ISSN: 1998-4308


Year 2007

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 1, 2007)


An Effective Solution for Matrix Parenthesization Problem through Parallelisation
Muhammad Hafeez, Muhammad Younus

Abstract: Dynamic programming can be used to solve the optimization problem of optimal matrix parenthesization problem, which is discussed in detail in the paper. The results and their analysis reveal that there is considerable amount of time reduction compared with simple left to right multiplication, on applying the matrix parenthesization algorithm. Time reduction varies from 0% to 96%, proportional to the number of matrices and the sequence of dimensions. It is also learnt that on applying parallel matrix parenthesization algorithm, time is reduced proportional to the number of processors at the start, however, after some increase, adding more processors does not yield any more throughput but only increases the overhead and cost. Foremost improvement of the parallel algorithm used is its independency on the number of matrices. Moreover, work has been uniformly distributed between processors, besides its confirmation to single processor algorithm results.


A Logic for Automatic Verification of Cryptographic Protocols
Jihong Han, Zhiyong Zhou, Yadi Wang

Abstract: In this paper, a new first-order logical framework and method of formalizing and verifying cryptographic protocols is presented. From the point of view of an intruder, the protocol and abilities of the intruder are modeled in Horn clauses. Based on deductive reasoning method, secrecy of cryptographic protocols is verified automatically, and if the secrecy is violated, attack scenarios can be presented through back-tracing. The method has been implemented in an automatic verifier, many examples of protocols have been analyzed in less then 1s.


        Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 1, 2007)


A study on the Knowledge Sharing of Health Technology for Technological College Students? Mobile Learning
Chin-Mou Cheng, Li-Jung Chen

Abstract: The knowledge sharing of technology innovation on mobile learning is the main developmental force in the 21st century knowledge-based economy. In the new era of mobile society and information explosion, for college students who are receiving different kinds of information how to quickly learn and absorb different kinds of information to become their own knowledge and share it with friends are an important challenge. This study is aimed at the factors of students? knowledge sharing of health technology in technological and professional colleges, validating a scale to measure the current situation for students?knowledge sharing of health technology and to test some models for constructing students? knowledge sharing of health technology. To achieve this goal, the following methods were adopted: literature review, Delphi survey, professional interview and sampling questionnaire survey (3,012 students from 16 technological and professional colleges in Taiwan) to examine the students? knowledge sharing of health technology. The results showed that the students? knowledge sharing of health technology consisted of behavior norm, sharing attitude, sharing intention, sharing behavior and sharing control in terms of the theory of planning behavior (TPB). The models of students? knowledge sharing of health technology were tested with good fit through structural equation modeling (SEM). Since the path correlation of model was based on TPB, the following hypotheses concerning the students? knowledge sharing behavior were supported: sharing attitude toward sharing intention, behavioral norm toward sharing intention, behavioral control toward sharing intention, sharing intention toward sharing behavior, and behavioral control toward sharing behavior, which all had positive effects. Finally, conclusions and suggestions were proposed for all forms of teaching, such as embedded teaching in health technological literacy, the methods of research and statistics, the policy of promoting students to the holistic health, and further research including a bridge building between the technological and professional colleges and industries for teachers and practitioners, then constructing a significant wireless connectivity of knowledge sharing with hardware and software of mobile learning in health technology should be considered.


Land-Cover Classification on Computational Grids
Dana Petcu, Silviu Panica, Andrei Eckstein

Abstract: Satellite image processing is a very demanding procedure in terms of data manipulation and computing power. Grid computing is a possible solution when the required computing performance or data sharing is not available at the user?s site. The paper discusses a possible scenario of using Computational Grids. According to this scenario a prototype code for satellite image classification was designed, implemented and tested in two different virtual organizations. The approach can be applied also to other image processing procedures.


        Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 1, 2007)


Knowledge-Based Repair for Knowledge-Lean Techniques in Non-Routine Design
Michael A. Rosenman and Nicholas Preema

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for producing good design solutions more efficiently. The methodology is based on augmenting a conventional evolutionary design approach with a method for improving suboptimal design solutions with a domainspecific knowledge-rich approach. This approach is based conceptually on the practice of plastic surgery, i.e. making minor adjustments to an entity, based on some desired qualities, i.e. specfied fitness function. Additionally, the modifications made to the phenotype may require the re-engineering of the genotype to accord with the modified phenotype if the entity is to be used further in evolutionary operations. A method for genotype re-engineering is proposed in the domain of cellular growth generation.


The Algorithm and a Case Study for CTL Model Update
Laura Florentina Cacovean, Cristina Ioana Brumar, Emil Marin Popa

Abstract: In this paper is presented an update of the CTL model checker. The minimal modifications which appear represent the fundamental concept for model the dynamic system. In the paper used five primitive operations discompose from the operation of a CTL update used already by [1] which presented their approach of knowledge update the structures of single agent S5 Kripke. Then is willed defined the criteria of minimum change for the update of CTL model based on these primitive operations. The final in this section paper is willed present the algorithm of implement the CTL model updated and is will describe some details of algorithm implementation by applying the model update to the microwave oven scenario. The paper [10] is the base of results obtained.


Software Measurement Standard Etalons: A Design Process
Adel Khelifi and Alain Abran

Abstract: Material measurement standard etalons are widely recognized as critical for accurate measurements in sciences and engineering. However, there is no measurement standard etalons yet in software engineering. The absence of such concept in software measurement can have a negative impact on software engineers and managers when they using measurement results in decision-making. Software measurement standards etalons would help verify measurement results and they should be included within the design of every software measure proposed. Since the process for establishing standard etalons for software measures has not yet been investigated, this paper tackles this issue and proposes a seven steps design process. A case study of this design process of a software measurement standard etalon is presented using ISO 19761: COSMIC-FFP.


A Web 2.0 Tag Recommendation Algorithm Using Hybrid ANN Semantic Structures
Sigma On Kee Lee and Andy Hon Wai Chun

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to automatic tag recommendation for weblogs/blogs. It makes use of collective intelligence extracted from Web 2.0 collaborative tagging as well as word semantics to learn how to predict the best set of tags to use, using a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN). Web 2.0 represents the “second generation” of Web applications with new technologies that allow people to work, collaborate and share knowledge in innovative manners. An important characteristic of Web 2.0 is that it embraces the power of the web to harness collective intelligence of its users. In particular, the rise of blogging is one of the most highly touted phenomena of the Web 2.0 era. Weblog or blog is an important innovation that makes it easy to publish information, engage discussion and form communities on the Internet. The use of “tags” has recently become very popular as a mean of annotating and organizing everything on the web, from photos, videos and music to blogs. The use of tags has originally produced a “folksonomy”, a system in which the meaning of a tag is determined by its use among the community as a whole. Unfortunately, tagging is a manual process and limited to the users’ own knowledge and experience. A blog author might not be aware that there may be more accurate or popular tags to describe his/her content. Collaborative tagging use collective intelligence by observing how different users tag similar content. Our ANN-based algorithm learns this collective intelligence and then reuses it to automatically generate tag suggestions for blog authors based on the semantic content of blog entries.


Processing Authentication Based on Grid Environment
Tsang-Yean Lee, Huey-Ming Lee, Jin-Shieh Su, and Heng-Sheng Chen

Abstract: In this study, we propose the encryption algorithm to produce authenticator. The grid nodes are divided to supervisor and execute grid nodes. We use this authenticator to create execute user information data base in execute grid node and remote user information data base in supervisor grid node. We use the authenticator to run authentication application. When these authentication applications install in all grid nodes, we can run the system more secure.


A Fuzzy Assessment Model for Evaluating the Rate of Aggregative Risk in Software Development
Lily Lin and Huey-Ming Lee

Abstract: In this study, we present a fuzzy assessment model to tackle the rate of aggregative risk in fuzzy circumstances by fuzzy sets theory during any phase of the software development life cycle. Because the proposed assessment method directly uses the fuzzy numbers rather than the linguistic values to evaluate, it can be executed faster than before. The proposed fuzzy assessment method is easier, closer to evaluator real thinking and more useful than the ones they have presented before.


Mathematical Morphology Methodology for Extraction of Vehicle Number Plates
Humayun K. Sulehria, Ye Zhang, Danish Irfan

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for extraction of the vehicle number plates from the vehicle images using hybrid mathematical morphology techniques. The main idea is to use different morphological operations in such a way so that the number plate of the vehicle can be identified precisely. The methodology makes the task of extraction of the number plate independent of color, size and location of number plate. The proposed approach involves five different processes, these are, image enhancement, morphing transformation, morphological gradient, combination of resultant images and extracting the number plate from the objects that are left in the image. This algorithm can quickly and correctly detect the number plate area from the vehicle image. Some vehicle number plate norms are also presented in this paper.


The Promise and Limitations of Service Oriented Architecture
Zaigham Mahmood

Abstract: In today’s markets, business enterprises are required to deliver improved functionality and provide on-demand services, while leveraging existing IT infrastructure and investment. They are expected to be agile and dynamic. It is the globalization, tighter economies, business process outsourcing and ever increasing regulatory environments that are forcing businesses to transform the way they provide their business and services. In this context, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is proving to be an attractive approach that promises better alignment of IT with business vision, more effective reuse, better interoperability, reduced costs of development and more efficient operation of business applications. However, like any other approach, it has its limitations and inherent issues. This paper introduces the SOA paradigm, presents the benefits it offers and discusses the inherent limitations and challenges. The objective is to provide enough background information so that enterprises, wishing to embark on the road to SOA, have a better understanding of this approach.


Concurrent Auditory Stream Discrimination in Auditory Graphing
Hong Jun Song and Kirsty Beilharz

Abstract: This paper is concerned with enhancing human computer interaction and communication in concurrent streams of auditory display. Auditory display or auditory graphing is the sonic representation of numerical data (the auditory equivalent of visualization). It provides an additional channel for information representation, in which a participant’s response may be more intuitive and immediate than (visual) graphical display, but auditory graph design requires understanding and multi-disciplinary investigation of listening due to instantaneous characteristics of sound. Our aims are to explore (1) the impact of spatial separation for a divided attention task and (2) the efficiency of timbre (tone color) to assist pitch contour identification. Our findings about timbral and spatial discrimination are scalable and useful for auditory display in a wide variety of contexts. The results provide empirical evidence for a further investigation of spatialization and timbre and contribute to applications within an auditory display context for real-world scenarios (e.g. social, statistical and other datasets likely to be encountered in the workplace).


Digital Management of Trust for Component Software
Zheng Yan and Valtteri Niemi

Abstract: Trust plays an important role in a software system, especially when the system is component based and varies due to component joining and leaving. How to manage trust in such a system is crucial for an embedded device, such as a mobile phone. This article introduces a trustworthy middleware architecture that can digitally manage trust in an autonomic way through adopting a number of algorithms for trust prediction, assessment and maintenance with regard to software component download and execution.


An Efficient Model Checking Using Check-Points Extraction Method
Chikatoshi Yamada, Yasunori Nakaga and Mototsune Nakahodo

Abstract: Recently, model checking has played an important role in design of embedded systems, complex systems, and other critical systems. However, it is inefficiency to verify the entire systems. This article considers the case where designers of systems can extract check-points easily in model checking of formal verification. Moreover, we propose a method by which temporal formulas can be obtained inductively for specifications in model checking. Finally, we demonstrate verification results for some arbitration modules by NuSMV model checking tool.


A General Ontology for Intelligent Database
Muñoz Ana and Aguilar Jose

Abstract: The intelligent Databases (IDB) are originated from the integration of databases technologies with artificial intelligence technologies. The IDB are characterized by the presence of stored rules in a rules base and facts stored in a facts base, all together conforms the knowledge base, in which different forms of reasoning are applied. In general, an ontology is a knowledge base that describes the concepts of a domain, their properties and their relations, providing a common vocabulary in a defined area. This article proposes an ontology for IDB that describes the concepts, operations and restrictions of these databases. Also, at the end of this paper we present an utilization example and its implementation using Protégé.


The Design, Implementation and Application of the Software Framework for Distributed Computing
Kin-Yeung Wong, Yin-Man Choi, and Seng-Wa Lam

Abstract: A distributed computing application uses multiple networked computers to work together to accomplish a big task. It can be used to solve calculation-intensive problems such as weather forecasting and astronomical analyzing. There are many common tasks among different kinds of applications. To reduce the development cycle, the goal of this paper is to design and implement an API for constructing distributed applications. In this paper, the core functions of the API are discussed, and real applications written by the API are demonstrated.


Fuzzy Ontology Based System for Product Management and Recommendation
James N.K. Liu

Abstract: Systems that are integrated with recommendation features to support decision processes can provide a more personalized and proactive retrieval experience for users to choose among retrieval alternatives and subsequent refinement of choices. Many real-world systems call for autonomous intelligent agents acting in the face of uncertain knowledge and limited computational resources. This paper explores the development of an intelligent system for book recommendation and retrieval. We focus on content management and the use of a broader range of search and retrieval tools including artificial intelligence, mobile intelligent agents, and fuzzy ontology, personal profile. The use of mobile agent technology provides a specific solution for overcoming the problem of being overloaded with too much information. The use of fuzzy ontology helps determine the association of concepts and relationships that can exist within an agent or a community of agents. The use of personal profile created by fuzzy ontology map helps reduce the search time. It facilitates search facilities suitable for comparing, evaluating and classifying the webagents behavior. The fuzzy decision-making is based on the interest level generated from user preferences, product feature selection and possible system recommendation. The simulation testing shows promising results.


A Secure Password Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks
Y.-C. Lee, Y.-C. Hsieh and P.-S. You

Abstract: Wireless communication is widely used today. It transmits information through open networks such that it always suffers by a variety of attacks. In 2006, Yoon et al. proposed a secure password authentication protocol for wireless networks to fix drawbacks of Ma et al.’s protocol. In this article, we will show that the Yoon et al.’s protocol is vulnerable to both off-line password guessing attack and replay attack. We will present a new improved protocol to fix the flaws. As shown, the improved protocol is secure while the computation cost is quite low.


A Novel Lossy and Lossless Image Compression System with Multilevel Scalability
F. A. Perez, P. M. Iriondo, D. Orive, I. Calvo

Abstract: This article presents an image compression system with multilevel scalability capacity based on the Reversible Wavelet Transform (RWT). Two types of scaling methods are discussed: Spatial scaling and Fine Grain Scalability (FGS). The presented approach uses the same algorithm (based on a finite arithmetic reversible transform) for both lossy and lossless compression. The codification method, based on a methodology presented in previous works (CETRO), generates an embedded binary stream highly scalable which may be adapted to a specific size by using truncation. Also a component rearrangement mechanism which introduces a substantial improvement over the truncation mechanism is used. This mechanism allows consistent scaling from both analytical and perceptual points of view. Finally, the scaling mechanism allows a FGS compression without using a decoder in the encoding stage.


Enterprise Application Integration based on Service Oriented Architecture
Zaigham Mahmood

Abstract: Enterprises have invested heavily in large-scale applications software to run their services and business functions. The infrastructure used is often heterogeneous across a number of platforms, operating systems and languages and, thus, there is a huge duplication of functionality and services resulting in a waste of valuable resources and poor response times. Increasingly, the business and IT managers are being asked to deliver improved functionality while leveraging existing IT investment as well as provide flexibility and on-demand services. In this context, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is emerging as an attractive architectural style for developing and integrating enterprise applications. SOA promises a better alignment of IT with business, seamless integration of business applications and reduced costs of development and maintenance. Evidence suggests that large enterprises are moving towards this new paradigm. In this paper, we introduce the SOA approach, present the benefits and challenges it offers and provide guidance with respect to enterprise application integration and implementation. The objective is to provide some useful background information for enterprises that wish to embark on the road to application integration via the SOA.


Application Study in Decision Support with Fuzzy Cognitive Map
He Yue, Guo Yue, Guo Yi

Abstract: Fuzzy cognitive map is an approach to knowledge representation and inference; it emphasizes the connections of concepts as basic units for storing knowledge, and the structure that represents the significance of system. One of the most useful aspects of the FCM is its prediction capability as a prediction tool. Little research has been done on the goal-oriented analysis with FCM. In this paper, we propose a methodology for decision support, the method uses immune algorithm to find the initial state of system in given goal state. The proposed algorithm takes the error objective function and constraints as antigen, through genetic evolution, an antibody that most fits the antigen becomes the solution. Finally, an illustrative example is provided, and its results suggest that the method is capable of goal-oriented decision support.


Voice Recognition Browser for the Visually Impaired Learners (Mg Sys VISI)
Halmah Badioze Zaman, David Kennedy, Choo W.O., Azlina Ahmad and Aidanismah Yahya

Abstract: Learning through the use of web technology or web based learning has become an important media in the education revolution of the 21st century. The Internet particularly, has become an important tool for learners to acquire information and knowledge that encompasses various elements such as text, graphic, numeric, and animation for their learning process. Learners soon learn that the links in the Internet can lead them to various web pages that can lead them to more information that have a link with one another or to other information that has no link at all with the previous information. However, the visually impaired learners who actually represent a substantial proportion of the world’s population living in certain parts of the world have no access at all to this tool nor can it be easily taught to them as they are not able to see the links in the web pages. There is a need to democratize education as this is the basic human right and a way to achieve world peace. This paper hopes to highlight the Mg Sys VISI system to enable the visually impaired learners experience the world of the Internet, which comprises of five modules: Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Text-to-Speech (TTS), Search engine, Print (Text-Braille) and Translation (Braille-to -Text) module. Initial testing of the system indicates very positive results.


Error Order of Magnitude for Modeling Autocorrelation Function of Interarrival Times of Network Traffic Using Fractional Gaussian Noise
Ming Li

Abstract: Fractional Gaussian noise (FGN) is a commonly used model of computer network traffic time series with long-range dependence (LRD). It has been realized that FGN may not be enough to accurately model real traffic. However, quantitative evidence about this is seldom reported. To this end, this paper gives quantitative descriptions, based on processing real traffic, on the error order of magnitude for modeling autocorrelation functions of interarrival times of four types of traffic, namely, TCP, UDP, IP, OTHER, using FGN. The present results exhibit that modeling accuracy, which is expressed by mean square error, by using FGN is usually in the order of magnitude of 10−3. The main reason to cause error by using FGN model is that FGN might not satisfactorily fit the short-term lags of real traffic.


UCSMdess: Ubiquitous Computing Service Model based on D-S Evidence Theory and Extended SPKI/SDSI
Daoqing Sun, Yishu Luo, and Qiying Cao

Abstract: Ubiquitous computing systems typically have lots of security problems in the area of service supply. The service sorts and levels, the security delegation of services, the simple privacy protection of principal and the trust computing etc are all these unsolved problems. In this paper, UCSMdess, a new novel ubiquitous computing service model based on D-S Evidence Theory and extended SPKI/SDSI is presented. D-S Evidence Theory is used in UCSMdess to compute the trust value from the ubiquitous computing environment to the principal or between the different ubiquitous computing environments. SPKI-based authorization is expanded by adding the trust certificate in UCSMdess to solve above problems in the ubiquitous computing environments. The service model with the algorithm of certificate reduction is then given in the paper.


Sufficient Condition for Min-Plus Deconvolution to Be Closed in the Service-Curve Set in Computer Networks
Ming Li and Wei Zhao

Abstract: This paper studies the inverse of min-plus convolution, i.e., min-plus deconvolution, in the set of non-negative, wide-sense increasing and causal functions. A sufficient condition for min-plus deconvolution to be closed in this set of functions is presented. Possible application of min-plus deconvolution to the service curve design is discussed.


An Algorithm for Mining Strong Negative Fuzzy Sequential Patterns
Nancy P. Lin, Wei-Hua Hao, Hung-Jen Chen, Chung-I Chang, Hao-En Chueh

Abstract: Many methods have been proposed for mining fuzzy sequential patterns. However, most of conventional methods only consider the occurrences of fuzzy itemsets in sequences. The fuzzy sequential patterns discovered by these methods are called as positive fuzzy sequential patterns. In practice, the absences of frequent fuzzy itemsets in sequences may imply significant information. We call a fuzzy sequential pattern as a negative fuzzy sequential pattern, if it also expresses the absences of fuzzy itemsets in a sequence. In this paper, we proposed a method for mining negative fuzzy sequential patterns, called NFSPM. In our method, the absences of fuzzy itemsets are also considered. Besides, only sequences with high degree of interestingness can be selected as negative fuzzy sequential patterns. An example was taken to illustrate the process of the algorithm NFSPM. The result showed that our algorithm could prune a lot of redundant candidates, and could extract meaningful fuzzy sequential patterns from a large number of frequent sequences.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007)


A Principle of a Data Synthesizer for Performance Test of Anti-DDOS Flood Attacks
Ming Li and Wei Zhao

Abstract: Distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) flood attacks remain a big issue in network security. Real events of DDOS flood attacks show that an attacked site (e.g., server) usually may not be overwhelmed immediately at the moment attack packets arrive at that site but sometime late. Therefore, a site has a performance to resist DDOS flood attacks. To test such a performance, data synthesizer is desired. This paper introduces a principle to synthesize packet series according to a given value of the Hurst parameter for performance test of anti-DDOS flood attacks.


Approximation Scheme for RNA Structure Prediction Based on Stacking
A. Hengwu Li

Abstract: Pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure prediction is an important problem in computational biology. Existing polynomial time algorithms have no performance guarantee or can handle only limited types of pseudoknots. In this paper for the general problem of pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure prediction, a polynomial time approximation scheme is presented to predict pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure by dynamic programming and branch-bound based on base pair stacking. Compared with existing polynomial time algorithm, it has exact approximation performance and can predict arbitrary pseudoknots.


Fair NURBS Curve Generation and Determination based on a Hand-drawn Sketch
Akira Yamaguchi and Tetsuzo Kuragano

Abstract: Image processing techniques are used to detect the edges of a hand-drawn sketch. Generally, various types of gradation are expressed in the background of a hand-drawn sketch. Therefore, the original image is transformed into a logarithmic image. The entire image has to be binarized for edge detection. To smooth the edge of the binary image, feature based erosion and dilation is applied. A Laplacian operation is applied to the binary image to detect the edge in the binary image. This edge position corresponds to the position of the line in the hand-drawn sketch image. Line segments which represent the detected edges are generated. Using the positions and gradients on the line segments, a NURBS curve is generated. The shape of the NURBS curve extracted from the sketch image is examined by the designer visually. The shape of this NURBS curve generally coincides with the intention of the designer, but does not coincide precisely. Therefore, a curve shape modification method based on the specified radius of curvature is applied. The sum of the squared differences between the radius of curvature of a curve and the specified radius of curvature of an entire curve is linearlized by Taylor’s theorem, then minimized. The specification of radius of curvature is performed by selecting a predefined fair NURBS curve using the similarity of radius of curvature distribution. Examples of NURBS curve generation based on a hand-drawn sketch are given according to the generation process.


Design and Implementation of a DVB-H IP Decapsulator
Wen-Tzeng Huang, Sun-Yen Tan, Chin-Hsing Chen, and Ren-Guey Lee

Abstract: The digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) standard determined by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute is based on the terrestrial broadcast system DVB-Terrestrial (DVB-T), which has allowed digital video to be incorporated into handheld device applications. DVB-H also makes coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, time slicing, and multi-protocol encapsulation-forward error correction (MPE-FEC) compatible with the existing broadcasting standard. We describe a DVB-H Internet Protocol (IP) decapsulator that can achieve time slicing and MPE, as well as cross platform compatibility, and is highly adaptable. Power consumption is always an issue in handheld devices, and time slicing effectively reduces the most serious DVB-H demodulator power consumption problems. The DVB-H protocol uses MPE to deliver information, and unlike other DVB protocols, the video and sound data of DVB-H are not packed directly into the MPEG-2 transport stream. Instead, they are packed into the IP datagram, MPE is performed, and then the data are delivered via the MPEG-2 transport stream. In this way, DVB-H is backward-compatible with DVB-T. We implemented the DVB-H IP decapsulator using pure Java language, which enables it to function across platforms. We specified a platform-adaptive layer to reduce the drive complexity between the Java virtual machine and the demodulator. Because DVB-H has a built-in IP decapsulator transport stream dispatcher module, it independently creates program-specific information and service information subdecoders. Therefore, the packet that recognizes the decoders can be obtained from the transport stream dispatcher while the registration of that specific packet is completed.


Discover Sequential Patterns in Incremental Database
Nancy P. Lin, Wei-Hua Hao, Hung-Jen Chen, Hao-En, and Chueh, Chung-I Chang

Abstract: The task of sequential pattern mining is to discover the complete set of sequential patterns in a given sequence database with minimum support threshold. But in practice, minimum support some time is defined afterward, or need to be adjusted to discover information that interest to knowledge workers. In the same time, the problem of discover sequential patterns in a incremental database is an essential issue in real world practice of datamining. This paper discusses the issue of maintaining discovered sequential patterns when some information is appended to a sequence database. Many previous works based on Apriori-like approaches are not capable to do so without re-running previously presented algorithms on the whole updated database. We propose a novel algorithm, called DSPID, which takes full advantage of the information obtained from previous mining results to cut down the cost of finding new sequential patterns in an incremental database.


A Study on Protection Profile -- Illustration of ISAAPP
Kwo-Jean Farn, Shu-Kuo Lin, Jiann-Ming Hwang

Abstract: In order to reach the vision “information and communication network resources can be fully used in an obstacle free and secure environment by year 2008,” TTC (Telecommunication Technology Center), a Taiwan governmentfunded organization, has been granted the accreditation certificate by Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) on November 15, 2005. TTC will construct a Common Criteria Testing Laboratory (CCTL) and anticipate participating in the Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement (CCRA) in a few years. In this paper we briefly introduce the recent development of CCTL in Taiwan. Furthermore, based on the standard of the Security Audit and Alarms Framework (ISO/IEC 10181-7:1996), in this paper we intend to investigate the security functional and security assurance requirements; we also propose a draft Protection Profile (PP) of ISAAPP. The draft has been registered in the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) as the security specification of relevant products and/ or systems.


Emergent Intelligence in Large Scale Multi-Agent Systems
George Rzevski, Petr Skobelev

Abstract: The paper describes a multi-agent system which is capable of achieving its goals under conditions of uncertainty and which exhibits emergent intelligent behaviour such as adaptation, learning and co-evolution with their environment. The intelligence of the scheduler emerges from the horizontal and vertical interaction of its constituent agents balancing their individual and group interests.


Alternative Middleware for Efficient XML Data Communications on Networks
Xu Huang, Dharmendra Sharma

Abstract: It is increasingly being used to transmit data on networks but is a verbose format and needs an efficient encoding to send relatively large amounts of data efficiently since XML became an official recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1998. This requirement is particularly important, which is most for attractive to wireless data communications. It is a common technical challenge for researchers in XML-driven networks to have good performance. One may employ a middleware to enhance performance by minimizing the impact of transmission time [1, 3]. In this paper we extended our previous research results [2, 11-14] to an alternative middleware for efficient XML data communications on Networks. We also show the experimental results obtained from our technique and that from the Network Adaptable Middleware (NAM) established by Ghandeharizadeh et al [1]. Those experimental results show that our method is superior to the NAM method [1], which supported by the fact that the time taken is less than 231.67, which is ranging symmetrically out of the 0.6 standard deviation about the peck of the probability of the network traffic load distributions otherwise the NAM will be suggested between the region of 0.6 standard deviation.


A Study on the Development of Rules for Effective Code Inspection : Case Study of Company “A” Information System
Taewon Kyung and Sangkuk Kim

Abstract: Inspection is one of the most popular methods to develop high quality software. However, structured implementing method is not well defined, and so actual implementation of inspection is done in arbitral manner. In this research, eight categories and 30 indexes are defined to implement the Inspection in more structural way. Categories and indexes are developed based on the knowledge and guidelines of experienced developers and consulting companies. Suggested rules will clearly lead the programmers to avoid defects in advance or detect errors more easily by following the suggested rules in stricter manner. Proposed rules are also applied to real information case to test the effectiveness of the rules.


A Fuzzy Model for Quality Evaluation Processes
Edson Pacheco Paladini

Abstract: This paper describes an application of fuzzy set theory to real problems. These problems refer to concepts, policies, strategies and techniques of quality systems of industrial and services organizations. The paper focuses on the quality evaluation process used to verify if the quality level of productive processes, products, services and general resources (mainly human resources) are reaching better values. The parameters and criteria from the National Brazilian Quality Award are used as a reference. Basic concepts of fuzzy set theory were applied to these concepts and criteria. So it was possible to define a more adequate way to evaluate almost 40,000 organizations, which are submitted, annually, to the evaluation process to conquer the Award. The obtained results show the theoretical and practical adjustment of fuzzy sets to quality systems and quality evaluation processes.


Approximation Scheme for Pseudoknotted RNA Structure Prediction
A. Hengwu Li

Abstract: Pseudoknotted RNA structure prediction is an important problem in computational biology. Existing polynomial time algorithms have no performance guarantee or can handle only limited types of pseudoknots. In this paper for the general problem of pseudoknotted RNA structure prediction, a polynomial time approximation scheme is presented to predict pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure by dynamic programming and branch-bound based on base pair stacking. Compared with existing polynomial time algorithm, it has exact approximation performance and can predict arbitrary pseudoknots.


Resolution of the Clustering Problem using Genetic Algorithms
Jose Aguilar

Abstract: Clustering is the process of grouping objects together in such a way that the objects belonging to the same group are similar and those belonging to different groups are dissimilar. In this paper we propose a method to carry out data clustering using Genetic Algorithms. We use evolutionary characteristics to define a general data clustering procedure. In addition, we present examples of application of our approach: the definition of healthcare centers or new public universities for a given Country.


An Investigation and Survey on the Future Direction of OLE for Process Control (OPC)
M. H. Schwarz and J. Börcsök

Abstract: This paper summarizes the current situation in the development and research of OLE for Process Control (OPC). It details the different current standards and discusses the latest draft version which is the OPC unified architecture. This new standard tries to combine all different previous standards and does not distinguish between process values and events and other process data types. Therefore, one server is necessary and not one for each type as it is currently. Additionally, this papers describes current problems when using OPC, such as security issues when clients and servers are operating on different computers and it details the different strategies to implement redundancy structures into the OPC client- server architecture, which necessary in process control.


Real-time Simulation of Stone Skipping
Jooyoung Do, Namkyung Lee, Kwan Woo Ryu

Abstract: The stone skipping has been a popular pastime for thousands of years. In this paper, we propose a method for simulating motion of stone skipping with physically based modeling. From a physical point of view, stone skipping is a collision response of objects with water. In order to handle the collision reaction, we compute the force acting on the stone due to the water and calculate deformation of the water. We also show that our method performs well in applications where interactive performance is preferred to realism. The techniques presented can easily be extended to simulate other interactive dynamics systems.


System Dynamics Simulation: an Application to Regional Logistics Policy Making
Alberto De Marco, and Carlo Rafele

Abstract: The fast-pace development of trades with the Far East is giving the Mediterranean Sea the chance of becoming a major logistics hub. In the Mediterranean-front E.U. regions, public and private investments are aimed at this opportunity by integrating transportation networks, sea ports, and inland logistics platforms. With specific regard to the North-West of Italy, a model based on System Dynamics has been simulated to help decision and policy makers in the task of planning and directing the investment effort. The model provides impact analysis of freight traffic flow trends in the region on the medium and long-term, as a result of the interaction between exogenous variables and different case-scenarios for road and railroad infrastructure investments.


Evaluating the Readiness of E-Commerce Websites
Paul A. Walcott

Abstract: Many developing countries are formulating strategies intended to exploit the opportunities offered by e-commerce. One fundamental strategy which often seems to be ignored, or is unachievable by many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries is to ensure that they have a sophisticated ecommerce website. In this paper, the readiness of e-commerce websites in Barbados is determined by evaluating ninety-eight websites across eight service sectors using the CEC Website Evaluation Framework. The findings show that although these websites were easy to use and provided some product/service information they generally lack company information, innovation in services, transaction processing, and customer services. In addition, the banking sector had the highest ranking websites, followed by online shops, real estate, car rentals, tour operators, accommodation, restaurants and insurance. Based on these results, a set of recommendations have been proposed which are intended to promote the growth of e-commerce. A similar study should be conducted by any government, SME or stakeholder interested in evaluating the implementation phase of e-commerce in their country.


A New Approach for Multiple Element Binary Search in Database Applications
Ahmed Tarek

Abstract: Binary Search is fundamental to the study and analysis of Discrete Computational Structures. This is an efficient search strategy due to it’s logarithmic time complexity. It is used to identify the position of a key in a sorted list. Often, database applications require searching for two to more different key elements at the same execution. This is particularly true if the database includes structural layering, which is based on a particular index or a field. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm to perform binary search with 2 to m different keys (m is an integer greater than or equal to 2) in a sorted list structure is proposed. An m-key version of the proposed algorithm requires considering (2m+1) individual cases. Correctness proof of the algorithm is established using induction on the size of the list, n. Time complexity of the proposed algorithm is a function of 2 independent variables, m and n, which is, O(mlog(n)) in the worst, and also in the average cases. The best case complexity is linear on the number of the keys, which is O(m). Performance of the 2 and the 3-key versions is compared with the classical single key version. Possible key index combinations with the multi-key search strategies are explored for database applications. An extension of the algorithm known as the Multi-key Binary Insertion Search is also proposed. Applications of the proposed algorithms are considered together with a model employee database management program with improved efficiency.


Virtual Campus
Baki Koyuncu and Pınar Kocabaşoğlu

Abstract: A menu driven general purpose software package was developed to present a virtual university campus by using web based software techniques. 360 degree panoramic views are generated by image stitching and inclusion of hot spots. Virtual campus tour was formed with QuickTime movies and also in the web by using Adobe Dreamweaver. Visitors had the flexibility to start from anywhere in the campus and go to any destination by using keys on the keyboard.


Intensity Based Image Mosaicing
Vinod D.S., Akshatha R. Bhat, ShivaPrakash M., Vidyullatha Prakash and Shanmugam Kannan

Abstract: Image Mosaicing is useful in a variety of vision and computer graphics applications like 3 dimensional vision, photogrammetry, satellite imagery, video images etc. The basic reason for Image Mosaicing is that camera vision is limited to 50 by 35 degrees, and Human Vision is limited to 200 degrees. By using Image Mosaicing we can ideally have 360 by 180 degrees vision. The modified version algorithm for Image Mosaicing using EuclideanWarp and Bilinear Interpolation has been discussed. In order to overcome certain disadvantes of the this algorithm, the modified version of Intensity Based Image Mosaicing algorithm has been proposed. Through this algorithm seams that appear while stitching images are not eliminated. This algorithm works both for single viewpoint as well as multiple viewpoints. The implementation aspect of the algorithms are discussed along with test results. The merits and demerits of both the algorithms have been compared and analysed. We have used our own image data sets for experimenting.


A Simple Location-Based Service on Urban Area
Kin-Yeung Wong and Yiu-Man Choi

Abstract: A simple system providing location-based service is proposed in this paper. The major advantage of the system is that, unlike the similar services provided by mobile operators which typically use trilateration calculation to derive location from multiple based stations, our proposal relies on a location server to store the location information of subscribed users. Therefore, it can be easily implemented and maintained without the involvement of mobile network operators. Though this simple design is only able to provide an approximate user location, it can be used to learn places people visit in their everyday lives, making it suitable for tracking whereabouts of the users’ children, elderly, or the people they concern with.


Comparison of the Results of 2D and 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow over Spillway Chutes with Vertical Curvatures
Saeed-reza Sabbagh-yazdi, Fatemeh Rostami, Habib Rezaei-manizani, and Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: For flow conduits with mild slope and considerably large vertical curvatures the hydrostatic distribution of the pressure may be used for design proposes. However, for the spillway chutes actual pressure load over the steep slope beds with small vertical curvatures may differ from the hydrostatic pressure values. The differences in pressure load on curved bed chutes are mainly because of the centrifugal forces. In present work, the results of a version of the NASIR 2D Finite Volume flow solver which solves depth average flow equations on variable steep slope bed, are compared with the results of the Flow3D Finite Volume solver, which utilizes the VOF technique for solution of water free surface location as well as a set of laboratory measurements for test cases reported in the literature. The main goal of present work is to investigate the division of the numerically computed flow parameters (such as water surface elevation and bottom pressure) by 2D and 3D computational models from the hydrostatic assumptions.


Research on Coordinate Degree Evaluation among Organizations of B2B EC based on the Model of Bayes Attribute Synthetic Evaluation
ShiBin Su, ZhenYu Liu

Abstract: In the era of network, Electronic Commerce (EC) has become the development mainstream of future business, and become one of major reasons for economic gaps between developed country and developing country. Therefore, to shorten economic gaps between developed country and developing country as quickly as possible, developing country must develop EC energetically by the situation of a country, especially EC of small-medium enterprises. But there still exist lots of problems in the coordination among organizations of B2B EC, which hinders the running of B2B EC smoothly. Therefore, the paper analyzes the impacting factors in the coordinate among organizations of B2B EC in details, and realizes the evaluation to the coordinate degree among organizations of B2B EC by introducing the model of attribute synthetic evaluation, then revises the model of attribute synthetic evaluation by Bayes theory, which makes the appraise results accord with facts much more, and provides quantitative gist for the coordinate among organizations of B2B EC. At last, the paper provides the lacks of research and future research orientations.


A General Simplification Algorithm
Boštjan Pivec, Vid Domiter

Abstract: In this article a new general algorithm for triangular mesh simplification is proposed. The algorithm extends Krivograd's work from 2D to 3D. For faster execution times a hash table is used. The main idea of the algorithm is based on vertex removal approach. With this approach we remove visually less important vertices. To determine their visual importance, all vertices have to be evaluated. This way models still preserve their essential characteristics. With simplification we can also easily present and transfer models over the network.


Building Dependable Software in Distributed Organizations: Bridging Workflow Gaps
D. Kumlander

Abstract: Dependable: reliable, secure, having high availability and safety, supporting continuous development concept of software development has become to be very important as an opposite to inconsistent faulty software customers are complaining about. Moving towards dependable software requires understanding of common problems occurring in nowadays software engineering business despite all modern approaches. Distributed organisations became quite a standard in software business and workflow gaps specific to distributed organisations are revised in this paper. Unwillingness to travel, communication gaps, lack of information and process monitoring – what are some of those problems. The paper proposes also some novel approaches to bridge those gaps.


How Not to Fail Running Personnel Motivating Projects
D. Kumlander

Abstract: The number of projects’ failures is permanently increasing despite all modern attempts to keep software projects functionality and progress under control. Agile software engineering, dependable software development and many others are targeted to solve those problems in different sectors. At the same time it is not possible without highly skilled and motivated personnel as people drive methodologies and define success of any project. Therefore it is important to develop employees into a team of highly professional, loyal and attached to the organisation people. Unfortunately the software industry is a highly technological sector with a shortness of personnel resources in many countries. Employees are often leaving companies despite all common motivating techniques. The paper discusses establishing special, so called motivating projects to address employees’ needs to develop themselves by learning something new that can be challenging for them. The motivating projects have special risks and the article outlines them and proposes some approaches to deal with those proactively.


Mandarin speech emotion recognition based on a hybrid of HMM/ANN
Xia Mao, Lijiang Chen, Bing Zhang

Abstract: Speech emotion recognition, as a vital part of affective human computer interaction, has become a new challenge to speech processing. In this paper, a hybrid of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and artificial neural network (ANN) has been proposed to classify emotions, combining advantage on capability to dynamic time warping of HMM and pattern recognition of ANN. Optimal state sequences, exported from HMMs, are normalized to be one of the inputs of ANN; hence different methods of state normalization are compared. Adopting Beihang University Database of Emotional Speech (BHUDES), comparison between isolated HMMs and hybrid of HMMs/ANN proves that the classifier introduced in this paper is more effective, and the average recognition rate of five emotion states has reached 83.9%.


An executable model for an Intelligent Vehicle Control System
Florin Stoica

Abstract: An abstract state machine (ASM) is a mathematical model of the system’s evolving, runtime state. ASMs can be used to faithfully capture the abstract structure and step-wise behaviour of any discrete systems. We present a machine-executable model for an Intelligent Vehicle Control System, implemented in the specification language AsmL. Executable specifications are descriptions of how software components work. The mathematical background for the intelligent control of vehicles is represented by the stochastic automata. A stochastic automaton can perform a finite number of actions in a random environment. When a specific action is performed, the environment responds by producing an environment output that is stochastically related to the action. This response may be favourable or unfavourable. The aim is to design an automata system that can learn the best possible action based on the data received from on-board sensors or from the localization system of highway infrastructure. The reinforcement scheme presented is shown to satisfy all necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute expediency in a stationary environment. Some simulation results are presented, which prove that our algorithm converges to a solution faster than the one given in [7].The proposed model is verified through simulation in SpecExplorer tool from Microsoft Research.


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