Issue 1, Volume 1, 2007

Predictive folding of a tryptophane zipper hairpin with a free-energy forcefield
by Konstantin Klenin and Wolfgang Wenzel

Abstract: De-novo folding of even small proteins from completely extended conformations remains a grandcomputational challenge for all-atom simulation methods. We have recently developed a novel, free-energy based simulation approach, that permits folding of several helical proteins with an all-atom forcefield. He we demonstrate that it is also possible to fold that beta-hairpins. We reproducibly and predictively fold a monomeric stable tryptophane-zipper (pdb-code 1LE0) from unfolded starting conformations. We find that the entire population of simulated structures converges to a near-native ensemble, which differs by just 1-2 ?from the native conformation.


Automatic generation, HTML frames, HTML framesets, web application, web components
Full Paper, pp. 1-3


Bank Closure Policies and Capital Requirements: a Mathematical Model
by Elettra Agliardi

Abstract: A bank closure policy problem is analysed in a mathematical model within a Black-Scholes framework where an appropriate notion of capital adequacy is introduced. The value of the deposit insurance liabilities and bank equity are derived. The effects of capital requirements on risk-shifting and bank reorganization are discussed, with a comparison of the impact of the Basel I and II Accords on banks? behaviour.


bank closure policies, Black-Scholes framework, deposit insurance.

Full Paper, pp. 4-12


Issue 3, Volume 1, 2007

Segmentation Techniques for Target Recognition
by G. N. Srinivasan, Dr. Shobha G.

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for segmenting 2D images as a means in detecting target objects embedded in visual images for Automatic Target Detection/Recognition applications.
Target Detection, Image Processing, Pattern Recognition, Segmentation
Full Paper, pp. 75-81


ACET Based Scheduling of Soft Real-Time Systems: An Approach to Optimise Resource Budgeting
by X. Guo, M. Boubekeur, J. McEnery and D. Hickey

Abstract: The worst-case execution time assumption for scheduling of real-time systems often lead to a waste of resources. In hard real-time systems these types of estimates are essential to guarantee temporal requirements are met. However in soft real-time systems using other measurements, such as average-case timing, to complement the worst-case estimates can lead to better utilisation of resources while ensuring most, if not all, deadlines are met. In this paper we propose a methodology to optimize resource budgeting by integrating ACET information as a base for scheduling of soft real-time systems. We demonstrate the usability of the approach and illustrate it via a typical Real-Time Java programs.
ACET, OCET, Scheduling, Soft Real-Time Systems, Timing Analysis, WCET.
Full Paper, pp. 82-89


An Integrated RFID-Based B2B System for Supply Chain Logistics and Warehousing
by Cristina Turcu, Marius Cerlincă, Tudor Cerlincă, Remus Prodan, Cornel Turcu, Felicia Gîză, Valentin Popa

Abstract: The need to track and trace objects in real time has determined numerous companies to adopt one of today’s greatest contributory technologies, namely Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID). The paper examines the impact and the potential benefits generated by the integration of this technology in business-tobusiness (B2B) applications through a proposed RFID_B2B system. This system offers multiple performance levels for varying system and application needs, and can be readily personalized to meet current and future user demands. A proof of concept has been introduced to demonstrate the feasibility of an RFID_B2B application in a specific supply chain. A realistic business scenario has been taken into consideration to illustrate that RFID technology may enhance the operational efficiency in enterprise systems and even help numerous companies comply with the evergrowing demands of business customers. Furthermore, the authors maintain that RFID enables more integrated and collaborative B2B e-commerce solutions. The paper aims to increase awareness about the tremendous potential of integrating RFID technologies in B2B applications.
B2B, PDA, RFID, supply chain, tag.
Full Paper, pp. 90-98



Issue 2, Volume 1, 2007

EEG Feature Extraction for Classifying
Emotions using FCM and FKM

by M.Murugappan, M.Rizon, RNagarajan, S.Yaacob, I.Zunaidi, and D.Hazry

Abstract: The Electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the useful biosignals detect the human emotions. This paper discusses on a research conducted to determine the changes in the electrical activity of the human brain related to distinct emotions. We designed a competent acquisition protocol for acquiring the EEG signals under audio-visual induction environment. The EEG data has been collected from 6 healthy subjects with in an age group of 21-27 using 63 biosensors. From the subjective analysis on each emotion, three emotions have been identified with higher agreement. After preprocessing the signals, discrete wavelet transform is employed to extract the EEG parameters. The feature vectors derived from the above feature extraction method on 63 biosensors form an input matrix for emotion classification. In this work, we have used Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and Fuzzy k-Means (FKM) clustering methods for classifying the emotions. We have also analyzed the performance of FCM and FKM on reduced number of 24 biosensors model. Finally, we compared the performance of clustering the discrete emotions using FCM and FKM on both 64 biosensors and 24 biosensors. Results confirm the possibility of using wavelet transform based feature extraction for assessing the human emotions from EEG signal, and of selecting a minimal number of channels for emotion recognition experiment.


EEG, Emotions, Wavelet transform, Fuzzy C-Means Clustering, Fuzzy K-Means Clustering.
Full Paper, pp. 21-25


Towards an Artificial Immune System to Identify and Strengthen Protein Coding Region Identification Using Cellular Automata Classifier
by P.Kiran Sree, I Ramesh Babu, J.V.R.Murty, P.Srinivasa Rao

Abstract: Genes carry the instructions for making proteins that are found in a cell as a specific sequence of nucleotides that are found in DNA molecules. But, the regions of these genes that code for proteins may occupy only a small region of the sequence. Identifying the coding regions play a vital role in understanding these genes. In this paper we have explored an artificial immune system can be used to strengthen and identify the protein coding regions in genomic DNA system in changing environments. It has been developed using a slight variant of genetic algorithm. Good classifier can be produced especially when the number of the antigens is increased. However, an increase in the range of the antigens had somehow affected the fitness of the immune system. Experimental results confirm the scalability of the proposed AIS FMACA based classifier to handle large volume of datasets irrespective of the number of classes, tuples and attributes. We note an increase in accuracy of more than 5.2%, over any existing standard algorithms for addressing this problem. This was the first algorithm to identify protein coding regions in mixed and non overlapping exon-inton boundary DNA sequences also.


Cellular Automata (CA), unsupervised learning Classifier, Genetic Algorithm (MGA), Artificial immune system, Coding Regions, Fuzzy Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata (FMACA), Pattern Classifier
Full Paper, pp. 26-34


Codebook Generation for Image Compression with Simple and Ordain GA
by Sajjad Mohsin, Sadaf Sajjad

Abstract: In the present research we study the codebook generation problem of vector quantization, using two di®erent techniques of Genetic Algorithm (GA). We used the Simple GA (SGA) method and Ordain GA (OGA) method in vector quantization. SGA with roulette and tournament selection with elitist approach is used in the experiments. The OGA is based on the pair wise nearest neighbor method (PNN). Both these approaches were ¯ne tuned by the inclusion of GLA. The two methods are used and compared with respect to quality of compressed image, rate of distortion and time cost. In our experiments we used images of Lena and Bridge. While using OGA we got better values of PSNR (34:5), (32:1) with less distorted image as compared to the SGA with (29:7), (29:2) PSNR values for both Lena and Bridge respectively. Although in OGA the time performance is inferior, it is thrice more time-consuming.


Genetic Algorithms, Codebook generation, Image Compression, Ordain GA
Full Paper, pp. 35-40


On Performance Deviation of Binary Search Tree Searches from the Optimal Search Tree Search Structures
by Ahmed Tarek

Abstract: Binary Search Trees are a frequently used data structure for rapid access to the stored data. Data structures like arrays, vectors and linked lists are limited by the trade-off between the ability to perform a fast search and resize easily. They are an alternative that is both dynamic in size and easily searchable. Due to efficiency reason, complete and nearly complete binary search trees are of particular significance. This paper addresses the performance analysis and measurement, collectively known as the Performance in binary search tree search applications. Performance measurement is equally significant asides from the performance analysis to learn more about the deviation from optimality. To estimate this deviation, new performance criteria for the binary search trees are presented. A multi-key search algorithm is proposed and the related analysis followed. The algorithm is capable of searching for multiple key elements in the same execution, sacrificing some optimality in the timing consideration. This helps in pruning a subtree structure out of a given binary search tree for further processing.


Complete Binary Search Tree, Nearly Complete Binary Search Tree, Performance Criteria, Sparsity Factor, Density Factor, Multi-Key Search, Search-tree Pruning.
Full Paper, pp. 41-47


Learning with online tutoring: Rural area students’ perception of satisfaction with synchronous learning
by Shan Shan Cheng, Eric Zhi Feng Liu, Hwa Wei Ko, and Chun Hung Lin

Abstract: The students in the rural region can not have enough learning resource because of the limitation of time, space and the unequal allocation of educational resources. The situation is changing due to the development of information technology and the easy access of computers. In this advanced change, more and more tools can overcome the geographic limitation, be utilized in learning and teaching environment, and then provide more educational opportunities for the students in rural areas. In this study, the research team linked the pre-service teachers and countryside students within the X-learn system. The program used the X-learn system as a platform to make the synchronous distance learning work. Via the technical support of the X-learn system from Chung Hwa Telecom, the rural students obtained more opportunities and tools to learn. Through a questionnaire, it was found that the rural students are satisfied with this synchronous learning and will most likely accept online tutoring. From the results proved that the e-tutor may be an alternative remedial instruction for the countryside students.


Online-tutoring, Rural district education, Synchronous learning, Student Satisfaction.
Full Paper, pp. 48-54


Second Order Fading Statistics on WWSUS Channels
by Victor M. Hinostroza and Alejandra Mendoza

Abstract: The frequency and time selectivity of the fading channel is an important characteristic for characterization and estimation of such channels. To characterize this type of channels the second order statistics are used. One of the tools used for this characterization is Jake’s simulator. This simulator is compared to actual measurements in this work. The second-order statistics level crossing rate (LCR) and average duration of fading (ADF) are two parameters that are reviewed and analyzed here. Analysis of LCR and ADF in several environments was performed. LCR is calculated in several envelope thresholds and its relationship with envelope change is analyzed. Average duration of fades (ADF) for several thresholds is calculated and analyzed. Graphics are provided of LCR and ADF for several different indoor environments. PDF for fading characteristics are derived.


Average duration of fades, channel characterization, fading channels, frequency selectivity.
Full Paper, pp. 55-60


An efficient hardware data structure for cryptographic applications
by Hala A. Farouk

Abstract: Cryptography currently plays a crucial role in the era where millions of people are connected to the internet and exchanging valuable and sensitive information. It is important for companies, banks, government departments and any other institution not only to create a secure connection over the ever-expanding networks but also not to slow down their system throughput by the implementation of these security solutions. Confidentiality, data integrity, authentication and non-repudiation are implemented using cryptographic algorithms. Applications for these algorithms are considered compute-intensive applications. Therefore, cryptographic algorithms are implemented in custom hardware seeking higher performance than the software implementation running on generalpurpose processors. In this paper we present a new hardware data structure, namely the ShuffleBox. This hardware data structure is composed of simple registers and XOR gates. However, these components are connected in a certain way to allow fast implementation of important cryptographic procedures like permutation, affine transformation and rotation across a number of registers. The ShuffleBox is a rectangular array of bits that can store, XOR and rotate all bits in all directions. The hardware implementation that employs this hardware data structure achieves a speedup between 6x and 18x over conventional implementations.


Cryptographic Architecture, Hardware Data Structure, Permutation, Rotation, Security Processor.
Full Paper, pp. 61-65


Two ways of approaching sensor nodes design
by Maximilian Nicolae, Radu Dobrescu, Dan Popescu

Abstract: The paper presents two way of approaching sensor nodes design, one from the energy consumption point of view and the other from the high performance point of view. Both ways are taking in consideration the cost efficient criterion. The low energy consumption, low size and low cost are achieved classical using low power microcontrollers and optimizing the software written on them. The other approach was to use a digital signal processor (DSP) for signal processing, an audio codec for data acquisition and a 802.11g wireless access point for communication. In this case the entire network was seen initially as a Voice over IP (VoIP) mobile network, yet the information exchanged wasn’t voice but measurements and commands with Quality of Service (QoS) inherited from VoIP. The usage of mature technologies of audio codecs and wireless LANs assured a high performance and cost efficient solution for mobile sensor networks. The platform’s modularity and flexibility allow its usage for many applicative didactical activities and also in research, as logistic support for developing complex projects.


Mobile Sensor Networks, Digital Signal Processor, Harvard architecture, Direct Memory Access, audio codec, wireless infrastructure, radio modem.
Full Paper, pp. 66-74


Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007

Study of New Graphical Method for Sportman Evaluation
by L. Dan Milici, Elena Rata, Mariana R. Milici

Abstract: The large majority of specialists on sport domain, after the undertaken studies, proposed varied solutions to improve this process and promoted modern methods and means. In this way, came into being some installations, equipments and computerized technologies that more contributed to the improvement of the training process development. The computing technique also integrated itself into the selection process and into sportsmen training. Through this it is used multiple programs for physical effort planning and for refreshment. The informational system can forecast next results that will be obtained by the sportsmen. Through the experimental results obtained in this work we can establish that the mathematical model elaborated and applied during the training of the youngster swimming sports-girls led to obtain some significant results concerning the forecasting methodology on sports and concerning the improvement of the psycho-motive and psychological parameters. This methodology can be also applied efficiently in other levels of sportive practice. The theoretical and methodological concept can be included in the theoretical and methodical training of the trainers and of the specialist from sport sphere.


Estimation, extrapolation, graphical analysis method, mathematical approach, prediction, sportsman
Full Paper, pp. 99-107


Comparison of the Adaptive Authentication Systems for Behavior Biometrics using the Variations of Self Organizing Maps
by Hiroshi Dozono, Shinsuke Itou, Masanori Nakakuni

Abstract: The biometrics authentication systems take attentions to cover the weakness of password authentication system. In this paper, we focus attention on the multi modal-biometrics of behavior characteristics. For the integration of multi modal biometrics, some variations of Self Organizing maps and its incremental learning method for implementing adaptive authentication system are implemented and their performances are examined for the time varying inputs and the noised inputs.


Biometrics, adaptive authentication systems, self organizing maps
Full Paper, pp. 108-116


More Scalability at Lower Costs – Server Architecture for Massive Multiplayer 3D Virtual Spaces powered by GPGPU
by Alin Moldoveanu, Florica Moldoveanu, Victor Asavei

Abstract: 3D massive multiplayer virtual spaces are getting more and more popular, not only as computer games but as complex simulation and interaction environments, heading to become the next paradigm of multi-user interface. Still their universal adoption is hindered by some serious practical issues, mainly revolving around development costs and scalability limitations. The authors consider that the main cause for these limitations resides in the particularities of server-side software architectures - traditionally designed as clusters of single processor machines. The paper gives a brief overview of current solutions and their limitations and proposes two innovative architectural concepts which have a big potential for creating cheaper and more scalable solutions. We describe a region based decomposition of the virtual space together with supporting middlewares of messaging, distributed control and persistence, which allow an efficient and flexible work effort distribution on server side. The solution allows for both horizontal and vertical scalability. The vertical scalability is then mapped in an innovative manner on the last generation of SIMD-like multi-processor graphics cards. The huge processing power of these cards, with the right architecture, can take over the bulk of the server-side effort. Our prototype tests indicated that the solution is feasible and may represent an important turnaround in the development of more scalable and much cheaper massive multi-player server architectures for various types of virtual spaces.


3D, virtual space, massive multiplayer, server scalability, GPGPU, CUDA
Full Paper, pp. 117-126


An Architecture for Systematic Administration of SELinux Policies in Distributed Environments
by Juan J. Flores, Pedro Chavez Lugo, Juan Manuel Garcia Garcia

Abstract: An operating system designed under the criteria of the class A1, consists of a collection of security strengthening mechanisms for the kernel. SELinux is an example of this type of operating system that supports several types of security policies applied to access control. In this paper we address the problem of inconsistency in SELinux policies, which can be present in distributed environments. To solve this problem, we propose an architecture that integrates a policy server for enabling a simple and secure administration. The policy server collects, integrates, and updates all policies that are applied in the distributed environment. We to achieve authenticity, integrity and confidentiality in the policy update process through the Kerberos V protocol. A redundant policy server is used to obtain availability on policies.


Terms—Access, control, distributed, administration, SELinux, policies, Kerberos
Full Paper, pp. 127-135