International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 12, 2018

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 12, 2018

Title of the Paper: A Modelling Technique for Controlling the Spread of Tuberculosis


Authors: O. P. Ogundile, S. O. Edeki, S. O. Adewale

Pages: 131-136

Abstract: In this paper, a new modelling technique is considered for the study of tuberculosis and its spread. The model serves as a means of controlling the spread of tuberculosis. The mathematical analysis of the model equations is carried out to investigate the transmission dynamics of the disease. Also, solutions on how to reduce the spread of the disease in the community is proposed, and some simulations are performed to determine the consequence of the effective contact rate for Tuberculosis infection. Three hypothetical cases are considered and it is discovered that as the effective contact rate increases, the contact rate also increases. Results are illustrated graphically with the aid of MATLAB mathematical software.

Title of the Paper: Lipid Metabolism and Functions of Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Children with Arterial Hypotension


Authors: Anatoly V. Sikorsky, Menizibeya O. Welcome, Vladimir A. Pereverzev

Pages: 124-130

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the features of lipid metabolism and the functions of pituitary-thyroid axis in primary school children with arterial hypotension. A total of 416 primary school children were involved in the study. Of these, 113 children had primary arterial hypotension (PAH); 111 children had symptomatic arterial hypotension (SAH), which developed on the background of chronic gastroduodenal pathology; 104 children had chronic pathology of gastroduodenal zone without arterial hypotension (conditional control); 88 were healthy children of comparable age and sex. The determination of lipidogram indices was carried out on a biochemical analyzer “RANDOX kits” and computation of atherogenic indices. The level of hormones of the pituitary and thyroid glands was determined by the method of immunoradiometric analysis. Children with SAH, which arose on the background of chronic pathology of the gastroduodenal zone, compared with healthy children, had dysfunction of the thyroid gland with a decrease in the levels of free and bound thyroxine in blood and dyslipidemia with predominance of atherogenic over antisclerotic factors. Children with SAH also had more pronounced disorder of thyroid function and lipid metabolism than children of the conditional control who had isolated form of chronic gastroduodenal pathology. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that children with any form of arterial hypotension (PAH or SAH) have the similar disorders of lipid metabolism and thyroid function, which predispose them to early atherosclerotic process.

Title of the Paper: Time-Frequency Integration of Variable-Bandwidth Signals and Supplementary Data Packets


Authors: Piotr Augustyniak

Pages: 114-123

Abstract: Integration of multimodal measurement signals is necessary for extending the experiment scope, for avoiding accidental data or synchronization loss or for building authorization-dependent data supplement. Instead of signal modulation or packet transmission widely used in such cases, we propose using of efficient watermarking technique based on the bandgap occasionally appearing between the instantaneous bandwidth of the signal and the Nyquist frequency. Usage of the method requires anticipating studies of the carrier (i.e. main signal) to determine band limits and a confident detection method of its components. Resulting statistics lead to a signalspecific standardized instantaneous bandwidth function. The method starts with detection of signal components, estimating the expected local bandwidth and measuring of noise properties in the bandgap. The supplementary data are tailored and packetized as so mimic the noise, therefore are not interfering with the carrier message and not conspicuous for an unauthorized reader. Finally an individual description of each packet is made and encoded with optional encryption. As long as the total data streams volume does not excess the channel throughput, the proposed integrating uses the carrier's original transmission channel (with no carrier delay) and data storage structures. The research was showcased by three applications of watermarking the ECG signal for its best methods for automatic components detection, best knowledge on physiological backgrounds and best documented annotated databases of reference records. Nevertheless, the results of our research will be applicable for any digital measurement series (signals) recorded in biology and industry in which the instantaneous bandwidth could be estimated.

Title of the Paper: Signal Processing Methods of Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Using EEG - A Technical Review


Authors: Bibina V. C., Upasana Chakraborty, Mary Lourde R., Ajit Kumar

Pages: 100-113

Abstract: Alzheimer’s is the most common form of Dementia prevailing in the elderly people. This review paper aims to put forward recent developments in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using Electroencephalograms (EEG). The extraction of useful information from rough EEG signal using only mathematical algorithm is a tough but promising task. Various modern techniques have enhanced the computerized analysis of EEG in elderly people. All these techniques can exploit the information contained in the EEG signals in time, frequency and time-frequency domain analyses. This work provides an integration of various time, frequency and time-frequency domain methods which facilitate the analysis independently as well as combined thus making it easier to analyze nonstationary and non-deterministic EEG signals. Among these various methods, time-frequency domain tools offer most efficient methods as it can uncover features that remain invisible when only time or frequency domain methods are used. Several of the methods discussed here can be utilized to develop an efficient algorithm for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease.

Title of the Paper: Role of the Autonomic Nervous System and Endothelial Vasoregulators in the Development of Primary Arterial Hypotension in Children


Authors: Anatoly V. Sikorsky, Menizibeya O. Welcome, Vladimir A. Pereverzev

Pages: 94-99

Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system and endothelial vasoregulators in the development of primary arterial hypotension (PAH) in children. The cardiointervalography results of 113 children with PAH were compared with 88 healthy children of comparable age (7–11 years). The findings revealed that children with PAH had higher activity of the sympathetic (p < 0.001) and parasympathetic (p < 0.001) divisions of the autonomic nervous system at the initial (resting) position of clinoorthostatic test. The activity of these divisions of the autonomic nervous system correlated with the activity of cardiac pacemaker. The change of position from horizontal into vertical was accompanied by a rise only in sympathetic activity (p < 0.001). However, there was a decline in the sympathetic nervous system (p < 0.001) compared to the indices of the initial (resting) position is registered in the tenth minute of the vertical position. This decrease may be due to the adaptational or compensatory abilities of the sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system based on heart rate variability showed high activity in all positions of the clinoorthostatic test in the patients with PAH compared with healthy children. The activity of the parasympathetic nervous system was associated with increased synthesis of endothelial factors (e.g. nitric oxide, endothelins) in blood. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that inadequate response of the autonomic nervous system to clinoorthostatic test in children with PAH is associated with disorders of both divisions of the autonomic nervous system as well as vascular endothelial factors. Keywords—primary arterial hypotension; autonomic nervous system; cardiointervalography; clinoorthostatic test; nitric oxide; endothelial vasoregulators; endothelin

Title of the Paper: Contrast Enhancement and Detection of Microcalcifications Mammary Using Hidden Markov Chains


Authors: A. Mehidi, M. Mimi, M. Bentoumi, A. Taleb Ahmed

Pages: 84-93

Abstract: Breast cancer is continually one of the mean causes of female mortality. Mammography is the most widely used imaging technique for detecting tumors at a premature stage. This investigation is currently the best for breast cancer screening. The presence of microcalcifications in mammography images is particularly interesting for the early detection of breast cancer. The objective of our work is the automation of microcalcifications’ detection by mammographic images’ processing. This helps the experts in their work because the number of images to be inspected and evaluated is very large. For this purpose, an automated algorithm is proposed for the detection of microcalcification clusters following a specific methodology. First, mammography is preprocessed using a technique that involves improving the quality of mammography (improvement of local contrast). Then, the clusters are identified using a stochastic analysis based on hidden Markov chains, together with a Hilbert-Peano analysis of the medical images. This may allow detecting nodular components such as microcalcifications with precision by introducing size information. The obtained results are visually very clear, precise and show that the proposed approach permits to successfully extract the microcalcifications from the referential mammographic images of the MIAS database. Furthermore, we have showed that the use of hidden Markov chains (HMM) is more efficient for the detection of microcalcifications because HMMs rely mainly on the spatial regularity constraint for image processing. On the other hand, based on objective performance measures namely true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR), the comparative study carried out on the three breast densities has shown the efficiency of our method whatever the type of the breast density.

Title of the Paper: Drift Diffusion Modeling of Response Time in Heading Estimation Based on Motion and Form Cues


Authors: Nadejda B. Bocheva, Bilyana Z. Genova, Miroslava D. Stefanova

Pages: 75-83

Abstract: Decision making in perceptual tasks is considered as a process of accumulation of evidence for a particular response that depends on the task difficulty, the instruction, and the non-decision processes. We performed a study on discrimination of simulated heading direction based on form and motion cues with different age groups in a task where the observers determined the time to respond. In the single-cue conditions, the stimuli were either radial Glass patterns supposed to provide information similar to motion streaks in real motion or moving radial patterns. In the combined condition the motion and form information provided consistent information about the simulated heading as the dots in the Glass patterns moved along trajectories parallel to the orientation of the dot pairs. When compared to optimal cue combination, the accuracy performance in combined condition greatly exceeded the predictions. Applying a hierarchical drift diffusion modeling on the reaction time and the observers’ responses we showed that the conditions requiring temporal integration increase the time for the non-decision processing, while the information reliability changes the rate of evidence accumulation for a particular response. Moreover, age affects the amount of necessary evidence for making a decision and the non-decision time. The rate of evidence accumulation in elderly is lowered in conditions requiring spatial information integration.

Title of the Paper: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach for Modeling a Complex Neurophysiological System


Authors: Ioannis I. Spyroglou, Alexandros G. Rigas

Pages: 66-74

Abstract: Our purpose in this paper is to model in a better way a complex neurophysiological system called muscle spindle. This system involves point processes as input and output. A two-step approach based on Bayesian logistic regression is used when a weakly informative and an informative prior is chosen. The parameters of the model which are of great interest are the threshold, the recovery, the summation and the carry-over effect function. The results show that the estimates derived from the Bayesian approach are similar to the ones obtained by the maximum likelihood method with the advantage of smaller confidence intervals. These results show the great importance of the two-step Bayesian approach which gives more representative models.

Title of the Paper: Numerical Modeling of the Dynamics of Blood Flow through Thrombosis


Authors: S. D. Maussumbekova, A. O. Beketaeva

Pages: 59-65

Abstract: Thrombosis not only helps of stopping excessive bleeding in case of trauma, but is also often associated with pathological conditions of blood that interferes with its flow. The study of thrombosis is crucial for understanding and developing new methods for treating deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, etc. For the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in studies related to the formation of a blood clot using computational tools and experiments. Despite this growth, a full the mechanism of thrombus formation is not yet known. In this paper, we considered the mathematical model of blood flow through region with thrombus. Blood flow is modelled as homogeneous incompressible fluid by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, when the formation of the thrombus described by equations of main regulators of fibrin polymerization. The numerical algorithm of solution of the basic equations is based on the immersed boundary method. It allows to take into account the moving thrombus. The presence of the immersed boundary is accomplished by adding a special function to the equations of motion, which make it possible to accurately represent the boundary of the streamlined region. In the present study, we analyze the effects of influence of various fluid parameters as Reynolds, Peclet numbers, gradient of pressure. It has been revealed that the increase of blood flow velocity leads to a change in the qualitative structure of the thrombus, that is, instead of simple form of thrombus appear thrombus with a complex f structure.

Title of the Paper: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Complexes of Lysine Dendrimer and Dendrigraft with AENG Tetrapeptide


Authors: D. N. Khamidova, V. V. Bezrodnyi, A. V. Popova, S. E. Mikhtaniuk, I. M. Neelov, E. V. Popova

Pages: 45-58

Abstract: Computer simulation of complexes of lysine dendrimer and dendrigraft with therapeutic AENG tetrapeptide was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation method. Dendrimers were tested earlier for drug and gene delivery to different cells.. In this study two systems consisting of one lysine dendrimer or dendrigraft of the second generation and 16 tetrapeptides were studied.. It was obtained that in both cases the peptide molecules become adsorbed by branched lysine molecules and forms stable nanocomplex with them. The size and internal structure of the nanocomplexes were compared. Similar complexes and conjugates could be used in future for delivery of different therapeutic peptides to the target organs.

Title of the Paper: Techniques for De-noising of Bio-Medical Images


Authors: Nalini Bodaisingi, Balaji Narayanam

Pages: 28-34

Abstract: In the field of biomedical imaging, diagnosis of the patient is mainly based on images of different body parts using different types of equipment. Some of the examples of biomedical images are MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), retinal image, mammograms. These types of images involve a unique type of capturing and acquisition. In this process, images are subjected to various types of noises at various levels. Most common noises like Gaussian noise, speckle noise, salt and pepper noise, Poisson noise corrupts the important detail and makes the diagnosis mostly difficult and sometimes impossible. In order to overcome this problem different de-noising techniques like the median filter, averaging filter, wiener filter, order statistic filter de-noises the image and gives various results. In order to conclude the best filter metrics like PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio), MSE (mean square error), and SSIM (structural similarity index measure) are used. In this paper based on universal standard thresholds for metrics used graphs are drawn for each type of noise for each type of biomedical image for different variance values. Based on above thresholds we can conclude that median filter is best suited for all three types of biomedical images.

Title of the Paper: Fast Virus and Bacteria Genome Sequencing by Compatible Restriction Enzyme Fingerprinting


Authors: Peter Z. Revesz, Dipty Singh

Pages: 18-27

Abstract: Early identification of a dangerous strain of a virus or bacteria that may cause a pandemic requires practical methods for sequencing of their genomes. This paper describes the concept of compatible restriction enzymes, and a fast and cost-efficient genome map assembly and sequencing method. Computer experiments on plasmid and virus genomes show that the genome map assembly and sequencing can be done in an approximately linear time in the sizes of the genomes.

Title of the Paper: Locked-in Patients’ Activities Enhancement via Brain-Computer Interface System Using Neural Network


Authors: Anas A. Magour, K. Sayed, Wael A. Mohamed, M. M. El Bahy

Pages: 7-17

Abstract: Nowadays, there are millions of people around the world suffer from the disability caused by big stroke. In recent years we have seen a rising interest in brain computer interface (BCI) systems that help those patients to practice their normal lives. Therefore, this work presents a GUI application based on an offline BCI system to test their mental capacities. This application was designed based on three tests are alphabet, arithmetic operations and Raven’s progressive matrices. The success of this system depends on the choice of the processing techniques. Therefore, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to extract a set of statistical features from the recorded brain signals. These features were classified into four classes are head movement to up, down, right or left using three classifiers are Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The performance of classifiers was measured using the most frequently statistical parameters: the sensitivity, specificity, precision, classification accuracy, and area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). It was concluded that when DWT was used as a feature extraction, ANN and SVM achieved the highest classification accuracy with a value of 95.24% but when using PCA, ANN achieved the highest classification accuracy with a value of 92.86%. On the other hand, LDA classifier was the worst among the three classifiers.

Title of the Paper: Variations in the Functional Properties of Soybean Flour Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria


Authors: Alloysius Chibuike Ogodo, Ositadinma Chinyere Ugbogu, Reginald Azu Onyeagba

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: The functional properties of soybean flour fermented with lactic acid (LAB)-consortium was evaluated. Soybean was processed into flour, fermented spontaneously and with LAB-consortium previously isolated from maize (Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1+Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC 53/03+Lactobacillus nantensis LP33+Lactobacillus fermentum CIP 102980+Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016) and sorghum (Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284+Lactobacillus fermentum CIP 102980+Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869+Lactobacillus nantensis LP33+Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1) to evaluate their effects on the functional properties of the flour at 12 h intervals using standard techniques. The result shows gradual decrease in bulk density with increasing fermentation period ranging from 0.74±0.03 g/mL to 0.72±0.03 g/mL (natural), from 0.74±0.03 g/mL to 0.70±0.02 g/mL (LAB-consortium from maize) and from 0.74±0.03 g/mL to 0.70±0.02 g/mL (LAB-consortium from sorghum) fermentation. The swelling capacity decreased from 0.77±0.03 g/mL to 0.64±0.01 g/mL, from 0.77±0.03 g/mL to 0.59±0.01 g/mL and from 0.77±0.03 g/mL to 0.61±0.03 g/mL in natural, LAB-consortium from maize and sorghum fermentations respectively. Water holding capacity decreased from 2.4±0.03 mL/g to 1.9±0.03 mL/g, from 2.4±0.03 mL/g to 2.0±0.03 mL/g and from 2.4±0.03 mL/g to 1.9±0.03 mL/g in natural, LAB-consortium from maize and sorghum fermentation respectively. Oil holding capacity increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time, ranging from 8.92 ± 0.02 mL/g to 9.30±0.03 mL/g (natural), 8.92±0.01 mL/g to 9.63±0.03 mL/g (LAB-consortium from maize) and from 8.92±0.03 mL/g to 9.69±0.03 mL/g (LAB-consortium from sorghum) fermentations. The least gelation concentration ranged from 3.0% (unfermented) to 6.0% (other fermentation products). Emulsion capacity (EC) increased from 35.88±3.12% to 44.33±1.33%, from 35.88±3.12% to 46.83±3.18% and from 35.88±3.12 % to 45.99±2.21% in natural, LAB-consortium from maize and sorghum fermentations respectively. This suggests the potentials of LAB-consortia fermentation in improving nutritional and functional properties of soybean flour.