International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 12, 2018

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 12, 2018

Title of the Paper: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach for Modeling a Complex Neurophysiological System


Authors: Ioannis I. Spyroglou, Alexandros G. Rigas

Pages: 66-74

Abstract: Our purpose in this paper is to model in a better way a complex neurophysiological system called muscle spindle. This system involves point processes as input and output. A two-step approach based on Bayesian logistic regression is used when a weakly informative and an informative prior is chosen. The parameters of the model which are of great interest are the threshold, the recovery, the summation and the carry-over effect function. The results show that the estimates derived from the Bayesian approach are similar to the ones obtained by the maximum likelihood method with the advantage of smaller confidence intervals. These results show the great importance of the two-step Bayesian approach which gives more representative models.

Title of the Paper: Numerical Modeling of the Dynamics of Blood Flow through Thrombosis


Authors: S. D. Maussumbekova, A. O. Beketaeva

Pages: 59-65

Abstract: Thrombosis not only helps of stopping excessive bleeding in case of trauma, but is also often associated with pathological conditions of blood that interferes with its flow. The study of thrombosis is crucial for understanding and developing new methods for treating deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, etc. For the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in studies related to the formation of a blood clot using computational tools and experiments. Despite this growth, a full the mechanism of thrombus formation is not yet known. In this paper, we considered the mathematical model of blood flow through region with thrombus. Blood flow is modelled as homogeneous incompressible fluid by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, when the formation of the thrombus described by equations of main regulators of fibrin polymerization. The numerical algorithm of solution of the basic equations is based on the immersed boundary method. It allows to take into account the moving thrombus. The presence of the immersed boundary is accomplished by adding a special function to the equations of motion, which make it possible to accurately represent the boundary of the streamlined region. In the present study, we analyze the effects of influence of various fluid parameters as Reynolds, Peclet numbers, gradient of pressure. It has been revealed that the increase of blood flow velocity leads to a change in the qualitative structure of the thrombus, that is, instead of simple form of thrombus appear thrombus with a complex f structure.

Title of the Paper: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Complexes of Lysine Dendrimer and Dendrigraft with AENG Tetrapeptide


Authors: D. N. Khamidova, V. V. Bezrodnyi, A. V. Popova, S. E. Mikhtaniuk, I. M. Neelov, E. V. Popova

Pages: 45-58

Abstract: Computer simulation of complexes of lysine dendrimer and dendrigraft with therapeutic AENG tetrapeptide was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation method. Dendrimers were tested earlier for drug and gene delivery to different cells.. In this study two systems consisting of one lysine dendrimer or dendrigraft of the second generation and 16 tetrapeptides were studied.. It was obtained that in both cases the peptide molecules become adsorbed by branched lysine molecules and forms stable nanocomplex with them. The size and internal structure of the nanocomplexes were compared. Similar complexes and conjugates could be used in future for delivery of different therapeutic peptides to the target organs.

Title of the Paper: Techniques for De-noising of Bio-Medical Images


Authors: Nalini Bodaisingi, Balaji Narayanam

Pages: 28-34

Abstract: In the field of biomedical imaging, diagnosis of the patient is mainly based on images of different body parts using different types of equipment. Some of the examples of biomedical images are MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), retinal image, mammograms. These types of images involve a unique type of capturing and acquisition. In this process, images are subjected to various types of noises at various levels. Most common noises like Gaussian noise, speckle noise, salt and pepper noise, Poisson noise corrupts the important detail and makes the diagnosis mostly difficult and sometimes impossible. In order to overcome this problem different de-noising techniques like the median filter, averaging filter, wiener filter, order statistic filter de-noises the image and gives various results. In order to conclude the best filter metrics like PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio), MSE (mean square error), and SSIM (structural similarity index measure) are used. In this paper based on universal standard thresholds for metrics used graphs are drawn for each type of noise for each type of biomedical image for different variance values. Based on above thresholds we can conclude that median filter is best suited for all three types of biomedical images.

Title of the Paper: Fast Virus and Bacteria Genome Sequencing by Compatible Restriction Enzyme Fingerprinting


Authors: Peter Z. Revesz, Dipty Singh

Pages: 18-27

Abstract: Early identification of a dangerous strain of a virus or bacteria that may cause a pandemic requires practical methods for sequencing of their genomes. This paper describes the concept of compatible restriction enzymes, and a fast and cost-efficient genome map assembly and sequencing method. Computer experiments on plasmid and virus genomes show that the genome map assembly and sequencing can be done in an approximately linear time in the sizes of the genomes.

Title of the Paper: Locked-in Patients’ Activities Enhancement via Brain-Computer Interface System Using Neural Network


Authors: Anas A. Magour, K. Sayed, Wael A. Mohamed, M. M. El Bahy

Pages: 7-17

Abstract: Nowadays, there are millions of people around the world suffer from the disability caused by big stroke. In recent years we have seen a rising interest in brain computer interface (BCI) systems that help those patients to practice their normal lives. Therefore, this work presents a GUI application based on an offline BCI system to test their mental capacities. This application was designed based on three tests are alphabet, arithmetic operations and Raven’s progressive matrices. The success of this system depends on the choice of the processing techniques. Therefore, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to extract a set of statistical features from the recorded brain signals. These features were classified into four classes are head movement to up, down, right or left using three classifiers are Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The performance of classifiers was measured using the most frequently statistical parameters: the sensitivity, specificity, precision, classification accuracy, and area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). It was concluded that when DWT was used as a feature extraction, ANN and SVM achieved the highest classification accuracy with a value of 95.24% but when using PCA, ANN achieved the highest classification accuracy with a value of 92.86%. On the other hand, LDA classifier was the worst among the three classifiers.

Title of the Paper: Variations in the Functional Properties of Soybean Flour Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria


Authors: Alloysius Chibuike Ogodo, Ositadinma Chinyere Ugbogu, Reginald Azu Onyeagba

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: The functional properties of soybean flour fermented with lactic acid (LAB)-consortium was evaluated. Soybean was processed into flour, fermented spontaneously and with LAB-consortium previously isolated from maize (Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1+Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC 53/03+Lactobacillus nantensis LP33+Lactobacillus fermentum CIP 102980+Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016) and sorghum (Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284+Lactobacillus fermentum CIP 102980+Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869+Lactobacillus nantensis LP33+Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1) to evaluate their effects on the functional properties of the flour at 12 h intervals using standard techniques. The result shows gradual decrease in bulk density with increasing fermentation period ranging from 0.74±0.03 g/mL to 0.72±0.03 g/mL (natural), from 0.74±0.03 g/mL to 0.70±0.02 g/mL (LAB-consortium from maize) and from 0.74±0.03 g/mL to 0.70±0.02 g/mL (LAB-consortium from sorghum) fermentation. The swelling capacity decreased from 0.77±0.03 g/mL to 0.64±0.01 g/mL, from 0.77±0.03 g/mL to 0.59±0.01 g/mL and from 0.77±0.03 g/mL to 0.61±0.03 g/mL in natural, LAB-consortium from maize and sorghum fermentations respectively. Water holding capacity decreased from 2.4±0.03 mL/g to 1.9±0.03 mL/g, from 2.4±0.03 mL/g to 2.0±0.03 mL/g and from 2.4±0.03 mL/g to 1.9±0.03 mL/g in natural, LAB-consortium from maize and sorghum fermentation respectively. Oil holding capacity increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time, ranging from 8.92 ± 0.02 mL/g to 9.30±0.03 mL/g (natural), 8.92±0.01 mL/g to 9.63±0.03 mL/g (LAB-consortium from maize) and from 8.92±0.03 mL/g to 9.69±0.03 mL/g (LAB-consortium from sorghum) fermentations. The least gelation concentration ranged from 3.0% (unfermented) to 6.0% (other fermentation products). Emulsion capacity (EC) increased from 35.88±3.12% to 44.33±1.33%, from 35.88±3.12% to 46.83±3.18% and from 35.88±3.12 % to 45.99±2.21% in natural, LAB-consortium from maize and sorghum fermentations respectively. This suggests the potentials of LAB-consortia fermentation in improving nutritional and functional properties of soybean flour.