ISSN: 1998-0140



Year 2010

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 4, 2010)


Stability Analysis of Escherichia Coli Chemotaxis Distorted by External Noise: A Comparison of Algorithmic and Neural Filters
Pratap R. Patnaik

Abstract: Under realistic conditions, the chemotaxis of Escherichia coli, and other bacteria, is under the influence of noise within the cells and from the environment. While the cells have their own mechanisms to filter intra-cellular noise and chemical ligand binding noise, external filters are required for environmental noise. The stability of the chemotaxis of E. coli to external noise has been analyzed here through the Lyapunov exponents of the concentration of CheR, a key chemosensory protein. Based on earlier studies, environmental noise was considered to have a Gaussian distribution characterized by the Fano factor, F. Four algorithmic filters and an auto-associative neural filter have been compared for their ability to filter the noise and restore stability to noise-distorted chemotaxis; this was measured by the largest Lyapunov exponent of CheR. All filters helped to remedy the distortions within limited ranges of F, with a neural filter being better than all algorithmic filters. Each filter displayed peak effectiveness at two values of F, thus corroborating and expanding the stochastic resonance reported with just intra-cellular and ligand binding noise. The effectiveness of the neural filter suggests the possibility of further improvements through other network architectures.


Analysis of a Finite Difference Scheme for a Slow, 3-D Permeable Boundary, Navier-Stokes Flow
Joe Hlomuka

Abstract: We derive a finite difference scheme for a sufficiently slow permeable boundary Navier-Stokes flow.


Color Space (RGB and CMY) Properties of Pixel for Peel of Mango's Fruit on Digital Photos and Mathematical Relations with Total Pigments
Ahmed Y. Hammad, Kassim, Farid S.

Abstract: Abstract—This study experimented the peel of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. under two color space tests (RGB: Red, Green and Blue) and (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow) utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar as a non-destructive analyses then the result linked with total pigment estimation as a destructive analyses. Our study was suggested the concentration (%) of structure pigments as well as some Pigment Index formula opposite some Color Space Index. To study and determine precisely the mathematical relations between concentration (%) of structure pigments and the digital visual color for purpose the interpretations and illustrations of the structure pigments induction on the color space elements. The result indicated to strong numeric correlation between total pigment data and color space data which the color space tests approach to evaluation the total pigment.


Nonlinear Boundary Value Problem of the Meniscus for the Dewetted Bridgman Crystal Growth Process
L. Braescu

Abstract: Nonlinear boundary value problem of the Young-Laplace equation which describes the meniscus free surface in semiconductor crystals grown by Dewetted Bridgman technique is considered. The statically stability of the menisci, via the conjugate point criterion of the calculus of variations, is investigated in the cases of the classical semiconductors grown in (i) uncoated crucibles (i.e., the wetting angle θc and growth angle αe satisfy the inequality θc+αe<180°), and (ii) coated crucibles or pollution (θc+αe 180°). Necessary or sufficient conditions for the existence of the statically stable convex (or concave, convex-concave, concave-convex) solutions of the considered BVP are established.


Analytical and Numerical Studies of the Meniscus Equation in the Case of Crystals Grown in Zero Gravity Conditions by the Dewetted Bridgman Technique
S. Epure

Abstract: On the physical point of view, the dewetting phenomenon is governed by the Young-Laplace equation of a capillary surface in equilibrium, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation of second order. Starting from this equation, an analytical expression of the meniscus surface in zero gravity condition was established, leading to important information about the meniscus shape, useful for further stability analysis of the growth process. The analytical results were validated by the numerical studies. Therefore, the Young-Laplace equation has been solved numerically, in the axi-symmetric case, using the adaptive 4th order Runge-Kutta method for InSb crystals.


Determination of the Stationary Solution in the Case of Solidification using Bridgman Technique
Simina Maris

Abstract: A stationary free boundary model of solidification in the case of the vertical Bridgman crystal growth technique is considered. The Navier-Stokes and heat equations are employed and upper bounds for the velocity and temperature fields are determined theoretically. Then the determined properties are validated through numerical simulations in an axi-symmetric domain, based on a fixed point algorithm, performed using FreeFem++ software.


A Recognition System of China-style License Plates Based on Mathematical Morphology and Neural Network
A. Yanping Bai, B. Hongping Hu, C. Fei Li, D. Wei Shuang, E. Lixia Gong

Abstract: Vehicle license plate recognition system is the hardcore of the intelligent traffic system. Through the research of four key links of the license plate location, image pre-processing, character segmentation and character recognition, the paper has designed an intact license plate recognition system and has implemented the simulation in the environment of MATLAB. The license plate location, which is based on colour character and vein character, has realized the thick location of the blue bottom and white word license plate. The image pre-processing, which is included gray processing, binary processing and the license plate slant correction to the horizontal line, is adopted by the related operation of mathematical morphology and Radon transformation. Character segmentation is based on the improved horizontal projection. Aiming at the characteristic of China-style license plates, the character recognition is proposed to use four kinds of different classification devices by using the improved BP neural network. This system is effective for solving the problems which are Chinese character unconnected, cement of the character, illumination variance and interference of the noise and space mark.


Transonic Inviscid Flows Past Thin Airfoils: A New Numerical Method and Global Stability Analysis using MatLab
Rui M. S. Pereira, Jitesh S. B. Gajjar

Abstract: In this paper we discuss a novel accurate method for computing transonic flow over lifting and non-lifting aerofoils as governed by the steady K/arman-Guderlay equation. The method is based on using finite-differences in the streamwise direction combined with spectral collocation in the other direction. This is combined with Newton iteration and a direct method for the resulting linear system. The method is fast and very robust and we are able to compute steady flows with strong shocks. Some examples considering both the symmetric and the non symmetric cases are shown and grid size study is also presented. The work has been extended to discuss the stability of the computed flows using methods based on a global stability analysis. This leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem and some results are presented. One advantage of the current approach is that for small grid sizes it is possible do the analysis using MATLAB.


Semi-Markov Backward Credit Risk Migration Models: A Case Study
G. D'Amico, G. Di Biase, J. Janssen, R. Manca

Abstract: In this paper three different rating migration models are implemented by means of real financial data. The models consider alternative hypotheses in order to manage the rating class NR (no rating). Rating transition probabilities, default probabilities and the firm survival functions are, among all proposed indicators, the most important. They are evaluated for each of the three models. Data refers to long-term ratings from Standard & Poor’s historical file, from 1975 to 2007. The mathematical tools used are, semi-Markov and backward recurrence time processes.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 4, 2010)


Intelligent Control and Biological Regulation for Bioinformatics
Aboubekeur Hamdi-Cherif

Abstract: Regulation and control in biological processes are the center of life. Living organisms grow and reproduce. They maintain their structures and respond to their environments. All these processes are done through regulation and control. This paper reports the study of regulation and the applicability of intelligent control to bioinformatics, particularly to biological systems. In addition to two previously-described phases of bioinformatics discipline, characterized by intelligence-free programs, and artificial intelligence-based programs, respectively, another phase is now proposed that incorporates intelligent control action and further understanding of biological regulation. All three phases can alternatively be viewed as levels corresponding to historical evolvement in our understanding of the field - of increasing degree of complexity. As the most complex of all, the intelligent control level, reported here, is dedicated to offering the necessary scientific and developmental framework for enhancing bioinformatics through the determination of optimal therapeutic strategies; tissue engineering being a far-reaching goal.


The Analysis of Correlation of Some Ions Concentration in Rainwater in an Urban Area
Alina Barbulescu

Abstract: In the framework of urban environmental control, it is necessary to know the effect of different types of pollutants on air and water quality. The precipitation is the main factor of water circulation, so it can contribute to the pollutants transportation from atmosphere into the soil and surface water. In order to determine if the air pollutants have a major impact on the quality of surface water, in an urban area, we developed a study on Constanta city, Romania. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of annual and monthly indicators of the rainwater quality and the study of correlation between the rainwater indicators and the Tabacarie Lake quality indicators.


Minimum Weight Buildings Design Best Evaluation using Inequalities Method. Automatic Evaluation Program - C.O.S.M.I.
A. Geanina Cosmina Adam, B. Gabriel Iulian Mihai

Abstract: This paper present the principles and use of an automatic evaluation program for minimum weight buildings design, based on inequalities method. The automatic evaluation program that is being presented in this paper offers the values of the plastic moments of the pillars and beams sections, of the critical sections moments and the value of weight function (the function of the objective). The mathematical method that represents the basis of making the evaluation program is part of the linear programming methods and is called the simplex method. The language in which the evaluation program was carried out is named JAVA.


Evaluation of Damping in Dynamic Analysis of Structures
Tepes Onea Florin, Gelmambet Sunai

Abstract: From physical point of view, the dumping represents the soil seismic excitation energy taken over process through internal absorption, rubbed between existent layers, as cracks on rocky foundations. Generally, on heavy dams dynamic analysis it is considered a viscous dump, proportional with deformation speed. The dumping can be evaluated on experimental bases or on environmental conditions measurements. The latest determine higher values of dumping elements. This it could be explained with the local factors influence which is not possible to modeled as backlash treatment, foundation ground characteristics, the concrete technology. This represents an atypical dissipate phenomenon. A major influence is done by the excitation level as real seism or experimental excitation. The present work is about to establish the influence of the dissipate effect of the backlash on concrete blocks. The backlash finite elements modeling make this possible, studying different situations as rub effect, cohesion effect, seismic action on varying directions with the same accelerogram of 0.4g. The studied blocks have the same dimensions, the relative displacement being obtained by foundation stiffness modified under two block parts.


An Analytical Study of Low-Codimension Bifurcations of Indirect Field-Oriented Control of Induction Motor
Nizar Jabli, Hedi Khammari, Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni, Rachid Dhifaoui

Abstract: Mathematically, bifurcation theory attempts to investigate the changes in the qualitative or topological structure of a studied equation models. Given paper focuses on an analytical investigation of the nonlinear behavior of an indirect filedoriented control of induction motor. In this context, steady-state responses of the motor model are discussed and an analytical study of the generic codimension one bifurcation, Hopf and Fold bifurcations, was made. Of special interest here is the codimension two bifurcation namely a Double Hopf bifurcation. The purpose of this paper is to present some elementary mechanisms of such singularity, to derive some analytical rigorous existence condition and to develop an algorithm for DH- bifurcation detection. A numerical investigation of some qualitative properties and bifurcation phenomena is then performed to outline the role of Double-Hopf (DH) and Generalized Hopf (GH) codimension two bifurcations in organizing multistability of limit cycles and local chaos phenomena.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 4, 2010)


Detection of Currency Crises by a Novel Rule Extraction Method from Support Vector Machine
Prasan Pitiranggon, Somsri Banditvilai, Nunthika Benjathepanun

Abstract: This study attempts to obtain a set of human comprehensible fuzzy if-then rules for the detection of currency crises from Support Vector Machine (SVM). SVM is used with explanatory variables known to be associated with currency crises to detect occurrences of currency crises. Fuzzy if-then rules are then obtained from the SVM through our novel rule extraction method which is called Support Vector Space Expansion (SVSE) method in order to unveil human comprehensible patterns behind SVM black-boxed system decision. The overall results of detection of currency crises of the fuzzy if-then rules are comparable to those from the SVM, and the if-then rules obtained may be used by financial experts to try to explain patterns of related financial statuses when currency crises occur, plus the if-then rules can also be easily incorporated into a software program using any popular computer language.


A Study of Cholera Model with Environmental Fluctuations
N. H. Gazi, K. Das, Z. Mukandavire, C. Chiyaka, P. Das

Abstract: The study focuses on randomly fluctuating phenomena of cholera deterministic model by incorporating white noise stochastic perturbation. For the deterministic model, stability of the equilibria and persistent aspects of population are discussed. Variances of population are evaluated for the model system at the endemic equilibrium. We conclude from the study that the inclusion of environmental fluctuation does not change substantially the dynamical behaviour of the system although it induces some initial random oscillations.


On the Properties of Some Epidemic Models
M. De la Sen, S. Alonso-Quesada

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the properties of some simple SI, SR, SIR and SEIR epidemic models where their parameterizing functions (such as per-capita death rate, disease transmission, removal rate etc. ) might be eventually time-varying but either time-integrable or not.


Flow and Heat Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet in a Micropolar Fluid with Prescribed Surface Heat Flux
N. Bachok, A. Ishak, R. Nazar

Abstract: The unsteady laminar flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet with prescribed surface heat flux is investigated. The governing partial differential boundary layer equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically by a finite-difference method. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter, material parameter and Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied. It is found that the surface shear stress and the heat transfer rate at the surface are higher for micropolar fluids compared to Newtonian fluids.


A Neural Network Based Navigation for Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots
Ouarda Hachour

Abstract: In this present work we propose a neural network based navigation for intelligent autonomous mobile robots. Indeed, Neural Networks deal with cognitive tasks such as learning, adaptation generalization and they are well appropriate when knowledge based systems are involved. The adaptation is largely related to the learning capacity since the network is able to take into account and respond to new constraints and data related to the external environments. Just as human being, a neural network relies on previously solved examples to build a system of “neurons” that makes new decisions, classification and forecasts. Networks of neurons can achieve complex classification based on the elementary capability of each neuron to distinguish classes its activation function. In designing a Neural Networks navigation approach, the ability of learning must provide robots with capacities to successfully navigate in the environments like our proposed maze environment. Also, robots must learn during the navigation process, build a map representing the knowledge from sensors, update this one and use it for intelligently planning and controlling the navigation. The simulation results display the ability of the neural networks based approach providing autonomous mobile robots with capability to intelligently navigate in several environments.


Mathematical Analysis of a Model of Tumour Invasion and Simulations
Akisato Kubo

Abstract: We study a parabolic ODE system modeling tumour invasion proposed by Anderson and Chaplain in 2003. Then we will apply the approach used in mathematical models of tumour angiogenesis to it and show the solvability and the asymptotic profile of the solution of it. Actually in use of the transformation of Levine and Sleeman, we reduce it to a system consist of evolution equations. Then, we show global existence in time of the solution in arbitrary space dimension by a priori estimate. Finally we show some results of computer simulations of the model with the help of our mathematical analysis.


Dynamical Pricing Strategy for One-Manufacturer and Two-Retailer Supply Chain Model
Hui-Chih Hung, Jung-Kyung Kim, Carina C. L. Calugcug

Abstract: The benefits of dynamic pricing methods have long been known in industries, such as airlines, hotels, and public utilities, where the capacity is fixed in the short-term and the product/service is perishable. In recent years, there has been an increasing adoption of dynamic pricing policies in retail and other industries, where the sellers have the ability to store inventory. This paper looks intensively into the 3C (Computer, Communication, Consumer-electronics) products market, which is very dynamic due to technology innovation and short life cycle. Under this circumstance, it becomes more and more crucial for retailers to decide on the correct inventory level to maintain. Meanwhile, the managers also face the problem of selling a given stock of items by the deadline. In this paper, we investigate the problem of dynamically pricing when the demand is price and time sensitive. To tackle these problems, we build a mathematical model for a two-layer supply chain, which consists of one manufacturer and two retailers. In this model, we assume the demand is a linear function of retailer price and time. As a Stackelberg game, the manufacturer is the leader to decide the wholesale prices based on order quantity and time. Our objective is to maximize the manufacturer profit. Finally, we successfully identify the optimal pricing strategy for each participant in the system.


Effects of Prolactin and Time Delay on Bone Resorption: Mathematical Modeling Approach
Chontita Rattanakul

Abstract: A mathematical model is developed in order to investigate the effect of prolactin on the mechanism of bone formation and resorption. By applying the singular perturbation technique to our model, we then obtain the explicit conditions on the system parameters which ensure the existence of limit cycle behavior corresponding to the oscillatory behavior observed in the clinical data. Numerical simulations are then carried out to support our theoretical analysis. In addition, we extend our model to investigate the effects of estrogen and parathyroid hormone supplements in patients with osteoporosis.


Feedback Stabilization of Abstract Delay Systems on Banach Lattices
Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract: In this paper, we examine the stabilization problem of systems described by partial differential equations and delay differential equations. The control of a partial differential equation with a time delay is a challenging problem with many applications that include physical, chemical, biological, economic, thermal, and fluid systems. The semigroup method is a unified approach to addressing systems that include ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, and delay differential equations. Using semigroup theory, we introduce the concept of an abstract delay system that can be used to characterize the behavior of a wide class of dynamical systems. This paper examines the stabilization problem of an abstract delay system on a Banach lattice on the basis of semigroup theory. To tackle this problem, we take advantage of the properties of a non-negative C0semigroup on a Banach lattice. The objective of this paper is to propose a stabilization method for an abstract delay system on a Banach lattice. We derive a sufficient condition under which an abstract delay system is delay-independently stabilizable. Furthermore, we provide illustrative examples to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 4, 2010)


On New Solutions for Heat Transfer in a Visco-Elastic Fluid between Parallel Plates
Zodwa G. Makukula, Precious Sibanda, Sandile S. Motsa

Abstract: The steady, laminar flow of a third grade fluid with heat transfer through a flat channel is studied. We propose and apply a successive linearisation method (SLM) and an improved spectral-homotopy analysis method (ISHAM), to obtain approximate analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature profiles. The methods are primarily based on blending non-perturbation techniques with Chebyshev spectral methods to produce efficient algorithms for solving highly nonlinear systems. The effects of the Brinkman number, pressure gradient and the non-Newtonian parameter on the velocity, temperature, skin friction and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. Exact solutions are also constructed and compared with the SLM and ISHAM solutions.


Heat Demand Forecasting for Concrete District Heating System
Bronislav Chramcov

Abstract: This paper presents the results of an investigation of a model for short-term heat demand forecasting. Forecast of this heat demand course is significant for short-term planning of heat production and it is most important for technical and economic consideration. Weather forecasts are an important input to many heat demand forecasting models. In this paper we propose the forecast model of heat demand based on the assumption that the course of heat demand can be described sufficiently well as a function of the outdoor temperature and the weather independent component (social components). Time of the day affects the social components. The time dependence of the load reflects the existence of a daily heat demand pattern, which may vary for different week days and seasons. Forecast of social component is realized by means of Box-Jenkins methodology. We have studied half-hourly heat demand data, covering a three (four) month period in two concrete district heating systems (DHS) of the Czech Power and Heating company. Comparison of accuracy of the prediction model with inclusion and without inclusion of outdoor temperature for 12 and 24 hours-ahead forecast are presented.


Simulation Model of Heat Distribution and Consumption in Municipal Heating Network
L. Vasek, V. Dolinay

Abstract: This paper describes the designed and implemented computer model of the distribution system of heat consumption in the urban agglomeration (SHDC - System of Heat Distribution and Consumption). This model is designed as a simulation model. The simulation is one of the (few) methods, which can be effectively used for the analysis of large and complex dynamic systems properties, which the distribution system and heat consumption in the municipal heating networks is without doubt. The model was implemented in the form of computer applications and tested on real operational data.


Software for Automatic Control System for Dechromation of Tannery Waste
J. Dolinay, P. Dostalek, V. Vasek, K. Kolomaznik, D. Janacova

Abstract: This paper deals with implementation of software system which controls the process of removing chromium from ecycling chromium from tannery waste. The laboratory is used to research and improve unique chromium-recycling technology based on enzymatic hydrolysis developed at our institute and the described system is the main control component of a part of the technology. First, the concept of the whole technology is briefly summarized, and then the paper focuses on the control system for dechromation of tannery waste water.


Importance of Sunny Days for the Determination of Heat Consumption
Viliam Dolinay, Jiri Palka, Lubomir Vasek, Lucie Pivnickova

Abstract: This contribution describes research focused on calculation of heat consumption for part of the town during the winter season. It is based on historical data analysis in the view of the nature of the sun activity and day type. Whole research consists of two major steps. First step describes obvious relation between heat consumption and outside temperature. The relation is expressed in linear formula and then improved it by the inclusion of the information about sun activity during a day and day type. The second step, concerned with dissimilarities, is about separation of sunny and common days, weekend days and week days and then description of the heat consumption individually for these varieties of days. This contribution also shows simple method of substituting sun intensity measurement with comparison of temperature differences.


Freight Transport in Urban Areas: An Integrated System of Models to Simulate Freight Demand and Passengers Demand for Purchase Trips
Federica Crocco, Salvatore De Marco, Pietro Iaquinta, Domenico W. E. Mongelli

Abstract: The urban transport system is a complex system in which freight is moved in the same transport structure in which passengers travel. Given that in many cases urban transportation modeling treats passenger and freight transportation separately, this paper proposes a modeling system to simulate goods movements at an urban scale which combines urban personal travel and commodity flows (commodity flows are generated in order to support a given need). Demand forecast is extremely important for the analysis and the modeling of transportation systems because the planning of infrastructures and services of transports results from the necessity to satisfy the needs of mobility and its characteristics. The scientific literature about freight transportation provides fewer studies than the literature about passenger transportation. Regan and Garrido [20] proposed a comprehensive state of the art of freight demand models, which can be classified into gravity models (Hutchinson [11] List and Turnquist [12]; Taylor [28]; Fridstrom [3]; Russo and Comi [21]), input-output models (Harris and Liu [5]; Marzano and Papola [13]), models of spatial equilibrium of the prices (Oppenheim [19]; Nagurney [15]). A classification followed by many authors distinguishes commodity-based from truck-based models. In paper the results of an experimental survey conducted in a medium-sized city are presented. The collected data allowed a system of demand models to be developed to simulate consumer trips and goods movements at an urban scale.


Self-Tuning Digital PID Controller Implemented on 8-bit Freescale Microcontroller
Petr Dostalek, Jan Dolinay, Vladimir Vasek, Libor Pekar

Abstract: In this paper implementation of self-tuning digital PID controller on 8-bit Freescale MC68HC908GB60 microcontroller which is intended for general purpose applications is described. Controller firmware was created on development board M68EVB908GB60 by Axiom manufacturing providing number of useful peripherals for comfortable application development. Controlled process is identified using modified recursive least squares method with adaptive directional forgetting resulting in - model representation of controlled plant. This approach results in better numerical stability of identification process and allows lower sampling periods. Parameters of PSD controller are designed by pole placement method on the basis of estimated plant coefficients. Controller firmware was created in Freescale CodeWarrior integrated development environment in C and assembly language. Software works under real-time operating system RTMON for HCS08 which was created on our department. Controller was verified by temperature controlling of two different heat plant models.


Stabilization of a Delayed System by a Proportional Controller
Libor Pekar, Roman Prokop

Abstract: Time-delay systems have been intensively studied for decades. Stability is one of the most important system dynamics properties and the task of stabilization is the main step of controller design. Closed loop characteristic equations of systems with input-output or internal delays contain quasipolynomials rather then polynomials. System poles determined by the solution of such equation have (in most cases) as the same meaning as for delay-free systems, thus they decide about system stability. The aim of this paper is to stabilize a selected system with internal delay by a proportional controller. The task can be equivalently formulated as a stabilization of a system with input-output delay. The analysis and derivations are based on the argument principle, i.e. on the Mikhaylov criterion, and on the required shape of the Mikhaylov plot. The analogy with the notions of the Nyquist criterion is also presented. Stability bounds for the controller parameter are found analytically through proven lemmas, propositions and theorems. Simulation examples clarify the obtained results.


A Novel Scheme for Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) Calculation in PET Scans
Pawitra Masa-Ah, Malulee Tuntawiroon, Somphob Soongsathitanon

Abstract: This paper presents a novel scheme for Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) calculation in PET scans. The results are compared with the SUV taken from the well-known application software from GE healthcare. The performance of the scheme is evaluated by using the DICOM files taken from the widely used standard PET phantom scan. The comparison was performed with 2 different ROI sizes in 45 image slices and the Pearson’s correlation is used. The results show that both systems are correlated significantly with 95% confidence. So the results ensure that his novel scheme for Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) calculation provides the correct SUV value. The strength of this scheme is that the interchangeability of the DICOM files can be done conveniently without the special application software from any vendors.


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