International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 9, 2015

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 9, 2015

Title of the Paper: Preliminary Study on Gait Variability Analysis with a Single Axis Gyroscope for Alzheimer and Parkinson’s Diseases


Authors: G. Avitabile, G. Coviello, N. Margiotta

Pages: 155-158

Abstract: Gait analysis methods to evaluate the spatiotemporal variability based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs) are present in literature. In this paper a preliminary study on the time gait variability as a tool for early diagnosis is presented. The system is non-invasive as it is composed by only a single axis gyroscope positioned on the patient shin. The unit uses a Bluetooth Low Energy interface for automatic data download and analysis. Twenty cognitively normal subjects have been used in order to exploit the system’s capability, with very good results. They were asked to use the device during the day in the normal activity. The algorithm is able to isolate the walk session and to calculate the global duration, the mean and the standard deviation of the gait duration. The proposed wearable gait analysis device is a promising tool for clinical study.

Title of the Paper: Anti-Inflammatory and Antiplatelet Activity of Isolated Phenolics from Wine Wastes


Authors: Moschona Alexandra, Papi Rigini, Kyriakidis A. Dimitrios, Liakopoulou-Kyriakides Maria

Pages: 151-154

Abstract: Interesting fractions or/and constituents from wine wastes (both red and white marc) were obtained by solvent extraction and sorption/desorption techniques. The specific fractions may have applicability in food and pharmaceutical industries, by presenting simultaneously antioxidant activity (DPPH method), antiplatelet activity (in vitro) and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of cycloogygenases 1 and 2) properties. Specific components, such as gallic acid, quercetin and kaempferol, which identified in the active fractions, were also tested for their contribution to the above mentioned activities.

Title of the Paper: Gait Kinetic Analysis of the Mechanical Vibration Stimulus Approved for Gait Ability Enhancement


Authors: K. Y. Kwak, M. H. Park, D. W. Kim

Pages: 141-150

Abstract: During gait postural balance is important. Postural balance is requires sensory, muscular and central nerve systems. Therefore, to improve gait disorder, the senses related to postural balance should enhanced by using the external stimulus on sensory system. But, there have not been many studies on kinetic changes of gait, when a somatosensory stimulation is applied. Gait kinetic analysis was performed to validate the vibratory mechanical stimulation device in actual situation with 3D gait motion analysis. The results showed changed ground reaction force and lower-limb kinetic properties which was considered that local vibratory mechanical stimulation gave immediate feedback and changed the characteristics of gait. This study used a real-time analysis of patient’s gait and external stimulation applied at proper timing and its results would be applied in patients who have gait abnormality due to lack of postural balance for rehabilitation.

Title of the Paper: Application of Music Listening and EEG Analysis for Sustained Attention Training


Authors: Ying-Fang Lai, Chien-Yuan Lai, Hsiu-Sen Chiang

Pages: 133-140

Abstract: There is a very close relationship between the attention and learning in cognitive psychology. Due to the technological advancements, many of web-based and mobile application (such as browsing the website, and addicted to the mobile games etc.) often attracts users’ attention. A common problem associated with these phenomena is difficulty with the ability to maintain attention or concentration in the working or learning process. Many previous studies had found music listening can improve concentration and extend the duration of attention. However, the inappropriate music also influences the users focus their attention. Therefore, this study develops an attention training system based on music listening by analyzing EEG features. The experimental results show that the system can improve concentration and sustained attention in the working or learning process by providing users a personalized list of songs.

Title of the Paper: Bounding Errors in Estimates of Genome Copy Number Variations Using SNP Array


Authors: Jorge Muñoz Minjares, Yuriy S. Shmaliy

Pages: 127-132

Abstract: Measurements of chromosomal changes provided using the modern single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array technology are accompanied with extensive noise. This makes difficulties in the estimation of genome copy number variations (CNVs) essential for human life. We propose an efficient algorithm for computing the confidence upper and lower boundary limits in order to guarantee an existence of genomic changes with a required probability. The algorithm is designed to approximate the breakpoint jitter probability with the discrete skew Laplace distribution. We test some SNP-based measurements by the upper and lower confidence bound masks and show special cases when the estimated chromosomal change may not exist and the breakpoint locations cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy.

Title of the Paper: Automatic Detection of Abnormalities in ECG Signals : A MATLAB Study


Authors: M. Hamiane, I. Y. Al-Heddi

Pages: 121-126

Abstract: The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart. Interpretation of the ECG signal allows diagnosis of a wide range of heart conditions. These conditions can vary from minor to life threatening. In this paper real ECG records provided by the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database are used to build an efficient mechanism for detecting abnormalities in the ECG records. Prior to the detection, selected filters are used to eliminate any interference while maintaining the useful information within the signal. Detection of Heartbeat-related abnormalities of other heart diseases such as AV blockage and Ventricular Fibrillation is implemented. Results of ECG signal preprocessing and abnormality detection demonstrate the suitability of the selected filtering techniques and the efficiency of the detection mechanisms.

Title of the Paper: Gender Factor in Choosing Affecting Diabetes Mode of Treatment in Saudi Arabia


Authors: Yahya M. AlMurtadha, Abdelrahman O. Elfaki, Osman A. Abdalla, Mustafa H. Alfrraj

Pages: 114-120

Abstract: The number of patients with Diabetes is increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Two issues have been statistically studies: significant relationship between gender and treatment mode, and relations between the gender type and mode of treatment. As results, statistical analysis showed a significance relation (P value < 0.050) between the gender and the diabetes mode of treatment. Then, the second statistical analysis proved that using insulin and diet showed better diabetes control for women. The t-test couldn’t identify which treatment mode is better for men, though we used data mining techniques to explore the data and recommend the most effective treatment mode. Regression analysis recommends that using insulin, drugs, diet and smoking cessation showed better diabetes control for men and doing exercises is most effective with women group.

Title of the Paper: Digital Facial and Cephalometric Analysis in the Orthodontic Treatment of a Class III High Angle Patient: A Case Report


Authors: Camelia Szuhanek, Riham Nagib, Eduard Paraschivescu, Dana Cristina Bratu, Silviu Brad, Daniel Malita

Pages: 109-113

Abstract: In modern othodontics, diagnosis and treatment planning are becoming more reliant on computer technology , which has seen great improvement in the recent past. Digital record taking has become the preferred method of obtaining diagnosis aids, allowing an easy transition towards digital facial analysis and computer assisted cephalometric measurements. The preliminary diagnosis process and treatment of a 28 year old adult female patient with skeletal class III, increased anterior face height and severe transverse maxillary growth deficit is presented. Digital photographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs documented the soft tissue and skeletal features of the patient. Combined surgical-orthodontic treatment was chosen to correct the skeletal class III. The maxilla was remodeled using fixed orthodontic appliances with mini-implant anchorage, without any rapid expansion or surgically assisted rapid expansion devices. Both arch length deficiency and the significant transverse anomaly were corrected through dentoalveolar remodeling, leaving the sagittal correction to surgery. Final assesment of the results was done by comparing initial digital measurements taken in the diagnosis phase with the digital analysis of the final records taken at the end of treatment. Satisfactory dentofacial aesthetics were achieved.

Title of the Paper: Stationary Segment Method to Localize and Estimate the Duration of the ANS Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activities


Authors: A. Bouziane, B. Yagoubi, S. Benkraouda

Pages: 104-108

Abstract: The heart rate variability (HRV) signals, extracted from an electrocardiograph (ECG) signal, are strongly linked to the activities of the Autonomous Nervous System (ANS). In this work, we propose a method to compute the duration of the two ANS activities; Sympathetic and Parasympathetic as well as observing their instantaneous evolution in time. The HRV signal in the low frequency and high frequency bands is, naturally, non stationary due to the non steady state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic behavior. We believe that a steady state or steady behavior of the ANS is, in fact, a stationary state of the HRV signal, and it is the result of one activity dominance only and not an alternation of both of the two activities. We have, therefore, segmented the HRV signal into stationary segments, and henceforth each of them was represented by Gaussian white noise whose variance is also its Power Spectral Density (PSD). We have obtained good duration estimation and localization of the two activities using stationary segments with 16 samples each.

Title of the Paper: Activities of Excitatory Cells of Neuron and Unicellular Organism


Authors: Atsushi Fukasawa, Yumi Takizawa

Pages: 98-103

Abstract: Activities of a neuron and paramecium is presented based on electro-physical modelling. Commonality is shown for a neuron and paramecium as an origin of excitatory cells. Paramecium is one of the unicellular organism. This paper first presents electro-physical modeling composed of three electrical zones and two depletion layers formed in cytoplasm of active cells. This paper then presents electrical modelling and characteristic equations for amplifier and positive pulse generator. System synchronization is then presented with mutual pulse injection among neurons. Correlation of paramecium and a neuron is presented for validation of the proposed model of active neuron by the authors.

Title of the Paper: Telemedicine for Africa: Collaborative Action Between Italy and Swaziland Against HIV Infection


Authors: R. Pizzi, L. Oreni, S. Grassi, A. L. Ridolfo, S. Rusconi, F. Croce, M. Galli

Pages: 90-97

Abstract: Telemedicine is a powerful tool to support remote hospitals to promote health in developing countries. However, Digital Divide is a strong obstacle to the diffusion of this technology. We developed a Telemedicine platform with a minimum need of connectivity and software resource and high usability, to support the Swaziland caregivers in their fight against the AIDS/HIV disease. The platform offers the possibility of real-time professional consulting, learning tools, scientific documentation availability, and data exchange to the  physician of the Siteki Hospital in Swaziland, whose number is severely insufficient. The platform is supported by the physicians of the Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital L. Sacco, Milan, Italy, and has been implemented using the WordPress CMS enhanced with  LMS facilities to ensure an easy management by the African caregivers. After the positive training and testing stage, we aim to integrate the platform with the Siteki Hospital information system to facilitate the clinical data exchange.

Title of the Paper: Deposition Volume and Conditioning Time for Good Nernstian Response from a Novel PVC-Based Mn(TPP)Cl Membrane for Histamine Sensitive FET


Authors: S. F. Mohammed Esa, Khuan Y. Lee, R. Jarmin

Pages: 83-89

Abstract: Histidine, a type of amino acid in fish muscle tissue, is capable of causing scombroid poisoning. This happens when the toxin produced by the fish due to mishandling of storage, histamine, reacts with the decarboxilased enzymes. Ingesting of histamine exceeding the FDA safety limit of 100ppm brings on symptoms of scombroid poisoning such as facial swelling, headache, vomiting, diarrhea and low blood pressure. Existing techniques for detecting histamine such as HPLC and TLC are expensive in terms of cost, labour and time, as well as in need of seasoned physicians. On the contrary, recent advances in semiconductor IC technology based manufacturing enables production of robust, simple, cost effective and miniaturized ISFETs. Literature review found majority previous works on ISFETs for detection of H+-ions. However, ISFETs can be adapted to detect other ion types. Our previous work, being the first attempt, has shown that ISFET can be adapted for detecting histamine with the use of a novel polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based membrane, plasticized with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), enhanced with ionophore manganese tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (Mn(TPP)Cl) and polyHEMA layer on its insulator gate.This paper intends to determine the membrane deposition volume and conditioning time for membrane to achieve high Nernstian slope of sensitivity. It is found that ISFETs that are sensitive to H+-ions also are sensitive to histamine ions. In examining the effect of deposition volume, it can be deduced that a deposition volume of 20μL is optimal for sensitivity of adapted ISFETs to histamine ions. In examining the effect of conditioning time, it is observed that adapted ISFETs with membrane conditioned for 1 hour are found with higher sensitivity than those for 3 hours, over the full range of histamine solution concentration, in 0.05 molar of histamine conditioning solution and at a constant 20uL of membrane cocktail.

Title of the Paper: Computational Study on the Binding Affinity Between Microtubules and Consciousness-Altering Substances


Authors: R. Pizzi, T. Rutigliano, A. Ferrarotti, M. Pregnolato

Pages: 75-82

Abstract: Microtubules (MTs, protein polymers of tubulin) are very important in a number of cellular processes: they are part of cell cytoskeleton and are  involved in cell division  and intracellular transport. Their quantum properties inside neurons are also supposed to be involved in the consciousness process. A number of drugs are able to bind to tubulin and MTs and modify their activation states. To investigate the hypothesis of a possible correlation between conscious states and these molecular interactions we simulated the binding affinity between MTs and three psychotropic ligands, namely  heroin, cocaine and LSD. After preparing ligands using Molecular Dynamics, we applied docking procedures analyze the microtubule-neuropeptide complex. The study highlights that the drugs bind differently with respect to the control ligand, taxol. Moreover, the study shows that psychoactive ligands bind differently in MTs with respect to tubulin, confirming previous studies on the importance of the MTs conformation.

Title of the Paper: Simulations of Emission Spectra for LH4 Ring - Fluctuations in Radial Positions of Molecules


Authors: Pavel Herman, David Zapletal

Pages: 65-74

Abstract: Results of computer simulation of steady state fluorescence spectra and absorption ones for ring molecular systems are presented. The peripheral cyclic antenna unit LH4 of the bacterial photosystem from purple bacteria can be modeled by such system. The cumulant-expansion method of Mukamel et al. is used for the calculation of spectral responses of the system with exciton-phonon coupling. Dynamic disorder, interaction with a bath, in Markovian approximation simultaneously with uncorrelated static disorder in radial  positions of molecules are taking into account in our simulations. Also localization of exciton states is studied and discussed. We compare calculated results for LH4 ring obtained within the full Hamiltonian model with our previous results within the nearest neighbour approximation model. Comparison with the results calculated within different types of uncorrelated static disorder is also done.

Title of the Paper: Improving Query Mechanisms for Biomedical Ontologies


Authors: Ioana Branescu-Raspop, Victor Lorin Purcarea, Radu Dobrescu

Pages: 56-64

Abstract: The paper presents several solutions for improving access to data in biomedical ontologies, considering a particular  dataspace which contain highly heterogeneous data or has an unknown or unreliable structure. The main goal is  to provide means for explorative querying, which can be performed without any prior in-depth knowledge of the queried data. After presenting the features and the advantages in using Web services technologies, two new achievements are discussed: 1) an architecture for multiple sources data integration  using interfaces harmonized by a wrapper component which is accessed by a mediator for implementing the required functionalities and 2) the prototype of a portable question-answering system named MQAS (Medical Question Answering System) which takes queries expressed in natural language and an ontology as input, and returns answers drawn from one or more knowledge bases. Conclusions on the results of preliminary tests performed in Clinical Institute in Bucharest and purposes for further work are also presented.

Title of the Paper: A Computational Simulation of the Interaction Between Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems


Authors: R. Pizzi, T. Rutigliano, P. Guadalupi, M. Pregnolato

Pages: 48-55

Abstract: Interesting hints of a neuroendocrine–immune system cross-talk at several biological levels have been brought by many research papers during the last decades, although no scientific evidence has been fully established. In this study we hypothesize that efficient neuroendocrine-immune systems interactions may be identified at the membrane receptor level, and could be highlighted by a structural bioinformatics research. In this paper we built a model of the interaction between a typical gastrointestinal cancer membrane with several substances that are supposed to be involved in the immune response. A computational docking analysis shows that the interaction between melatonin, as a neuroendocrine agent, and other immune substances and mediators of the inflammatory response may have a role in the complex relationship between nervous and immune system.

Title of the Paper: Measurement of Liquid Zones and Boundaries in Active Neuron with Pairs of Micro Glass-Electrodes


Authors: Yumi Takizawa, Atsushi Fukasawa, Hiro-aki Takeuchi

Pages: 42-47

Abstract: Electrical measurement of liquid zones and boundaries formed in active neuron is presented. In advance, modelling of an active neuron is shown with three zones and two boundaries. Basic equations are shown to calculate transmission and reflection components for a section with a boundary and two different zones in a transmission line. Then an inhomogeneous transmission line with uniform three zones and two boundaries is considered. Velocity in each zone is given at each zone. A system configuration is then shown for measurement of three zones and two boundaries in an active neuron. This system is composed of the chirp method for conversion of distance to time-frequency difference with the chirp method and the proposed method for fine resolution of zone potential and boundary reflection in a neuron.

Title of the Paper: More Effective Biomedical Experimentation Data by CICT Advanced Ontological Uncertainty Management Techniques


Authors: Rodolfo A. Fiorini

Pages: 29-41

Abstract: Classical experimental observation process, even in highly ideal operative controlled condition, like the one achieved in current, most sophisticated and advanced experimental laboratories like CERN, can capture just a small fraction only of overall ideally available information from unique experiment. A number of recent reports in the peer-reviewed literature have discussed irreproducibility of results in biomedical research. Some of these articles suggest that the inability of independent research laboratories to replicate published results has a negative impact on the development of, and confidence in, the biomedical research enterprise. Furthermore, poor reporting of health research is a serious and widespread issue, distorting evidence, limiting its transfer into practice, and providing an unreliable basis for clinical decisions and further research. A series of papers published by the Lancet in January 2014 highlighted the problems of waste in biomedical research and the myriad of issues that can disrupt completion and use of high quality research. To get more resilient data and to achive higher result reproducibility, we present an adaptive and learning system reference architecture for anticipatory smart sensing system interface. To design, analyse and test system properties, a simulation environment has been programmed in MATLAB language, called VEDA®. In this way, it is possible to verify and validate through numerical computation the behavior of all subsystems that compose the final combined overall system. Due to its intrinsic self-adapting and self-scaling relativity properties, this system approach can be applied at any system scale: from single quantum system application development to full system governance strategic assessment policies and beyond. The present paper is a relevant contribute towards a new General Theory of Systems to show how homeostatic operating equilibria can emerge out of a self-organizing landscape of self-structuring attractor points.

Title of the Paper: Effect of L and T - Type Calcium Channels in Retinal Ganglion Cells Stimulation


Authors: K. Padma Priya, J. Krishnan, R. Malathi

Pages: 22-28

Abstract: Visual system compose of image-forming pathways in which the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) depend on the photoreceptors, rods and cones whereas non-image-forming pathways involves intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which express the photopigment melanopsin. An all active Fohlmeister–Coleman–Miller (FCM) model with five nonlinear ion channels is modelled for the RGC, with an intracellular resistance (Ra), a membrane mechanism in parallel with a membrane capacitance and also a gap junction conductance (G) in between the compartments. The simulations were done for the FCM RGC model and the ionic currents are analysed for single RGC and two RGCs with gap junction conductance in between them. By valuing up the vitality of the calcium ions in RGC apoptosis of diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma patients, the model was adapted by including the L- and T-type calcium channels and the ionic currents in the RGCs were analysed for single RGC and two RGCs with the effects of gap junction conductance.

Title of the Paper: Modelling of a Neuron and Point Contact Transistor


Authors: Atsushi Fukasawa, Yumi Takizawa

Pages: 14-21

Abstract: Modelling of a neuron and Point Contact Transistor (PCT) are presented. They generate electrical pulses through operations for amplification and feedback. A p – n boundary is analyzed to form a depletion layer in electrolyte. Where, p and n stand for major charges carrying signals. Electro-physical modeling of a neuron is given by three zones and two depletion layers under the membrane. A neuron is proved to operate as an amplifier or as a pulse generator to transmit electrical signals. Electrical modeling of a neural group is given by mutual coupling among neurons. This coupling provides a neural group with sensing capability of time, space, and transition of events. It is lastly proved that commonality exists between a neuron and PCT.

Title of the Paper: Non-Linear Data Mining Methods to Assess the Impact of Physical Training on the Cardiovascular System of Subjects from Different Age Groups


Authors: R. Pizzi, S. Siccardi, C. Pedrinazzi, O. Durin, G. Inama

Pages: 1-13

Abstract: A set of non-linear data mining methods have been applied to ECG signals and other cardiovascular and blood parameters to evaluate the cardiovascular response to exercise in  young and master athletes, compared with control groups of untrained subjects of the same age. Methods include PNN calculation, Multiscale Entropy analysis (MSE), and a comparison between clustering and an Artificial Neural Network analysis performed by means of chaotic attractors. After recruiting four groups of healthy athletes and sedentary subjects, with age under and over 40, we analyzed the collected data, obtaining cross-validated classifications and significant variable differences among clusters. The analyses lead to a good stratification of the subjects, establishing some important relationships between physical activity, age, sex, and cardiovascular parameters. In particular the existence of significant differences in the cardiovascular status of these groups was shown,   depending in particular on the MSE1, PNN20, VO and FC variables. This will make it possible a follow-up of the subjects, analyzing the above specified parameters over time, in order to identify possible markers of increased arrhythmic risk, useful to prevent fatal cardiac events.