International Journal of Geology

ISSN: 1998-4499
Volume 9, 2015

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 9, 2015

Title of the Paper: Characterization and Soil Mapping of the Caia Irrigation Perimeter


Authors: J. Nunes, L. Loures, A. Loures, A. Piñeiro, A. Albarran

Pages: 59-63

Abstract: The Caia Irrigation Perimeter is an irrigation infrastructure that had its start of operations in 1968. The soil map of this region, made before the Irrigation Perimeter construction (1961), uses a 1:50 000 scale and the Portuguese soil classification system, which, though remarkably elaborate, did not achieve the desirable wide world dissemination. So, it seemed two us imperative that the classification of these soils were redone, updated, using a larger scale and therefore more suited to the characterization of a relatively small sized zones, where intensive agricultural practices take place, and using a system of soil classification universally accepted, the system recommended by the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources [1]. For this purpose, we begun by gathering the geological characterization of the study area and information about the topography of this region. Based on the overlap of this two kinds of information, we identify areas that matched a particular geology and topography (main differentiating aspects of the soil units on this region), allowing the establishment of a pre-map of soil resources. Based on this pre-map, we define a set of detailed itineraries in the field, evenly distributed, collecting several soil samples in each of the units mapped. In those distinct soil units, we opened several soil profiles, from which we select 26 to present here, the ones characterize the diversity existing in the matter of soil type and in the matter of soil properties. Based on the work of verification, correction and reinterpretation of the preliminary soil map, we reached the soil map of the Caia Irrigation Perimeter which is characterized by an enormous heterogeneity, typical from Mediterranean soils, containing 23 distinct cartographic units, being the most representative the Distric Fluvisols with inclusions of Luvisols Distric occupying 29,9% of the total study area and Calcisols Luvic with inclusions of Luvisols endoleptic with 11,9% of the total area.

Title of the Paper: A Static Model of a Geyser Induced by Gas Inflow : Understanding Spouting Periods through the Model


Authors: Hiroyuki Kagami

Pages: 53-58

Abstract: I derived a static model and a dynamical model of a geyser induced by gas inflow based on detailed observation of the indoor model experiments and have modified the dynamical model in diverse ways. In this paper we introduce the static model and analytical results of it for the sake of understanding of the spouting period of a geyser induced by gas inflow. I confirmed that results of analysis of the model agreed those of the indoor model experiments. As a result, dependence of the spouting period of a geyser induced by gas inflow on various parameters is clarified theoretically. Finally, we also mention the application of results of the indoor model experiment and the static model of a geyser induced by gas inflow to the real geyser system. Then it is shown that the system of the indoor model experiment represents well the real geyser system. And we see that in case it is assumed that there are general forces that support the water pole packed in the spouting pipe just before spouting, the larger the general forces are, the longer the spouting period is.

Title of the Paper: Simulation Environment for Detailed Simulation of Coal Mining in Various Types of Coal Seam


Authors: Victor V. Okolnishnikov, Sergey V. Rudometov, Sergey S. Zhuravlev, Vasily V. Sinoviev

Pages: 47-52

Abstract: One of a future developments of simulation is to create very detailed simulation models with wide application “from the box”, with minimum involvement of simulationists and maximum involvement of field engineers. The article describes a new specialized library of simulation models of mining machinery for coal mining in flat-lying coal seam. The library is based on the own visual interactive discrete simulation environment of technological processes. A number of models of coal-mining in flat-lying coal seam developed with using of the specialized library are presented. These libraries allow creating complex simulation models fast, interactively, and using them in all kinds of simulation tasks: “what-if” ones, presentation, training, hardware development with all “in-the-loop” manners.

Title of the Paper: A Modelling Approach with Macroscopic Cellular Automata for Hazard Zonation of Debris Flows and Lahars by Computer Simulations


Authors: Valeria Lupiano, Guillermo Machado, Gino M. Crisci, Salvatore Di Gregorio

Pages: 35-46

Abstract: Cellular Automata (CA) represent both abstract dynamical systems evolving on the base of local interactions of their constituent parts and a parallel computational paradigm for modelling complex phenomena, whose evolution may be explicated mostly in terms of local rules. CA represent a powerful tool for simulating fluid-dynamical system; Macroscopic CA (MCA) characterize a methodological approach, which proved efficacious for modelling and simulating large scale surface flows. Fast-moving flow-like “landslides”, as lahars, debris and mud flows, give rise to very destructive natural disasters as number of casualties in the world. Simulation of such phenomena could be an important tool for hazard management in threatened regions. This paper presents the modelling methodology of MCA for such a type of surface flows together with some models, based on this approach. They are SCIDDICA-SS2, SCIDDICA-SS3 (both for debris, mud and granular flows) and LLUNPIY (for primary and secondary lahars). Such models share certain features (common sub-states and elementary processes), while different specifications are introduced according to the peculiarities of related surface flows. Examples of simulations of both past (validation phase) and probable future events (developing hazard scenarios) are presented for each model. The last version of LLUNPIY is here introduced with new applications to lahar hazard related to Ecuador’s volcanos Cotopaxi and Tungurahua.

Title of the Paper: Remote Sensing and GIS for Urban Expansion and Land Use Change Trajectory from 1975 to 2015 in Samara City, Russia


Authors: M. S. Boori, K. Choudhary, A. Kupriyanov, V. Kovelskiy

Pages: 25-34

Abstract: This study illustrates the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban expansion and land use change trajectory with concern of population, migration and urbanization led problems related to quality of life in Samara city, Russia from 1975 to 2015. Landsat satellite imageries of five different time periods from 1975 to 2015 were used. Supervised classification methodology has been employed using maximum likelihood technique in ArcGIS 10.1 Software. By classification four major land cover classes were observed: water, built-up, forest and grassland. Then, land cover area for all classes in different years were measured and coupled with population data. Results show that, urban expansion and built-up area is correlated with population of samara city with high speed of economic development. The present study revealed an increase in built-up by 37.01% from 1975 to 1995, than reduce -88.83% till 2005 and an increase by 39.16% from 2005 to 2015, along with the increase in population, migration from rural areas owing to the economic growth and technological advantages associated with urbanization. Information of urban expansion, land use/cover change study is very useful to local government and urban planners for the future plans to sustainable development of the city.

Title of the Paper: A Proposal of Resilience Indicators for Monfragüe National Park


Authors: Jacinto Garrido Velarde, Julián Mora Aliseda

Pages: 15-24

Abstract: Natural spaces represent environmental systems with a double function, both social and ecological, where environmental sustainability conditions can be assessed. One of the most important features of the socio-ecological systems is called resilience, which is related to the magnitude of the forces or pressures that a system can absorb remaining in a stable state and thus being able to self-organize and improve their ability to learn and adapt. The main objective of this study is to design and propose a resilience indicator system for Monfrag?e National Park, in response to the need for a set of enough data to monitoring the short, medium and long term persistence of protected area against changes or environmental impacts, social and economic environment of the Park. We expect that, by laying down the objectives, it will be possible for the relevant authorities to adopt strategies of sustainable management. The resilience indicators systems proposed in this study for Monfrag?e National Park, could be recommended for subsequent application of resilience indicators in other National Parks.

Title of the Paper: On the Dynamic Behavior of a New Shear Dissipater for the Seismic Protection of Structures


Authors: Dora Foti

Pages: 6-14

Abstract: The present paper describes a new dissipation device that can be utilized to reduce the seismic effects on civil engineering structures and preserve their structural integrity. The new device is made of aluminum and steel; it dissipates energy through the hysteretic behavior and the local plasticization of aluminum. It is a very simple device with a low cost of production. The proposed dissipater has been first tested using a monotonic type load in order to characterize it and to determine its mechanical parameters. Then its capacity to dissipate energy has been confirmed by a series of shaking-table tests on a 3D steel frame protected with these new devices. The frame has been subjected to a series of records from an impulsive earthquake such as Aigio allowing to determine the nonlinear behavior of the dissipaters under severe working conditions, and to assess the efficiency of the device.

Title of the Paper: Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Wall Rotating about Top


Authors: Ahad Ouria, Sajjad Sepehr

Pages: 1-5

Abstract: Traditional methods for calculation of lateral earth pressure on retaining walls such as Coulomb and Rankin theories are developed based on the limit equilibrium state considering horizontal displacement of the wall. In some practical cases, movement of the wall consists of displacements and rotations. In this paper, lateral earth pressure distribution on retaining wall for cohesiveless backfill and slope surface is investigated. Formulation is derived based on the mode of the movement of the wall assuming a rotation about the top of the wall achieving the plastic limit equilibrium state according to Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria. The result of this investigation shows that the pressure distribution is a nonlinear function of depth unlike the results of Rankin and Coulomb. The shape of the resultant earth pressure distribution curve is a function of internal friction angle of the backfill material. The amount of the resultant lateral earth pressure is very close to the magnitude determined by coulomb’s theory. The application point of the resultant lateral earth pressure is located at higher than 1/3 of wall height and changes by the change of the internal friction angle of the backfill soil.