLs) using an infrared imaging system. We describe an algorithm for the detection of landmine candidates by exploiting features in the images after extracting the object from background. Different threshold levels are applied to select groups of pixels that correspond to the object, and are the ones that could indicate a target position to the produced binary images. Unsupervised Self Organizing Map neural network was employed to differentiate among the land mines for better choice of the suitable removal method. Our test results approved more than 98% detection accuracy.


Arc-Continent Collisions: General Regularities
Victor N. Puchkov

Abstract: The arc-continent collision is a process which is described in many Phanerozoic foldbelts; there are examples of active collisional orogens of such type among them. It is shown that the origin and development of arc-continent collisional orogens is subordinate to some regularities and laws. They happen only as a collision of an arc with a passive continental margin, and only in case when a subduction zone dips out of a colliding continent. The collisions are accompanied by a dramatic change of a terrigenous provenance and are characterized by exhumation of HP-LT metamorphic complexes. To date these events means to date the collision. The orogenic structures accompanying the collision follow general regularities of a critical wedge theory and model. One of the consequences of this theory is a regular “nappe stratigraphy” where the age of a nappe depends on its position in a nappe stack (the higher, the older). As for the lateral rows of structures, seismic images of foreland structures reveal in some cases a transition from “thin skinned” tectonics to “thick skinned” and then to a suture zone with predominant squeezing and crushing. The collisional structures “in plan” reveal plastic features and ability of oroclinal deformations, in contrast with “ideal” rigid lithospheric plates. The arc-continent collisions often demonstrate diachroneity, when one flank of an arc collides earlier then another, suggesting that they are rather random, depend on local conditions and not subjected to a strict global rhythm.


Periodical Character of Failure Near the Openings on High Depth
Vladimir V. Makarov, Ljudmila S. Ksendzenko

Abstract: Rock mass failure on the high depth near the underground openings often has zonal character. The mechanism of this phenomena consist in the periodical character of stresses in surrounding rock mass and developing of tensile macrocracks at the places (zones) of maximum tangential stresses. Mathematical model of the high stressed rock mass is developed on base of the defect medium mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics principals. The correspondence between the experimental research of faulted zonal structures near the high depths openings and mathematical model calculation is achieved. Relationships between the width of cracking zones and rock mass strength property have been determined.


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