ISSN: 1998-4464


Year 2007

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.
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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 1, 2007)


Range-space predictive control for optimal robot motion
Kvetoslav Belda, Josef Bohm

Abstract: The paper deals with a simple modification of predictive control for specifically-optimal robot motion. This task is solved in many different industrial applications including accurate manipulation and positioning. The modification consists in different definition of requirements for a robot motion. Usually, the motion is determined by known trajectory. The range-space modification investigated herein takes into account only range (limits) of required robot movement and its end point. Such approach can just solve manipulation issues, where the accurate achievement of some trajectory is not important, but the robot has to move through known corridor described by appropriate output range (limits) and has to reach some defined end point. The modification generates optimal control actions, which meet mentioned requirements. The explanation is documented by several examples of described control process applied to one advanced robot structure based on parallel kinematical concept.


MPEG Bit Rate Improvement Using Adaptive GOP
H. Farouk

Abstract: MPEG coding algorithm is a full motion compensated DCT. In MPEG coding, the video sequence first divided into groups of picture of frames (GOP), (I,P,B frames). The algorithm for adaptive GOP length as I frame position, depending on the indexing technique, In This paper an algorithm was developed to variable GOP length which was resulted in minimizing the bit rate with average 10% to 15% from the classical MPEG coding technique while keeping the same SNR with respect to the standard MPEG coding algorithm.


Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling
Dana Klimešová, Eva Ocelíková

Abstract: The contribution deals with issues that are very closely connected: Dynamic GIS, the problem of uncertainty of spatial data and the possibilities of the context use as a reflection of the system of understanding. The problem of the relation to the decision support system is addressed and GIS as a tool dealing with all phases of knowledge structure. The use of very heterogeneous data available on Web – multi-sensor, multi-band and others in the combination with multi-criteria conditions evaluation causes increasing of uncertainty we meet in the processes and consequently in results. The paper discusses the problem of wide context as a tool to compensate and to decrease the uncertainty of data, classification and analytical process at all process to increase the information value of decision support.


A filtering procedure based on least squares and Kalman algorithm for parameter estimate in distance protection
Francesco Muzi

Abstract: A digital procedure aimed at improving the estimate of the parameters of a faulted line is suggested. The approach is particularly suitable to increase the performances of algorithms nowadays commonly adopted in distance protection especially when signals received by relays are very noisy and uncertainties are present in line parameters. The described procedure is based on a combined use of the weighted recursive least-square method and Kalman filter. The results of a simulation campaign carried out to investigate performances and capabilities of the estimator are also included in the paper. The extensive simulation studies indicated that the trip signal could be obtained in less than a quarter of the cycle, and therefore the method may prove useful in high speed digital relaying.


Polyquadratic stabilization of a multiinputs multimodel with quantified commands
E.Maherzi, M.Besbes, M. Ellouze and R. Mhiri

Abstract: In this paper an algorithm is presented for the stabilization of a non linear and multi-inputs system: a blower temperature described by a multimodel. The originality of this work lies on the fact that the applied control is quantified. In the first stage, a synthesis of a multiobserver, stabilized polyquadratically, with proper characteristic values situated in a disc inside unit circle is presented. The command law, stabilized polyquadratically, is based on the multiobserver and tracing of poles. In a second stage, the computed control can not be directly applied to the plant because of the quantification imposed by the heating resistors. To go over this problem, the variation of the ventilation’s speed can compensate for the errors of the command due to the quantification of the heated power. The choice of the optimal ventilation’s speed is based on the minimization of a criterion evaluating the distance between the measured output and the desired output.


Vision-Based Distance and Area Measurement System
Cheng-Chuan Chen, Ming-Chih Lu, Chin-Tun Chuang and Cheng-Pei Tsai

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to enable CCD camera for area measuring while recording images simultaneously. Based on an established relationship between pixel number and distance in this paper, we can derive the horizontal and vertical length of a targeted object, and subsequently calculate the area covered by the object. Because of the advantages demonstrated, the proposed system can be used for large-area measurements. For example, we can use this system to measure the size of the gap in the embankments during flooding, or the actual area affected by the landslides. Other applications include the surveying of ecosystems by inspecting how widely spread is a certain type of life form. For places which are difficult or impossible to reach, this system can be particularly useful in performing area measurements. Experiments conducted in this paper have indicated that different shooting distances and angles do not affect the measuring results.


Optical Measurement of Short hollow cylinder in Three-Dimensions
Chin-Tun Chuang, Cheng-Chuan Chen, Ming-Chi Lu, Shyang-Lih Chang, and Chih-Hung Chuang

Abstract: The measuring parts of short hollow cylinder are inner diameter, height and thickness. And the general equipment being used are all kinds of Vernier Calipers which all belong to the contact measuring. In this paper, Image-Based Distance Measuring System (IBDMS) is proposed for measuring the dimensions of short hollow cylinders with only one exposure. Because of a rise-down platform for camera positioning control device developed in this paper, the aforementioned measuring method can reduce expenses and processing time. As a result, maximal image contour of an unknown short hollow cylinder picture can be obtained so as to achieve measuring results with highest resolution at each time. The measurement system not only increases the accuracy of the measuring results but also makes contributions for technicians or technical staffs to get accurate measuring results on unknown short hollow cylinders.


A CMOS Gm-C State-Space 1MHz Low-Pass Active Filter
Elena Doicaru, Dan-Ovidiu Andrei

Abstract: In this paper are presented a CMOS Gm-C statespace active filter for high frequencies, in the 1μm CMOS process, synthesized using the intermediate transfer function method. The Gm transconductor has a good linearity (1% relative error for 2Vp-p input signals with a 5V power supply) and high DC gain (≥40dB), combined with a large band to avoid errors in the filter characteristic. By using the intermediate transfer functions method, the active filter performances - as sensitivity and dynamic range (noise) - are optimized. The 1 MHz low-pass filter has the dynamic range grater than 70db and the total harmonic distortion lower than –60 dB.



Wideband Spread Spectrum Modulation for Higher-Data-Rate Mobile Communications
Yumi Takizawa, Saki Yatano, Atushi Fukasawa

Abstract: This paper describes some results of study on spread spectrum modulation method for higher-data-rate transmission. This scheme is expected useful against multipath radio propagation in urban mobile radio communication. Characteristics of wideband spreading were first evaluated. A novel configuration with matched filters is described for efficient and reliable synchronization under multipath environment. A prototype hardware was fabricated with new configuration. Expected system capability was lastly estimated based on system size and data rate.


Implementation of Matlab-SIMULINK Based Real Time Temperature Control for Set Point Changes
Emine Dogru Bolat

Abstract: This paper presents Matlab-SIMULINK based real time temperature control of oven designed as an experiment set using different kinds of auto-tuning PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) methods. Ziegler Nichols Step Response Method (P,PI), Relay Tuning Method (P,PI) and Integral Square Time Error (ISTE) disturbance criterion (PI) method are used to control temperature of the experiment set. These methods are simulated using Matlab- SIMULINK software to define the controller parameters first. Afterwards, simulations are realized using these parameters. Finally, real time temperature control of the experiment set is implemented using the same parameters. And the results are discussed.


Adaptive Controllers by Using Neural Network Based Identification for Short Sampling Period
Petr Pivoňka, Václav Veleba

Abstract: The use of short sampling period in adaptive control has not been described properly when controlling the real process by adaptive controller. The new approach to analysis of on-line identification methods based on one-step-ahead prediction clears up their sensitivity to disturbances in control loop. On one hand faster disturbance rejection due to short sampling period can be an advantage but on the other hand it brings us some practical problems. Particularly, quantization error and finite numerical precision of industrial controller must be considered in the real process control. We concentrate our attention on dealing with adverse effects that work on real-time identification of process, especially quantization. It is shown; that a neural network applied to on-line identification process produces more stable solution in the rapid sampling domain.


A diagnostic method for microgrids and distributed generation based on the parameter state estimate
Francesco Muzi

Abstract: The great increase in the diffusion of microgrids and Distributed Generation (DG) requires a substantial evolution of dedicated supervision and control systems, in order to assure high levels of flexibility, automation and reliability. With special reference to the operation of these systems, the paper describes a diagnostic methodology based on the circuit theory, properly adapted to compute the state of the grid parameters. Subsequently the changes in these parameters are used for diagnostic purposes, achieving effective, timely, and economical scheduled maintenance of the monitored microgrid. The described method is successful in detecting a number of anomalies, even though the paper is especially targeted at diagnosing high impedance faults. The simulation results obtained from a study example showed high accuracy in the network parameter estimation.


An adaptive sliding mode control scheme for induction motor drives
Oscar Barambones, Patxi Alkorta, Aitor J. Garrido, I. Garrido and F.J. Maseda

Abstract: An adaptive sliding-mode control system, which is insensitive to uncertainties, is proposed to control the position of an induction motor drive. The designed sliding mode control presents an adaptive switching gain to relax the requirement for the bound of uncertainties. The switching gain is adapted using a simple algorithm which do not implies a high computational load. Stability analysis based on Lyapunov theory is also performed in order to guarantee the closed loop stability. Finally simulation results show, on the one hand that the proposed controller provides high-performance dynamic characteristics, and on the other hand that this scheme is robust with respect to plant parameter variations and external load disturbances.


Texture Classification and Defect Detection by Statistical Features
Dan Popescu, Radu Dobrescu, and Maximilian Nicolae

Abstract: In order to identify and classify the proper textured region, a decision theoretic method and two types of statistic texture feature are used. The first type features derive from the average cooccurrence matrices: contrast, energy, entropy, homogeneity, and variance. The second type features are the following: the grey level histogram, the grey level difference histogram, and the edge density per unit of area. The algorithms are implemented in Visual C++ and Matlab and allows the simultaneously display of both the investigated region, and the Euclidian distance between this and a reference image. The result is the classification of the tested texture and the defect localization (if a region with defect exists) inside of the divided regions. In order to compare regions, a data base with the reference texture images is created. For the texture defect detecting, a combination between the template matching and the decision theoretic method is used. Our experimental results indicate the fact that the selected features which derive from the average cooccurrence matrices have a good discriminating power both for texture classification and defect localization. The results also confirm the fact that the distances between the regions without defect are relatively small and the distance between a region with defect and a region without defect is relatively great. The image difference histogram has better behavior referring to texture classification than to defect detection and localization.


Analysis of fast recursive least squares algorithms for adaptive filtering
M. Arezki, A. Benallal, P. Meyueis, A. Guessoum and D. Berkani

Abstract: In this paper, we present new version of numerically stable fast recursive least squares (NS-FRLS) algorithm. This new version is obtained by using some redundant formulae of the fast recursive least squares (FRLS) algorithms. Numerical stabilization is achieved by using a propagation model of first order of the numerical errors. A theoretical justification for this version is presented by formulating new conditions on the forgetting factor. An advanced comparative method is used to study the efficiency of this new version relative to RLS algorithm by calculating their normalized square norm gain error. It will be followed by an analytical analysis of the convergence of this version and we show, both theoretically and experimentally, their robustness. The simulation over a very long duration for a stationary signal did not reveal any tendency to divergence.


Blind Deconvolution Algorithm for Spatially-Invariant Motion Blurred Images Based on Inverse Filtering and DST
Wikky Fawwaz Al Maki and Sueo Sugimoto

Abstract: In this paper, a blind deconvolution algorithm for spatially-invariant motion blurred images is discussed. To obtain the sharp images, the point spread function is estimated. For the linear motion blur case, it is sufficient to estimate the motion length and the motion direction. The parameters are estimated by using the modified Radon transform and power cepstrum analysis. The blurred images are restored by using a DST-based deconvolution method and the spatial domain-based inverse filtering. Experimental results show our proposed ideas.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 1, 2007)


Analytical Synthesis of Digitally Programmable Versatile-Mode High-Order OTA-Equal C Universal Filter Structures with the Minimum Number of Components
Chun-Ming Chang, Senior Member, IEEE, Jen Hung Lo, Li-Der Jeng, and Shu-Hui Tu

Abstract: How to simultaneously involve and merge four distinct kinds of modes, i.e., voltage, current, trans-admittance, and trans-impedance modes, into an analytical synthesis method (ASM) for synthesizing a complicated versatile mode high-order universal (namely, low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-reject, and all-pass) filter transfer function is presented in this paper employing (i) all single-ended-input operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), (ii) all grounded capacitors, and (iii) the minimum number of active and passive components. The new filter structure enjoys the important merits of digital programmability and low sensitivity in addition to have a controllable gain (except the current-mode one), cascadable voltage input and current output terminals, and the absence of the need to impose component matchings. H-spice frequency-dependent simulation results, using TSMC 0.18μm process and ±0.9V supply voltages, demonstrate precise filtering responses (for example, the current-mode high-pass response has only 0.3% error) at the operating frequency, 10 MHz.


A New Two-Step Single Tone Frequency Estimation Algorithm
Aldo De Sabata, Liviu Toma, and Septimiu Mischie

Abstract: We propose a two-step procedure to estimate the frequency of a deterministic sinusoid, with unknown parameters, corrupted by additive, white, zero-mean noise, based on the Pisarenko Harmonic Decomposition. A rough PHD estimation is performed in the first step, and a multiple of the unknown frequency is estimated in the second step. The variance of the PHD estimator is significantly reduced.


FPGA Realization of Open/Short Test on IC
W.L. Pang, K. W. Chew, Florence Choong, C.L. Tan

Abstract: IC (Integrated Circuitry) testing requires the very advanced and sophisticated Advance Test Equipment (ATE) that costs multi million USD. The cost of IC testing is increasing yearly and it will exceed the cost of manufacturing in future. The manufacturers are interested to lower down the manufacturing cost. Low cost tester is one of the options to reduce the manufacturing cost. The low cost FPGA realization of Open/Short Test on IC is introduced to reduce the IC test cost. The open short test is selected, because it is the first IC test. The Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to model the Open/Short Test on IC and the design is capable to perform the open/short test.


VHDL Modeling of the CSMA/CA
W.L. Pang, K. W. Chew, Florence Choong, E.S. Teoh

Abstract: The wireless communication is highly deployed due to it convenience of mobility. The wireless local area network, WLAN is dominated by IEEE802.11 standard. All the new notebooks are equipped with the IEEE802.11 b WLAN. It becomes one of the main focuses of the WLAN research. Most of the researches are simulation based due to high cost required for the hardware implementation. The IEEE802.11b standard contains two major operations, the Distribution Coordination Function (DCF) and Point Coordination Function (PCF). The main core of the IEEE802.11b, the CSMA/CA and the IEEE802.11b Physical and MAC are modeled in this paper using VHDL. The VHDL is defined in IEEE as a tool of creation of electronics system because it supports the development, verification, synthesis and testing of hardware design, the communication of hardware design data and the maintenance, modification and procurement of hardware[2]. The CSMA/CA is modeled to 3 major blocks in VHDL, the CSMACA, Random Generator and counter. The CSMA/CA is successfully modeled with a total of 58 pins and it used 15% of the total logic elements of the APEXTM 20KE FPGA. The CSMA/CA can support the operation frequency up to 50MHz.


FPGA Realization of Lifting Based Forward Discrete Wavelet Transform for JPEG 2000
M.S.Bhuyan, Nowshad Amin, Md.Azrul Hasni Madesa , and Md.Shabiul Islam

Abstract: This paper describes the hardware design flow of lifting based 2-D Forward Discrete Wavelet Transform (FDWT) processor for JPEG 2000. In order to build high quality image of JPEG 2000 codec, an effective 2-D FDWT algorithm has been performed on input image file to get the decomposed image coefficients. The Lifting Scheme reduces the number of operations execution steps to almost one-half of those needed with a conventional convolution approach. In addition, the Lifting Scheme is amenable to “in-place” computation, so that the FDWT can be implemented in low memory systems. Initially, the lifting based 2-D FDWT algorithm has been developed using Matlab. The developed codes are then translated into behavioral level of FDWT algorithm in VHDL. The FDWT modules were simulated, synthesized, and optimized using Altera design tools. The final design was verified with VHDL test benches and Matlab image processing tools. Comparison of simulation results between Matlab and VHDL was done to verify the proper functionality of the developed module. The motivation in designing the hardware modules of the FDWT was to reduce its complexity, enhance its performance and to make it suitable development on a reconfigurable FPGA based platform for VLSI implementation. Results of the decomposition for test image validate the design. The entire system runs at 215 MHz clock frequency and reaches a speed performance suitable for several realtime applications.


A System Specification Using Check-Points Extraction Method
Chikatoshi Yamada, Yasunori Nakaga, and Mototsune Nakahodo

Abstract: Recently, model checking has played an important role in design of complex systems, embedded systems, and other critical systems. However, the model checking has problems of its own class too. The major problem is that a large amount of memory and time is often required, because the underlying algorithm in the model checking usually involves systematic examination of all reachable states of the system to be verified. In this paper, we consider where designers of systems can extract check-points, necessary signal events, in model checking of formal verification. Moreover, we demonstrate some specification examples, and some verification results by SPIN and NuSMV model checking tools.


An Exploration toward Emotion Estimation from Facial Expressions for Systems with Quasi-Personality
Jun Hakura, Masaki Kurematsu, Hamido Fujita

Abstract: This paper describes on our exploration toward emotion estimation from facial expressions for system with quasi-personality that interact with general public. Two approaches are proposed form two different points of views. The first approach captures dynamic movement accompanied with facial expressions as the clues for estimating emotion. In this approach, the movements are considered as the results of activities by virtual systems that are assumed to be embedded in the face. We call this approach as System Identification Approach. The second approach relies on the positions of the facial parts, such as eyes, eye brows, and mouth, to detect emotion. This approach, named Facial Expression Map Approach, relates the positions of the parts with the six basic emotions and the relations are represented as maps. The outlines of the methods based on the approaches are described with some experimental results.


Controller Reduction of Discrete Linear Closed Loop Systems in a Certain Frequency Domain
R. Sadeghian, P. Karimaghaee, and A. Khayatian

Abstract: In this paper, a novel controller reduction method for discrete linear time invariant system is presented. The reduction method is based on defining new controllability and observability grammians which are calculated from input to state and state to output charactrestics of the controller in a certain frequency domain. These grammians are defined for the closed loop system to keep the performance of original controller. After defining these new grammians, Moore balance truncation method is used in a certain frequency domain to reduce the order of controller. The stability property of the new method is investigated. It is shown by forming Lyapunov equations. Simulation results on a typical example show the effectiveness of the method.


Experimental Analysis of Pattern Similarity between Bessel Kernel and Born-Jordan Kernel
Ming Li, Xue-Kang Gu, and Wei Zhao

Abstract: Kernels play a role in time-frequency (TF) analysis of signals. Various types of kernels have been introduced in TF analysis. Usually, different types of kernels (i.e., kernels in different function form) correspond different types of TF distributions (TFDs). From a view of pattern matching, however, different TFDs may achieve the similar TFD result for a same signal if the used kernels are arranged such that they are similar in pattern under a certain condition. Essential issues in this regard are 1) which kernels may be similar in pattern and 2) under what conditions their patterns are similar. The answers to those issues are meaningful in TF analysis. As a stage work, this paper gives an experimental analysis of the pattern similarity between two types of kernels, the typical Born-Jordan kernel (i.e., Sinc kernel) and the Bessel one. Correlation coefficient is used to measure the pattern similarity. We present the correlation curve between two and propose the quantitative conditions that both kernels are similar and dissimilar. The analysis shows that the maximum similarity between them may reach 0.987 when the value of a scaling factor of Bessel kernel equals to 0.18. On the other hand, the minimum of the correlation between them is less than or equal to 0.55 when the scaling factor is less than or equal to 0.01. Hence, this paper suggests that Bessel kernel is more flexible than the typical Born-Jordan’s in TF analysis. A case study is demonstrated.


Hilbert-Huang Transform Based Time-Frequency Distribution and Comparisons with Other Three
Ming Li, Xue-Kang Gu, and Shen-Shen Yang

Abstract: Time-frequency distribution (TFD) of signals gains increasing applications in various areas of sciences and engineering for processing non-stationary signals and nonlinear signals. Traditional methods in the field are short-time Fourier transform (STFT), generalized TFDs in the Cohen class (GTFD), and wavelet transform (WT) based TFD. Recently, Huang et al. introduced a new method called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). This is an adaptively data-driven approach without the limitations caused by various window functions for STFT, different kernels for GTFD, and different mother functions for WT. This paper discusses four types of TFDs with demonstrations, providing a case to show that HHT based TFD may have high resolution.


A Sequential Study on Anti-collision Protocol Development for Passive RFID Tags
Nowshad Amin and Puah Weng Lin

Abstract: Tag identification is an important measure in RFID systems with applications for monitoring and tracking. A RFID reader recognizes tags through communication over a shared wireless channel. When multiple tags transmit their IDs simultaneously, the signals collide and this collision disturbs a reader’s identification process. Collision problem can be divided into reader collision and tag collision. Tag collision is taken into account in this study since most of the applications involve tag collision problem. Therefore, an anti-collision protocol is developed to solve this issue. This study focuses on the most widely used passive tag, as it is simple and cheaper. Here, a circuit has been proposed that can implement the anti-collision protocol for passive tags, and its functionality has also been investigated. Among several anti-collision protocols, the Binary Tree Protocol is chosen and a circuit based on Binary Tree Protocol has been constructed using SIMUAID simulator. In Binary Tree Protocol, the tag ID with lowest bit has the priority to be identified first. The circuit is able to successfully solve the anti-collision problem in RFID system to recognize the tag’s ID.


Generalized Sampling Kernels for Designing of Sharp FIR Digital Filters with Wide Passband
Kyoung-Jae Kim, Jae-Beom Seo, and Sang-Won Nam

Abstract: A new design of a computationally efficient FIR filter with wide passband and sharp transition is proposed by utilizing generalized sampling kernels and the IFIR filter structure. In particular, the proposed filter design approach provides a closed-form expression for the filter coefficients by employing the generalized sampling kernel and yields a practical design procedure for linear-phase sharp FIR digital filters with wide passband.


Study of Performance Evaluation Methods for Non-Uniform Speech Segmentation
Jakub Gałka, Bartosz Ziółko

Abstract: Speech segmentation is a very difficult problem, because of continuous nature of speech. Segmenting speech into various units (phonemes, syllables, and acoustic atoms) is essential in many applications. Choosing the best method of segmentation must be preceded by evaluation of its performance. This paper is a study of various numerical measures for automatic segmentation performance.


Measures On Wavelet Segmentation of Speech
JMichał Dyrek, Jakub Gałka, Bartosz Ziółko

Abstract: Speech segmentation is widely used in many speech applications. We propose a new wavelet-based extension of the typical spectrum-based non-uniform speech segmentation methods. The use of wavelets improves computation performance and provides easy and flexible adjusting of algorithm parameters. Segmentation accuracy measures are introduced and applied for evaluation as well.


Real time mobile Lane Detection System on PXA255 Embedded System
Ming-Jer Jeng, Pi-Chih Hsueh, Chun-Wei Yeh, Pei-Yung Hsiao1, Chao-Han Cheng, and Liann-Be Chang

Abstract: In this paper, we present a real time mobile lane detection system (LDS) based on PXA255 embedded system. The software with generic 2-D Gaussian smoothing filters includes the power-of-two approximation algorithm for the Gaussian coefficients which is easy to be hardware designed. In the lane detection algorithm stage of an image processing flow, the global edge detection is able to transfer the gray level image into binary pattern and show the edge of the object. Then, we use this binary pattern to find out the traffic lane location with following algorithms like the peak-finding and grouping, edge connecting, lane segments combination, lane boundaries selection. At last, the lane departure warning algorithm detects whether the vehicle is in traffic lanes and judges whether to send out the warning. Experimental results both operated under different circumstances and real image sequences will also be presented.


Efficient Dynamic Framed Slotted Anti-Collision Algorithm for RFID Systems
Xu Huang

Abstract: Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems with passive tags dramatically increase the ability of an organization to acquire a vast array of data about the location and properties of any entity that can be physically tagged and wirelessly scanned within certain technical limitations. However, if multiple tags are to be identified simultaneously, messages from the tags can collide and cancel each other out. One of the popular anti-collision algorithms is the ALOHA-type algorithm, which is simple and has good performance when the number of tags to be read is reasonable small. In this paper we extended our previous research [8, 17] to build a more efficient dynamic framed slotted ALOHA for passive tags in RFID systems under the condition titled “maximum efficiency” [8]. Also the behavior of the ALOHA for RFID passive tags is investigated, which facilitates the future relevant research projects.


Effective Middleware for Efficient XML Data Transmissions on Networks
Xu Huang and Dharmendra Sharma

Abstract: Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, very flexible text format derived from SGML (ISO 8879), which is a well defined, public standard. It is increasingly being used to transmit data on networks but is a verbose format and needs an efficient encoding to send relatively large amounts of data efficiently since XML became an official recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1998. This requirement is particularly important, which is most for attractive to wireless data communications. It is a common technical challenge for researchers in XML-driven networks to have good performance. One may employ a middleware to enhance performance by minimizing the impact of transmission time [1, 3]. In this paper we extended our previous research results [2, 11-14] to an alternative middleware for efficient XML data communications on Networks. We also show the experimental results obtained from our technique and that from the Network Adaptable Middleware (NAM) established by Ghandeharizadeh et al [1]. Those experimental results show that our method is superior to the NAM method [1], which supported by the fact that the time taken is less than 231.67, which is ranging symmetrically out of the 0.6 standard deviation about the peck of the probability of the network traffic load distributions otherwise the NAM will be suggested between the region of 0.6 standard deviation.


Universal Active Current Filter Using Single Second-Generation Current Controlled Conveyor
Chun-Ming Chang, Tzu-Hao Huang, Shu-Hui Tu, Chun-Li Hou, and Jiun-Wei Horng

Abstract: The realization of the second-order universal (low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-reject, and all-pass) active current filter using a single second-generation current controlled conveyor (CCCII), two grounded capacitors, and one resistor is proposed in this paper. Three input signals and the bias current of the active element determine the filtering type of the output signals. H-Spice simulations with 0.35μm process are used to validate the theoretical predictions of the filtering signal, very low sensitivities, and the correction for the deviation of the output signals using the result of the sensitivity.


A CMOS Multi-band Low Noise Amplifier Using High-Q Active Inductors
Ming-Jeui Wu, Yuan-Hao Lee, Yi-Yuan Huang, Yu-Min Mu and Jenn-Tzer Yang

Abstract: In this paper, a CMOS Multi-band LNA using High-Q active inductors load with a binary code band selector suitable for multi-standards wireless applications is proposed. Using an improved high-Q active inductor including two bits binary controlled code, the multi-band low noise amplifier operating at four different frequency bands is realized. The proposed amplifier is designed in TSMC 0.18-um CMOS technology. Based on the simulation results, the amplifier can operate at 900MHz, 1.8GHz, 1.9GHz, and 2.4GHz with forward gain (S21) of 40.7dB, 35.9dB, 37.2dB, and 30.7dB, and the noise figure (NF) of 0.018dB, 0.006dB, 0.001dB, and 0.01dB, respectively. Furthermore, the power dissipation of this amplifier can retain constant at all operating frequency bands and consume around 10.53 mW from 1.8-V power supply.


A 2.4GHz Low Power Highly Linear Mixer for Direct-Conversion Receivers
Jenn-Tzer Yang, Yu-Min Mu, Ming-Jeui Wu, Yuan-Hao Lee, and Yi-Yuan Huang

Abstract: In this paper, a 2.4GHz low power down- conversion mixer with high linearity for direct-conversion receivers based on a standard 0.18um CMOS technology is proposed. In the circuit design, Gilbert cell architecture and Common-Gate configuration are used. A simple buffer is applied in the IF output of mixer. Simulation results show that the mixer can operate at 2.4GHz and obtain the conversion gain of 11.08dB and the IIP3 of 13.64dBm. The return-loss and the noise figure (NF) are below -28dB and about 14dB, respectively. The low power highly linear mixer consumes around 3.99 mW from 1.8-V power supply.


Designs of CMOS Multi-band Voltage Controlled Oscillator Using Active Inductors
Ming-Jeui Wu, Yi-Yuan Huang, Yuan-Hao Lee, Yu-Min Mu, and Jenn-Tzer Yang

Abstract: In this paper, a radio frequency (RF) CMOS multiple bands voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using an active inductor load with a binary code band selector suitable for multi-standards wireless applications is proposed. By employing an improved high-Q active inductor including two bits binary controlled code, the multi-band VCO operating at four different frequency bands is realized. The proposed oscillator circuit is designed in TSMC 0.18-um CMOS technology. Based on the simulation results, the VCO can operate at 900MHz, 1.8GHz, 1.9GHz, and 2.4GHz with phase noise of -86.92dBc/Hz, -84.49dBc/Hz, -83.77dBc/Hz, and -81.17dBc/Hz, respectively. Furthermore, the power dissipation of this VCO can retain constant at all operating frequency bands and consume around 9.43 mW from 1.8-V power supply. The occupied chip area of this VCO is about 0.3 × 0.3 mm2.


Design and Implementation of Three-Phase Voltage Flicker Calculation Based on FPGA
Shu-Chen Wang, Yu-Jen Chen, and Chi-Jui Wu

Abstract: This study proposes a method for computing equivalent three-phase voltage flicker using field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based integrated circuit (IC) to measure the instantaneous voltage vectors. The very high-speed integrated-circuit hardware description language (VHDL) is used to design scheme, which provides high flexibility and technology independence. The instantaneous voltage vector module, management module, and quantification modules are developed to simulate the entire system. Some novel IP (intellectual property) cores, such as CORDIC and FFT, are introduced and adopted. Then the chip based on these IP cores is designed for voltage flicker calculation and is realized by using a signal FPGA (XC3S1500), which can be adopted as a coprocessor with a general-purpose microprocessor. Simulation results of waveforms and field-measured waveforms with voltage flicker disturbances are presented to show the validity of the flicker components obtained in designed IC.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 1, 2007)


A visual servoing controller for robot manipulators
J. Cid-Monjaraz, F. Reyes-Cortes and P. Sanchez-Sanchez

Abstract: This paper presents a new control family of fixed-camera visual servoing for planar robot manipulators. The methodology is based-on energy shaping methodology in order to derive regulators for position-image visual servoing. The control laws have been composed by the gradient of an artificial potential energy plus a nonlinear velocity feedback. For a static target we characterize the global closed loop attractor using the dynamic robot and vision model, and prove the local asymptotic stability of the position control scheme using the Lyapunov theory. Inverse kinematics is used to obtain the angles of the desired position and those of the position joint from computed centroid. Experimental results on a two degrees of freedom of direct drive manipulator are presented.


Non-stop Automated Gate System based on a Digital Media with Wireless Communication Function
Hyung Rim Choi, Byung Joo Park, Joong Jo Shin, Yavuz Keceli and Nam Kyu Park

Abstract: In order to go ahead in fierce competition to be a hub port, many major container companies all over the world are making every effort to improve their productivity through high-tech devices and information technology application. In particular, in case of container terminal gate, state-of-the-art technologies such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and OCR (Optical Character Reader) are being adopted to recognize a container number and truck’s plate number, to transmit the information on container location in a yard, and to prevent illegal opening of containers. But in most cases the container terminals are still using a bar code system for gate passage of trucks and containers, and also using paper documents (slip) for the delivery of the information on storage location of container in a yard. For this reason, most trucks have to stop at the gate of the container terminals in order to perform several basic jobs. To enhance the productivity of gate management, this study tried to develop a non-stop automated gate system based on wireless communication and digital media, so that trucks may not have to stop at the gate for the recognition of trucks and containers and also for the transmission of the information on container storage location.


NA Novel Estimate Method for the Speed and Mechanical Torque of the AC Asynchronous Electrical Dynamometer
Zhang Guixiang, Chen Hongwei and Zhou Cong

Abstract: A novel estimated method for the speed and mechanical torque of the AC Asynchronous Electrical Dynamometer is proposed in this paper. The method use the voltage, the current and the frequency of the stator of the AC Asynchronous Electrical Dynamometer to estimated the speed and mechanical torque where the wavelet least squared support vector regressions (WLSVR) is used to regression the nonlinear relationship between the variables of the dynamometer. Experiment shows that it is a new way for the measurement of the speed and mechanical torque of the AC Asynchronous Electrical Dynamometer in the power- testing system and can simplify the structure of the currently used measurement system.


Eigendecomposition-Principal Components Technique for Resolution Enhancement of Acoustical Holographic Source Localization
Mujahid F. Al-Azzo

Abstract: A large number of signal processing problems are concerned with estimating unknown signal parameters from noisy measurements. This area has drawn much interest and many methods for parameter estimation have appeared in the literature. The problem of spatially detection and imaging of closely separated objects is investigated. This paper presents eigendecomposition-principal components- method, a high resolution technique, for ultrasonic holographic imaging problem. The in-line holography is employed. The performance of the method is compared with the traditional method, Fourier transform method . The technique is investigated for different values of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and synthetic aperture length.


An efficient nonstationary Wiener filter hardware implementation
Veselin N. Ivanović, Srdjan Jovanovski

Abstract: An efficient multicycle hardware design of a nonstationary (time-varying (TV)) Wiener filter, based on timefrequency (TF) analysis, is considered. It is developed by following the idea of a new method for filter’s region of support (FRS) realtame estimation, also proposed here. Quite general estimation method, based on cross-terms-free time-frequency representations (TFDs), provides multiple detection of the local filter’s regions of support (in observed time-instant) in the practically only important case of a known single noisy signal realization. In this way, a very efficient real-time filtering of mono- and multicomponent nonstationary signals is enabled. Designed multicycle hardware design, required by the proposed estimation method, allows the implemented nonstationary Wiener filter to take different number of clock cycles per frequency point and to share functional kernels (that executes the TF representation) within the execution. In this way, (i) the application of the commonly used TFDs in the nonstationary filtering area, (ii) the optimization of the critical design performances (hardware complexity, energy consumption and cost) and (iii) the execution time improvement are provided.


Intelligent Supervisory Control Design Framework for Fault Exposed Processes
Carlos Parra Ortega, Eliézer Colina Morles, and Edgar Chacón Ramírez

Abstract: The relevance of timely detecting faults in an industrial process has motive our research work, which consists in designing a framework for intelligent supervisory control for industrial processes. In order to carry out supervisory control in continuous processes exposed to faults it is required to provide intelligence to the supervision mechanism in order to cope with the identification of a diversity of faults starting from data obtained by measuring the process variables, classify the origin of these faults and to be able to anticipate the consequences derived by their occurrence. In this article we propose to extend the idea of using multiresolutional models to construct a framework based upon fuzzy logic, agent technology and event detection approaches. Also in this work the suggested framework is validated by means of a discreteevent simulation program.


Adaptive neural network (ANN) for visual servoing: the mimetic approach
Mirjana Bonkovic, Mojmil Cecic, Vladan Papic

Abstract: In this paper we present a model free hybrid visual servoing system. The “model free” term refers to the system with the unknown kinematics model that has to be estimated on-line, while “hybrid” specifies the visual controller architecture. The proposed system has a conventional Jacobian estimation part necessary for control output generation and it is supplemented with an additional adaptive neural network (ANN). It is shown that ANN could be used to improve the visual servoing performances of the conventional visual servoing controller, as well as to enable the mimetic control of the robot which dynamics differs from the robot which it mimics.


Fuzzy logic controller as a power system stabilizer
Jenica Ileana Corcau and Eleonor Stoenescu

Abstract: In this paper, the structure of an fuzzy PID controller is presented. The application of the fuzzy logic controller as a power system stabilizer is investigated by means of simulation studies on a single machine infinite bus system. To be successful in implementing fuzzy PID controllers in large applications we must also consider their operating principles. Fuzzy logic controllers are based on empirical control rules. The development of a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer in order to maintain stability and enhance the closed-loop performance of a power system is described in this paper. A study case for the validation of the proposed tunning mechanism is presented and analyzed with control application for a synchronous generator excitation system. The superior performance of this stabilizer in comparison to the conventional fixed gain stabilizer proves the efficiency of this new PID fuzzy controller.


Synchronization of two Mutually Coupled Duffing – type Circuits
Christos K. Volos, Ioannis M. Kyprianidis, and Ioannis N. Stouboulos

Abstract: In this paper we have studied experimentally the case of chaotic synchronization of two identical nonlinear electronic circuits. This is a very interesting research area because of its applications to the field of secure communications. The circuit we have used is a second order, Duffing – type, nonlinear electronic circuit driven by a sinusoidal voltage source. The nonlinear element has a cubic i-v characteristic. We have studied the dynamic behavior of the system in the case of the bidirectional coupling via a linear resistor. Both experimental and simulation results have shown that chaotic synchronization is possible.


Justification of Investment into Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Josef Hynek and Václav Janeček

Abstract: Manufacturing companies worldwide strive hard to stay competitive and efficient utilization of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) is amongst the key factors in achieving this goal. The problem is that AMT projects are usually expensive and as it is rather difficult to estimate its real impact and various company-wide benefits, it is hard to make the relevant decisions whether invest in such a project. That is why our paper recapitulates commonly used justification approaches and their advantages as well as disadvantages have been summarized here. Thereafter we have concentrated on economic justification approach and we have focused on financial and accounting methods utilized by managers in order to decide about the economic feasibility of AMT projects. Furthermore, we have been concerned about managerial attitudes towards conventional financial methods and the influence of experienced judgment of senior management in respect to the AMT investments was examined too. The results of two surveys carried out in the Czech Republic have been compared with outcomes of two analogical surveys that were realized earlier in the UK and the USA. Whereas some major differences have been found in the various financial methods utilization and the perceived importance of these methods within the relevant decision making processes, we have ascertained that other problems are rather universal and managers of manufacturing companies worldwide have to cope with them.


An Extraction of Emotion in Human Speech Using Speech Synthesize and Classifiers for Each Emotion
Masaki Kurematsu, Jun Hakura and Hamido Fujita

Abstract: The conventional method of estimation of emotion in speech has the 3 steps. First, researchers collect a lot of human speech. Next, researchers get speech features from human speech using frequency analysis and calculate the statistical value of them. Finally they make a classifier from the statistical value using a learning algorithm. Most researchers consider the collection of human speech, feature selection and learning algorithm to increase the validity of estimation. But the validity of estimation is not high. In this paper, we propose the 3 new methods to enhance the conventional method of estimation of emotion in speech. First method is that we use synthetic speech to make a classifier. Second method is that we use not only mean and maximum but also Standard Deviation (SD), skewness and kurtosis to make a classifier. Third method is that we use the classifier for each emotion. In order to evaluate our approach, we did experiments. Experimental results show the possibility in which our approach is effective for improving the former method.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 1, 2007)


Increasing the radar ATR system performances by using a modified version of fuzzy integral applied on HRR and video imaginary
Iulian-Constantin VIZITIU, Petrică CIOTÎRNAIE

Abstract: One of the most often used tools to increase the performances of automatic target recognition system is the fusion technique (data or decision fusion). In the current study we investigated the possibility of improving the version of the standard Sugeno’s fuzzy integral. Moreover, in order to constantly increase the performances of radar ATR system, we have applied the above mentioned decision fusion method on datasets designed by using high-resolution radar and video imaginary. For the finality of this study, in order to confirm the theoretical aspects, a real input database was used.


Process Characterization and Description in Order to Reliability Assessment
Radovan Novotný

Abstract: This article presents some important aspect relating to the process characterization and description using empirical approach in order to electronic device reliability assessment. The traditional probabilistic approach is to a large degree replaced by empirical study approaches constructed on designed reliability testing experiments. This contribution presents the response surface methodology as a statistical tool for creating maps of performance stability for supposed device operating conditions.


A Transmission and Interaction Oriented Free-Viewpoint Video System
You Yang, Mei Yu, Gangyi Jiang, and Zongju Peng

Abstract: A transmission and interaction oriented free-viewpoint video system framework is presented in this paper. The proposed system framework is divided as distinctive but interconnected parts, from video encoder, adaptive-interactive disparity extractor, to virtual view rendering. Adaptive disparity algorithm and extractor is proposed and embedded to multiview video encoder, in order to fetch the desired coarse disparity map and enhance the encoder performance. The output bitstream for storage and transmission is organized as disparity layer and video layer. Virtual viewpoint images accessed in the procedure of client-system interaction will be interpolated via disparity based algorithm after the decoded disparity information is refined to single-pixel based disparity map. Experimental results show that, the bitstream volume of disparity map accounts for a little proportion when comparing with bitstream volume of video signals in transmission, while high quality of virtual viewpoint images can be provided to clients in real-time.


Graphical Programming based Biomedical Signal Acquisition and Processing
Mihaela Lascu, Dan Lascu

Abstract: This paper describes a computer based signal acquisition, processing and analysis system using LabVIEW, a graphical programming language for engineering applications. Biomedical signal acquisition has greatly advanced over the years, using many different technologies. E series multifunction data acquisition cards are used for the acquisition of biomedical signals and the appropriate software NI-DAQ (National Instruments – Data Acquisition). With the increasing performance of the personal computer, computer based signal processing systems are becoming an efficient and cost-effective way of acquiring and analyzing these signals. The advanced analysis techniques available on the computer are becoming invaluable to the practicing physician. The diagnostic decision will be more accurate. Peak detection in electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the solved problems using LabVIEW and filtering biomedical signals in different ways is a challenge that has to be solved.


Hilbert Huang and Wavelet Processing of Time Domain Signals from Ultrasoinc Guided Waves Magnetostrictive Sensors Arrays
Sami Barmada, Antonino Musolino, Marco Raugi, Mauro Tucci, and Florin Turcu

Abstract: In this paper we compare the effectiveness of the time, wavelet and Hilbert Huang domain analysis of waveforms from a Non Destructive Test (NDT) equipment. The analysis of the signals from NDT systems is one of the most important activities since it allows to locate the actual defects. Very often the echoes traveling back to the sensors are superimposed with the signal from the transducer. We analyze the waveforms obtained by couples of sensors in order to extract the echoes and to recognize the points were they originate. A preliminary numerical analysis has been used to study the main features of the elastic waves propagations in inhomogeneous materials


Application of Artificial Neural Network for Harmonic Estimation in Different Produced Induction Motors
H. Selcuk Nogay, Yasar Birbir

Abstract: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique has been used for the prediction of voltage THD (Total Harmonic Distortion), mainly from input and output measurements of three phases, squirrel cage induction motors fed from a pulse width modulation inverter voltage supply. The induction motors have different construction, different power and produced by different firm. A sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) inverter feeding three-phase induction motors were tested up to first thirty harmonic voltage components at different loads. The results show that the artificial neural network model trained with experimental data sets, produces reliable estimates of voltage THD for squirrel cage three phase induction motors that produced different firm.


A Hybrid Active Noise Canceling Structure
Andres Romero, Edgar Lopez, Mariko Nakano-Miyatake, Hector Perez-Meana

Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid active noise canceling structure (ANC) which significantly reduces the distortion produced by the acoustic feedback present in most ANC systems with a system identification configuration. Here the ANC performance is improved by using two adaptive ANC systems: One with a system identification configuration, used to identify the acoustic path and another one with a predictive configuration which is used to reduce the feedback distortion. Besides the reduction of feedback distortion, an accurate secondary path is quite important, because a poor secondary path estimation will produce unacceptable degradation of the ANC performance. To this end an evaluation of the secondary path modeling algorithms proposed by Bao, Erickson and Zhang, modified to operate with a hybrid structure is also presented. Computer simulation results show that the hybrid structure using a modification of the method proposed by Zhang provides a fairly good noise cancellation performance even in the presence of acoustic feedback..


A Gigabit IP Core for Embedded Systems
Nicholas Tsakiris and Greg Knowles

Abstract: In embedded systems a common requirement is to provide some form of communication between the system and a server. In the case of IPTV (Internet protocol TV), the purpose is for streaming content, in other applications it is for sending blocks of data between the two machines for processing. This paper provides a solution in the form of an IP based Gigabit Ethernet connection with a speciallydesigned IP layer implemented directly in hardware. The IP core implements the ICMP, UDP and the new UDP-Lite standards, it was designed in VHDL and after testing and synthesis, found to use approximately 1000 slices of the Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA, and runs at full Gigabit ethernet speed (125 MHz), [3], [4], [5], [6], [11], [7].


Suppression of Baseline Wander and power line interference in ECG using Digital IIR Filter
Mahesh S. Chavan, RA.Agarwala, M.D.Uplane

Abstract: Electrocardiogram has considerable diagnostic significance, and application of ECG monitoring are diverse and in wide use. For diagnostic- quality ECG recordings, signal acquisition must be noise free. The signal acquisition is susceptible to the interference from other biological and environmental sources. This article presents the application of the digital IIR filter on the raw ECG signal. The digital filters are applied to the ECG in real time manner. The filters utilized are Butterworth and elliptic notch and high pass filter. Complete design of the filters is depicted in the paper. At the end both the filter types are compared. It is found that the elliptic filter find suitable as compared to the Butterworth with some limitations. For getting real time ECG from the patient PCL 711B add on card has been used. While getting spectral response 5000 sample points of the ECG are stored for the application.


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