International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences

E-ISSN: 1998-0140
Volume 6, 2012

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Issue 1, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Fatigue Life Modeling and Prediction of GRP Composites Using Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimized Neural Networks

Authors: K. Salmalian, M. Soleimani, S. Rouhi

Pages: 1-10

Abstract: In this article, Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are used for multi-objective Pareto optimal design of Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH)-type neural networks that have been deployed for fatigue life modeling of unidirectional GRP composites using some input-output experimental data. Multi-objective EAs (non–dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II) with a diversity preserving mechanism are used for Pareto optimization of such GMDH-type neural networks. The important conflicting objectives of GMDH-type neural networks that are considered in this work are, namely, Training Error (TE), Prediction Error (PE) and number of neurons (N) of such neural network. Different pairs of these objective functions are selected for 2-objective optimization processes. Therefore, optimal Pareto fronts of such models are obtained in each case which exhibit the trade-off between the corresponding pair of conflicting objectives and thus provide different non-dominated optimal choices of GMDH-type neural networks models for fatigue life of unidirectional GRP composites. Moreover, all the three objectives are considered in a 3-objective optimization process which consequently lead to some more non-dominated choices of GMDH-type models representing the trade-off among the training error, prediction error, and number of neurons (complexity of network), simultaneously. The overlay graphs of these Pareto fronts also expose that the 3-objective results include those of the 2-objective results and also provide more optimal choices for the multi-objective design of GMDH-type neural networks in terms of minimum training error, minimum prediction error and minimum complexity.

Title of the Paper: Stability Analysis in Competition Population Model

Authors: Nguyen Huu Khanh

Pages: 11-19

Abstract: We consider a competition model with two species for a limited resource in which the habitat is divided into two patches. By using aggregation methods, the reduced model has the form of classical Lotka-Volterra competition model. We represent the stability of equilibria of the model in various parameter spaces. It is found that the transcritical bifurcation takes an important role in explaining the dynamics of model. Numerical investigation shows that the long term behaviour of the complete model and the reduced model is very similar.

Title of the Paper: GIS as Knowledge Maps in Group Decision Making

Authors: D. Klimešová, H. Brožová

Pages: 20-29

Abstract: The geography plays a very important role in many decision-making problems. Many spatial problems are complex and require the use of analysis and models and an interdisciplinary and group approach to their solution. Decision-maker (typically groups of people) selects the best solution among several alternatives according to his/her knowledge. A geographic information system (GIS) allows us to visualize, understand, analyze and interpret geographical data, information and knowledge in many ways that shows relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. The mathematical model and its solution also support information and knowledge formalization and sharing among group members. GIS can be viewed in three ways - the database view, the map view, and the model view. Our aim is to formalize correspondence between these items. In this paper we discuss group decision-making process using GIS, various forms of knowledge maps in GIS and models in GIS. Our aim is to formalize correspondence between these items. We will show selected examples of knowledge maps in GIS application.

Title of the Paper: Lognormal Distribution and Using L-Moment Method for Estimating its Parameters

Authors: Diana Bílková

Pages: 30-44

Abstract: L-moments are based on the linear combinations of order statistics. The question of L-moments presents a general theory covering the summarization and description of sample data sets, the summarization and description of theoretical distributions, but also the estimation of parameters of probability distributions and hypothesis testing for parameters of probability distributions. L-moments can be defined for any random variable in the case that its mean exists. Within the scope of modeling income or wage distribution we currently use the method of conventional moments, the quantile method or the maximum likelihood method. The theory of L-moments parallels to the other theories and the main advantage of the method of L-moments over these methods is that L-moments suffer less from impact of sampling variability. L-moments are more robust and they provide more secure results mainly in the case of small samples. Common statistical methodology for description of the statistical samples is based on using conventional moments or cumulants. An alternative approach is based on using different characteristics which are called the L-moments. The L-moments are an analogy to the conventional moments, but they are based on linear combinations of the rank statistics, i.e. the L-statistics. Using the L-moments is theoretically more appropriate than the conventional moments because the L-moments characterize wider range of the distribution. When estimating from a sample, L-moments are more robust to the existence of the outliers in the data. The experience shows that in comparison with the conventional moments the L-moments are more difficult to distort and in finite samples they converge faster to the asymptotical normal distribution. Parameter estimations using the L-moments are especially in the case of small samples often more precise than estimates calculated using the maximum likelihood method. This text concerns with the application of the L-moments in the case of larger samples and with the comparison of the precision of the method of L-moments with the precision of other methods (moment, quantile and maximum likelihood method) of parameter estimation in the case of larger samples. Three-parametric lognormal distribution is the basis of these analyses.

Title of the Paper: Finding Simple Roots by Seventh- and Eighth-Order Derivative-Free Methods

Authors: F. Soleymani, S. K. Khattri

Pages: 45-52

Abstract: Nonlinear equation solving by without memory iterative methods is taken into account in the present research. Recently, Khattri and Argyros in [S.K. Khattri, I.K. Argyros, Sixth order derivative free family of iterative methods, Appl. Math. Comput. 217 (2011), 5500-5507], proposed a sixth-order family of derivative-free methods including four function evaluations per full cycle to reach the index of efficiency 1.565. In this work, we develop new derivative-free without memory methods, based on the abovementioned work, in which the convergence rates reach the seventhand eighth-order respectively. And subsequently, the index of efficiency will be increased to 1.626 and 1.682. This shows that our proposed methods are more economic than their work in terms of onvergence rate and the efficiency index. Moreover, the numerical examples are considered to support the theoretical results and put on show that the contributions in this paper hit the targets.

Title of the Paper: The Implementation of Intellectual Property Strategies Inside the Organization: Patent and Brand’s Assessment, Management and Protection

Authors: S. Manfredi, Dott. F. Nappo

Pages: 53-62

Abstract: The economic value of intellectual property assets is linked to the possibility that a company exploits ideas and knowledge in order to obtain future economic benefits. Businesses, in fact, invest in research and development, innovate, create intellectual property assets and use them to achieve competitive advantage over their competitors, make extra profits and to be better positioned in the market. In this sense, intellectual property evaluation provides the manager information of vital importance in enabling him to maintain or improve his competitive position as well as allowing him to continue to have access to the best creative content, technology and scientific materials. The intellectual property evaluation process should take place continuously but in reality there are sporadic evaluations. In fact, an organization that does not value its own resources before implementing a plan is a not well-coordinated organization.

Title of the Paper: Effects of Changes in Some Parameters on the Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Economic Model with Wealth and Human Capital Accumulation

Authors: Nicoleta Sîrghi, Mihaela Neamtu, Dumitru Opris

Pages: 63-71

Abstract: This paper analyzes a deterministic and stochastic dynamic economic model with wealth and human capital accumulation. The deterministic model is described and using the numerical simulations we can notice that the stationary state is asymptotically stable. The stochastic model is built and the mean values of the linearized variables are proven to be asymptotically stabile. We also examine effects of changes in the propensity to receive education, efficiency of learning, and efficiency of education upon dynamic paths of the system.

Title of the Paper: Power-Law Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow on an Inclined Plane

Authors: Gabriella Bognár, Imre Gombkötő, Krisztián Hriczó

Pages: 72-80

Abstract: The velocity profiles of a layer of liquid flowing on an inclined moving plane are studied. This process is modeled by boundary layer flows of non-Newtonian fluids. The equations of continuity and motion with appropriate boundary conditions have been solved analytically. The effect of changes of the rheological properties and inclination angle is examined for sand-water, bentonite and sand-bentonite-water mixtures.

Title of the Paper: Analytical Solution for Steady State and Transient Heat Processes in a Double-Fin Assembly

Authors: Marija Lencmane, Andris Buikis

Pages: 81-89

Abstract: This paper deals with the three dimensional formulation of steady state and transient problems for the heat exchanger consisting of rectangular fins attached on either sides of a plane wall (double-fin assembly). With the help of the conservative averaging method problem was reduced to the two dimensional problem. Analytical solution based on Green function is proposed. This solution is obtained in the form of the 2nd kind Fredholm integral equations. Some solutions for the system of 2nd kind Fredholm integral equations are given.

Title of the Paper: A Plastic Neuronal Network Model with STDP for Tinnitus Management by Sound Therapy

Authors: Hirofumi Nagashino, Yohsuke Kinouchi, Ali A. Danesh, Abhijit S. Pandya

Pages: 90-97

Abstract: Tinnitus is a perception of sound in the ears or in the head without external source. There are many therapeutic approaches for tinnitus. Sound therapy is one of the effective techniques for its treatment. We have proposed computational models with plasticity by Hebbian hypothesis using a neural oscillator or coupled model neurons described by simplified Hodgkin-Huxley equations in order to investigate mechanisms of tinnitus generation and the clinical effects of sound therapy from the neural engineering point of view. In the present paper, a neuronal network model with synaptic plasticity by STDP (spike-timing-dependent plasticity) hypothesis is proposed for replication of the clinical results that human auditory system temporarily halts perception of tinnitus following sound therapy.

Title of the Paper: Multi-Dimensional Mathematical Models of Intensive Steel Quenching for Sphere. Exact and Approximate Solutions

Authors: Sanda Blomkalna, Margarita Buike, Andris Buikis

Pages: 98-105

Abstract: In this paper we develop mathematical models for 3-D and 1-D hyperbolic heat equations and construct their analytical solutions for the determination of the initial heat flux for rectangular and spherical samples. Some solutions of time inverse problems are obtained in closed analytical form. We use approximate analytical solutions on the basis of conservative averaging method and compare the difference between polynomial approximations of exact solutions. Some numerical results are given for a silver ball. The influence of relaxation time on solution, linearity of classical and hyperbolic heat equation, linear and non-linear boundary conditions are investigated.

Title of the Paper: An Application of Various Nonparametric Techniques by Nonparametric Regression Splines

Authors: Memmedaga Memmedli, Akhlitdin Nizamitdinov

Pages: 106-113

Abstract: In this paper we made a comparison study between regression spline, penalized spline, and their Bayesian versions: adaptive Bayesian regression spline and Bayesian penalized spline with a different number of observations. For this purpose we made a simulation study with four different functions with six positions. For regression and penalized splines the important problems are the knot selection and selection of smoothing parameter. For both techniques we used equidistant knot selection as a basis method in regression techniques. The purpose of using different number of sampled observations is to analyze the behavior of utilized techniques. All results are compared with each other by mean value of the MSE (mean squared error). The penalized spline showed one of the best results between spline techniques and their Bayesian versions.

Title of the Paper: An Empirical Study of Fuzzy Approach with Artificial Neural Network Models

Authors: Memmedaga Memmedli, Ozer Ozdemir

Pages: 114-121

Abstract: Time series forecasting based on fuzzy approach by using artificial neural networks is a significant topic in many scientific areas nowadays. Artificial neural network models are sufficient due to their abilities to solve nonlinear problems especially financial researches in recent years. For these reasons, in this paper we made a forecasting study for weekly closed prices of the exchange rate of Turkish Liras (TL) to Euro between 2005 and 2009 which has important effect in economical and industrial areas. We applied the best four networks which are called multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF) neural network and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) to improve forecasting fuzzy time series with different degrees of membership by using MSE performance measure. Empirical results show that the MLP outperforms others to forecast neural network based-fuzzy time series.

Title of the Paper: Non-Isothermal Steady Flow of Power-Law Fluids between Parallel Plates

Authors: Gabriella Bognár, János Kovács

Pages: 122-129

Abstract: We study the shear flow of a non-Newtonian fluid between flat parallel plates in relative tangential motion with temperature dependent viscosity. The temperature and velocity distributions are investigated for a layer of fluid with Nahme type rheological equation, located between two plates and the upper plate moves with constant velocity. The existence and multiplicity results are examined for the solutions to the corresponding boundary value problems. An application of this result for experimentally determined material parameters is given.

Title of the Paper: Neural Network Techniques for Automated Land-Cover Change Detection in Multispectral Satellite Time Series Imagery

Authors: Victor-Emil Neagoe, Mihai Neghina, Mihai Datcu

Pages: 130-139

Abstract: This paper presents an advanced approach for land-cover change detection in remote-sensing imagery. Firstly, several supervised neural network change detection techniques have been considered and evaluated versus statistical supervised ones.; the chosen neural network models are Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF), and Supervised Self Organizing Map (SOM), whereas the applied statistical classifiers are Bayes and Nearest Neighbor (NN). Secondly, we have investigated the following unsupervised change detection techniques: Self-Organizing Map (SOM) (neural clustering), versus K-means (statistical clustering), and Fuzzy C-means (FCM) (fuzzy clustering). The proposed model of change detection in multispectral satellite images has two main processing stages: (a) feature selection (using one of the three techniques: the concatenation of corresponding pixels (CON), the computation of absolute differences between corresponding pixels (ADIP), and the computation of absolute differences between reflectance ratios of corresponding pixels (ADIRR)); (b) classification, using one of the above mentioned supervised or unsupervised models (for the two-class case:”change”, “no change”). The considered techniques are evaluated using a Landsat 7 ETM+ multi-temporal image, corresponding to a set of two images of the same area (400 x 400 pixels) in the region Markaryd, Sweden taken in 2002 and 2006. For model evaluation, a change map provided by the European Environmental Agency was taken as reference; we have used 2000 pixels for training and the rest of 158 000 pixels for test. The best experimental result using supervised techniques leads to the total success change detection rate of 88.24 % (CON-MLP) for the test lot, whereas among the unsupervised techniques, using all the pixels, the best result corresponds to a total success change detection rate of 78.22% (ADIP-SOM). The experimental results prove the advantage of the neural network change detection techniques over the statistical and fuzzy ones.

Title of the Paper: Deterministic and Stochastic Internet-Style Networks with a Single Link, and One or Two User Under Information Delay

Authors: Gabriela Mircea, Mihaela Neamtu, Marilen Pirtea, Dumitru Opris

Pages: 140-148

Abstract: In this paper we investigate the dynamics of the Internet-Style Network with delay using a single link, and one or two user under delay. We establish the existence of the Hopf bifurcation and the normal form. The stochastic system is associated to the deterministic model and the mean values and the square mean values of the variables for the linearized stochastic system are analyzed. The last part of the paper includes numerical simulations and conclusions.

Title of the Paper: Spatial-Temporal Modeling and Visualisation

Authors: Dana Klimešová, Eva Ocelíková

Pages: 149-156

Abstract: This paper considers a number of properties of space-time covariance functions and how these relate to the spatial-temporal interactions of the process. The processing of five temporal series is presented to show the difficulties to determine and visualize recognized space of object states. This work is focused on the temporal GIS that will be able to examine human activities under various constraints in a space–time context. The contribution of space-time geographical object understanding and the possibility to analyse the complex spatial-temporal relationships to improve cognitive processes is discussed. The object oriented approaches are inherently connected with object dynamics and activities resulting in interactions and this point of view can help us to understand space of states that could have significant implications to our everyday life.

Title of the Paper: Stereoscopic Image Transfer of Information in Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Vladimir Jehlicka

Pages: 157-164

Abstract: In current medical practice, in addition to traditional minimally invasive surgery carried out operations that are represented by laparoscopic and robotic assisted operations. In the present article is the process operation is understood as the activity of a closed control loop, in which information is transmitted as the input, ie, action, and output signals. Attention is focused on monitoring the output signals, i.e. the transmission of visual information from the operating field to the surgeon. When laparoscopic surgery is a picture of two-dimensional and does not allow the surgeon to obtain good spatial idea. While the robot-assisted surgery is a stereoscopic image information transmission, which allows to implement operating procedures with the greatest possible accuracy when good spatial orientation of the surgeon. The article, among other things deals with stereoscopic vision and imaging, and its subsequent effect on increasing the quality of surgical operations.

Title of the Paper: Spectrum of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

Authors: Asker Ali Abiyev

Pages: 165-172

Abstract: It has been achieved polynomial function, depending on arguments a + b and ab arguments of expression an+bn for the biggest and smallest numbers which are in the centre of natural geometrical figures (line, square, cube,…,hypercube). The coefficients of this polynomial are defined from triangle tables, written by special algorithm by us. The sums of the numbers in each row of the triangles make Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. New formulae for terms of these sequences have been suggested by us (Abiyev’s theorem). As the coefficients of the suggested polynomial are spectrum of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers they will opportunity these number’s application field to be enlarged.

Title of the Paper: New Methods for Exploring the Implications in the Evolution and Patterns of Romanian GDP

Authors: Vasile Paul Bresfelean, Mihaela Göndör

Pages: 173-181

Abstract: In the present article we extend our latest studies where we to explored implications in the progression and patterns of Romanian GDP. We employ data mining techniques, such as model trees and linear regression, over data extracted from statistics, socio-economic indicators tables and reports from the Eurostat, Romanian National Bank (NBR) and Romanian National Institute of Statistics, over the 2001-2010 period. We continue to present our investigation of GDP patterns spaced out from classic ways, through taxes on production, imports, on income and on wealth, employers’ social contributions from various fields of economy (agriculture, commerce, constructions, industry, services, financial, banking, etc.) as well as salaries level, based on the data mining tasks.

Title of the Paper: Probabilistic Approach in Examining Quality of Survey Response Data in Statistical Education Research

Authors: Zamalia Mahmud, Nor Azila C. Musa, Nor Azura M. Ghani, Rosli A. Rahim

Pages: 182-190

Abstract: Obtaining and maintaining quality data in a survey investigation has becoming a continuing concern among the statistical education researchers. Rasch probabilistic measurement model had been used to identify inappropriate survey items in many other instruments but it has not been extensively used in many survey investigations involving statistics education research. This study had employed Rasch dichotomous and rating models to examine the quality of survey response data, namely on the students’ attitude towards and their competency in learning elementary statistics. Students’ attitude was measured by the 24 items of 5-point Likert scale while statistical competency was measured by their ability to answer correctly or incorrectly based on three statistical elementary topics. This study used secondary data which was formerly gathered from 139 secondary school students over several occasions, at two different points of time (prior to statistics class teaching and end of class teaching). The outcome was investigated based on both item and person misfit response strings and PIDM map. Rasch analysis had shown that quality of items and persons can be enhanced with proper validation techniques namely, through identification of fit statistics on the items and misfit response strings. Generally, Rasch probabilistic model is able to diagnose the unusual response patterns which otherwise could not be detected using the general deterministic model.

Title of the Paper: Using Quantitative Analysis to Identifying a General Structure of Teachers’ Online In-Service Learning

Authors: Lung-Hsing Kuo, Chin-Hsi Chen, Hung-Jen Yang, Li-Ming Chen

Pages: 191-199

Abstract: Quantitative analysis is the process of presenting and interpreting numerical data. With the rise of internet technologies, distance courses have migrated to the Web, teachers can spend their time to study in-serve teacher advancement education online. This study aims to identifying a structure of in-service teachers studied online related courses of in-service teacher advancement education in Taiwan by using quantitative analysis. The results shows there are real relationships between course type and first registered specialty, course type and school level, and course type and age group for teachers used online learning to study related courses of in-service teacher advancement education. The result shows teachers who study course type of teaching or administration category can be divided into two groups.

Title of the Paper: Utilization of Process Oriented Costing Systems in Healthcare Organizations

Authors: B. Popesko, Z. Tučková

Pages: 200-208

Abstract: Study analyses the present trends in cost and process management of healthcare organizations. First part of the paper describes the evolution of the costing methods from the traditional absorption costing techniques, into modern, process oriented, costing systems which is important tool for managerial decisions. The advantages and limitations of Activity-Based Costing approach are deeply discussed. Following part of the paper analyses the situation in the field of healthcare organization management. Objective of the paper is to analyze the application of the modern costing systems and process management techniques in healthcare institutions. Application of these techniques in the healthcare organizations brings number of specifics which have to be solved before the implementation. Final part of the paper outlines the benefits and information outputs of modern costing and process management systems in healthcare organizations.

Title of the Paper: Coordination of Multi-Agents with a Revenue-Cost-Sharing Mechanism: A Cooperative Game Theory Approach

Authors: Athanasios C. Karmperis, Konstantinos Aravossis, Anastasios Sotirchos, Ilias P. Tatsiopoulos

Pages: 209-221

Abstract: In this paper we focus on the coordination of multi-agents through a revenue-cost-sharing mechanism. We consider a grand-coalition consisting of finite agents, who undertake part of the costs individually, while the remaining costs C and the total revenues R are shared between them with a revenue-cost-sharing contract. We introduce a novel approach in the form of a cooperative game for a finite set of agents N and we estimate the finite set of possible solutions. Specifically, each of these solutions can be used for the coordination of the multi-agents, as it allocates the grand-coalition’s profits and risks equally among them. A computation algorithm is developed and illustrated in a numerical example for the coordination of a grand-coalition with nine individual agents.

Issue 2, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Architecture for Integrating Product Information and User Review on Web 2.0

Authors: Sungmoon Bae, Kwan Hee Han, Sang Hyun Choi, Juhyun Park

Pages: 223-230

Abstract: In offline markets, consumers' purchase decisions are heavily influenced by word-of-mouth. With the rapid growth of the Internet these conversations have migrated in online markets, creating active electronic communities that provide a wealth of product information. Today, customers compare the price of a product and find reviews of the product on the Internet using the smart devices. However, the information what customers want to know is not integrated and customers spend time to search proper information. This paper classifies the information into two categories – product information and user review. The product information is mainly provided by manufacturers and suppliers such as product name, specification, and price. The BOM of the product is also displayed for power users. And the detail information of parts should be provided using web services. The user review is created by other buyers who already bought and used the product. Customers share the experiences with others on the Web. User review is dynamic and can be gathered from web portals or web search engines. This paper proposes an integrated architecture for the manufacturer’s product information and the customer review on the web. It is composed of RFID system, web retrieving system and product information retriever. A prototype is also developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed architecture.

Title of the Paper: The Optimal Interval for the Taylor Rule Appliance in Romania

Authors: Daniel G. Belingher, Dumitru-Alexandru D. D. Bodislav

Pages: 231-238

Abstract: In these days of economic uncertainty macroeconomic policies must be used to set in line the economic development with the economic deployment of the evolution of the country’s government. This research paper studies the evolution in the last 9 years of the monetary policy interest rate (MPIR) and the actual development of some macroeconomic indicators of Romania compared with the Taylor rule generated interest rate. For this, the authors have chosen the original 1993 Taylor Rule, but also an interval in which the Taylor Rule varies according to different scenarios for the Romanian economic framework. The Taylor rule underlines the connection between the Central Bank of a country, through its nominal interest rate, the economic momentum-cycle, through the output gap, and other economic conditions, especially inflation. Actually, as a brief of this rule, we can say that for each 1 percent increase in inflation, the Central Bank needs to raise the nominal interest rate with more than 1 percent.

Title of the Paper: Does the Dimension of Privately Managed Pension Funds Influence their Performances? Statistical Study in Romania

Authors: M. Cristea, N. Marcu, R. Drăcea

Pages: 239-248

Abstract: The present study indicates what is causality relation between dimension of privately managed pension funds in Romania, measured through net assets value and their performances. In this way, on field literature review there are many studies which have analyzed the fluctuation of pension funds performances considering the assets value, their investment allocation, in order to improve the efficiency. The research methodology consists in testing the correlation between the two variables: net assets value and average level-headed return, by means of the multiple linear regression method, on the market level, as well as individually, for each pension fund. Therefore, we have tested two sets of correlations: one considering the value of total net assets, as the dependent variable, and the average rate assessed by the profitability of all privately managed pension funds, as the independent variable, and the other given by the dimension of each pension fund, measured through NAVPS index, and their performance evaluated through the annualized rate of profitability of each privately managed pension fund. The entry data used for this study represent monthly data reported by the official body charged with monitoring the system of private pensions in Romania, PPSSC. The conclusion is that, on a short-term time horizon, a mark-up of total net assets will determine a diminution of the average rate of profitability of all privately managed pension funds, an effect which should be prevent by considering the causes generating this diminution and through the analysis of the investments relying on privately managed pension funds and of their results. These results provide us the impact of the structure of investments relying on privately managed pension funds, and according to this impact, we should elaborate a mixture of fund investments, on a short-term time horizon, dynamic and adaptable to the fluctuations of generated financial returns. Thus, there will be many opportunities for achieving a more effective use of the pension funds and for preventing the diminution of the value of insurants’ contributions to these pension funds.

Title of the Paper: The Correlation between the Return on Assets and the Measures of Financial Balance for Romanian Companies

Authors: Marian Siminica, Daniel Circiumaru, Dalia Simion

Pages: 249-256

Abstract: The paper studies the statistical correlation between the return on assets and some measures of financial balance. The research relies on the assumptions that the financial balance influences most of the indicators of performances of a company. Therefore, we chose the return on assets as dependent variable, as it represents the final result of the company’s business. As independent variables, meaning measures that point out the financial balance, we selected 24 indicators. All these indicators were calculated for 40 Romanian companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange and included a period of 4 years between 2007 and 2010. The data required to calculate these indicators were extracted from the annual financial statements of these companies. The study includes two years of economic growth for Romania (2007 and 2008) and two of downturn (2009 and 2010). It is thus expected that most indicators analyzed to worsen in the past two years. We concluded, at the end of research, that the profitability of the Romanian firms declined as a result of the economic crisis. Before crisis (2007) it was significantly influenced by the financial structure and the financial balance. After the crisis, the importance of indicators emphasizing the business administration (as profit margin and rates of turnover) increased, but also the importance of the random external factors, uncontrollable by the management.

Title of the Paper: Debts Management Analysis from the Operation Activity

Authors: Melania Elena Miculeac, Mirela Monea

Pages: 257-264

Abstract: Any company has a limited level of resources which it is obliged to manage in such a way as to ensure the fulfillment of its objectives: full and on time accomplishment of activity object, realization of top quality products and services, competitiveness increase, superior capitalization of resources potential. In this paper we proposed a model to analyze the efficiency of resources allotted in client-debts, through this model emphasizing the influence of clients change in the company’s business, noticing too the period of time in which it pays its invoices.

Title of the Paper: Improving the Session Identification using the Mean Time

Authors: C. E. Dinuca, D. Ciobanu

Pages: 265-272

Abstract: In the data preprocessing, sessions identification is a very important step. Algorithms used so far to identify sessions use some fixed values to specify the end of a session and to mark the beginning of another. In this paper we explain why the use of fixed values cause errors in identifying sessions and we propose a new method for identifying sessions based on average time of visiting web pages We implemented in Java programming language by using NetBeans IDE, two algorithms to identify sessions. The first uses a fixed value of 30 minutes (1800 seconds) to indicate the end of a session and the second using the average time spent on the pages of the website by users. For exemplification we used the NASA log file available online at

Title of the Paper: Autotuning Principles for Delayed Systems

Authors: Roman Prokop, Libor Pekař, Radek Matušů, Jiří Korbel

Pages: 273-280

Abstract: The paper brings a combination of a biased-relay feedback experiment and an algebraic control design method for time-delay systems. The combination results in a new principle of autotuning for a wide class of single input-output dynamic systems. The estimation of the controlled process is based on asymmetrical limit cycle data. Then, a stable transfer function with a dead-time term is identified. The controller is computed through solutions of Diophantine equations in the ring of stable and proper retarded quasipolynomial meromorphic functions (RMS). Controller parameters are tuned through a pole-placement problem as a desired multiple root of the characteristic closed loop equation. The controller design in this ring yields a Smith-like feedback controller with the realistic PID structure. The methodology offers a scalar tuning parameter m0 > 0 which can be adjusted by a suitable principle or further optimization. The first and second order timedelay transfer functions can sufficiently estimate systems of quite high orders. The developed principles are illustrated by examples in the Matlab + Simulink environment.

Title of the Paper: Sensor Network with Data Transfer over Power Supply Wires

Authors: V. Vašek, J. Dolinay, P. Dostálek

Pages: 281-288

Abstract: This article describes system which allows creating sensor networks where sensors communicate with a central unit using only two wires – the power lines. The system can be used in wide range of applications in which it is needed to collect data from several sensors connected by only two wires. The wires provide power to these sensors and at the same time transfer the data.

Title of the Paper: Impact of International Harmonization on Czech Accounting Legislature (Focused on Mergers)

Authors: Jiří Strouhal, Carmen Bonaci, Roman Sklenár

Pages: 289-296

Abstract: Use of harmonized accounting standards may reduce investor’s uncertainty and can thus reduce the cost of capital. It can significantly improve the communication between business users and all their statements. Due to the globalization of business and international harmonization of financial reporting Czech Republic experiences a shift in paradigms from historical costs accounting towards fair value measurement. Paper provides an analysis between national accounting legislature and international referential. There is also provided how the ability to measure accounting harmonization can be helpful from the perspective of a globalized world. A comparative analysis between Czech accounting regulation and IFRS or IFRS for SMEs show the level of compatibility between these three sets of accounting regulation.

Title of the Paper: Health Care Systems: Some Comparative Analysis from Czech Perspective

Authors: Z. Tučková, S. Fialová, J. Strouhal

Pages: 297-304

Abstract: The article discusses the various selected health systems used not only in Europe but in America. Comparison of health systems is to use macroeconomic indicators between countries UK, USA, Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic for several reasons. The first is the diversity of individual systems, allowing comparison not only states but also the overall management system. It is also necessary to point out that even when and under communism in the Czech Republic was a significant decline of health system, health care is now comparable.

Title of the Paper: Performance Analysis of Virtualized Real-Time Applications

Authors: Miroslav Voznak, Jiri Slachta, Jan Rozhon

Pages: 305-313

Abstract: This article deals with the impact of virtualization techniques on interactive delay-sensitive applications running in realtime, particularly IP telephony. Many institutions, organizations and home users often adopt the virtualized solutions for their safety, ease of administration and backup. Virtualization, which was chiefly the prerogative of companies and the academic world in its early days, has gradually develop its platform to reach out to the ordinary users who can benefit from running virtual machines. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of a virtual machine on real-time traffic, in our case IP telephony based on the SIP and the RTP, which are now the cornerstone of VoIP technology. This article also analyses the impact of memory size and the number of processor cores on the delay itself and its variance, thus allowing user to have full picture when deciding what virtualization tool to use and how to configure so it performs the best possible way.

Title of the Paper: Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Constrained Optimization Problem Modified with Multiple Onlookers

Authors: Milos Subotic

Pages: 314-322

Abstract: Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm has been active research area recently and great number of modifications were suggested, both for unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Our modification that is based on idea that in nature more than one onlooker bee goes to the promising food source is presented in this paper. In our approach the candidate solution in onlooker bee phase is formed using three solutions, while in the original ABC only one solution is used. Our modified algorithm is tested on the full set of 24 well known benchmark functions known as g–functions and proved to obtain better results than the pure ABC algorithm in majority of the test cases. The results are better both in the terms of quality and performance.

Title of the Paper: Euler-Maruyama Approximation and Maximum Likelihood Estimator for a Stochastic Differential Equation Model of the Signal Transduction Process

Authors: Din Prathumwan, Yongwimon Lenbury, Pairote Satiracoo, Chontita Rattanakul

Pages: 323-331

Abstract: The conversion of an external signal by the cell into internal molecules is called the signal transduction process. In this paper, the role of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is onsidered because GPCRs constitute the largest family of protein on eukaryotic cell membrane. Furthermore, GPCRs can detect the external signals and transduce them into the cell leading to the production of the secondary hormone or massager such as cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). The abnormality of the signal transduction process can cause many serious diseases. Better understanding of GPCRs and the signal transduction process should be greatly beneficial for pharmacological research. Here, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model of the signal transduction in the cell has been proposed and investigated. An SDE model has been modified from the deterministic model proposed by Rattanakul et al.(2009) to take into account the observation that experimental data on cAMP measurements often show random fluctuations (Ueda and Shibata, 2007). The model parameters are then estimated by using the Euler-Maruyama approximation and maximum likelihood estimators. With the estimated parameters, the stochastic model simulations are found to provide a better dynamic representation of the transduction system with noise, in comparison to the deterministic model which does not take into account the random fluctuations in the production of the secondary signaling hormone, cAMP, which could significantly impact the amplification effect that it has on the primary signaling hormone. Such stochastic behavior can significantly influence the outcome of the process which controls the proper function of the human body. We discuss the simulation results of the SDE model with estimated parametric values in comparison with those obtained from the deterministic model proposed by Ratanakul et al. [80], with parameter values estimated by a genetic algorithm.

Title of the Paper: Comparative Evaluation on Iris Recognition Performance

Authors: Bens Pardamean, Ingrid Christiani

Pages: 332-339

Abstract: The study is to compare the performance of iris recognition software between the open source (Libor Masek) and the commercially available (VeriEye by Neurotechnology). There are five processes to evaluate the performance: 1) resize the images’ resolution from 1280 x 960 to 640 x 480; 2) convert the images from JPEG2000 to JPEG format; 3) convert the images into grayscales; 4) run the images with both Libor Masek’s and VeriEye software; 5) measure the performance of the two software using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot and the operational time framework. The ROC plots show that VeriEye software performs better than Libor Masek’s. There is significant difference in the processing time between the two software.

Title of the Paper: Visual Inspection of Cylindrical Product’s Lateral Surface using Cameras and Image Processing

Authors: Mohammed A.H. Ali, M. Mailah, H.H. Tang, S. Kazi

Pages: 340-348

Abstract: Visual inspection using cameras is used here for testing the lateral surface of cylindrical products. The inspection can be carried out according to available resources by: line scan camera system, matrix camera with conical mirror system and matrix camera with multi flat mirrors system. The research is aimed to use the previous systems for testing the objects surface and making comparison between the mentioned systems. This requires suitable setting of each system to perform experiments and getting images, includes: setting of camera, light, object and mirrors. The image of each system has a different view from each other and it is quite difficult to make directly comparison between them. For this reason, the images should have the same view for its lateral surface, so called the developed view. The image of the line scan camera is used as a reference for the developed view and the images coming from matrix camera with conical mirror and multi flat mirrors are manipulated using image processing in MATLAB program to find the developed view of lateral surface of the inspected object. The developed view of the images from the previous systems is compared in terms of their resolution and accuracy, for the same tested object, in order to choose which system is suitable for the inspection task.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of the EU Member States Efficiency by Data Envelopment Analysis Method

Authors: M. Staníčková, K. Skokan

Pages: 349-357

Abstract: Efficiency of the European Union (EU) Member States is the source of national competitiveness. The aim of the paper is to analyze a competitive potential of the EU Member States with the help of quantitative analysis – Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The main purpose of this approach is to evaluate numerical grades of efficiency of economical processes within all the 27 EU Member States. Using of DEA method for national competitiveness evaluation is convenient because there is not only one factor evaluated, but a set of different factors that determine the degree of economic development. The DEA method is based on the inputs and outputs of used indicators and evaluates the efficiency how the EU Member States are able to transform their inputs into outputs. Therefore, efficiency of the EU Member States can be considered as a 'mirror' of the competitiveness. Here, the DEA method becomes a suitable tool for setting a competitive/uncompetitive position of each Member State and for the comparison of the level of competitive potential of 27 EU Member States.

Title of the Paper: Comprehensive Model of DTS200 Three Tank System in Simulink

Authors: P. Chalupa, J. Novák, V. Bobál

Pages: 358-365

Abstract: The article is focused on modeling of a three tank system. It contains detailed description a process of development a computer model in MATLAB / Simulink environment. The model design process starts with measurement of characteristics of a real time laboratory three tank system Amira DTS200. Then an initial mathematical model based on first principles approach is derived. The initial model is superseded to reach better correspondence with real-time system. The nonlinearities of real time system cannot be neglected and therefore they are identified and included in the final mathematical model. Special attention is paid to transformation of mathematical model into a Simulink scheme and detailed description of the scheme. Usage of the designed scheme can dramatically decrease design time of a controller for the real time system. Resulting model is verified in opened loop by comparison with data obtained from real plant DTS200. Described techniques are not limited to one particular modeling problem but can be used as an illustrative example for modeling of many technological processes.

Title of the Paper: The Effects of Domestic and External Shocks on a Small Open Country: the Evidence from the Czech Economy

Authors: Jana Hanclova

Pages: 366-375

Abstract: This paper describes the impact of selected domestic and external shocks on selected macroeconomic variables in the Czech economy. For these purposes is modified and estimated a long-run macroeconomic model of a small open economy developed by Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin (2006). A macroeconomic core model includes five long-run relationships (the relative purchasing power parity, the real money market equilibrium condition, the output gap, the interest rate parity and the interest rate relationship – Fisher inflation parity). It is estimated through a structural cointegrating vector error correction model using data over the period 1996q1 – 2010q4. We identify the long-run structure of the Czech economy and study the effects of domestic supply, demand and also monetary shocks. There are also studied the external exchange rate shocks. The effects of these shocks were investigated for selected macroeconomic variables (the domestic interest rate, the domestic output, the domestic monetary demand and the exchange rate). The results of general impulse response functions (GIRF) analysis showed familiar patterns. We can observe the occurrence of price puzzle as an short-run phenomena and we reject the evidence of the exchange rate puzzle.

Title of the Paper: Design Assisted by Testing – A Powerful Tool for the Evaluation of Material Properties and Design Resistances from Test Results

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová

Pages: 376-385

Abstract: Methods of the design assisted by testing philosophy can be used as the suitable and applicable tools for the determination of material properties and design resistances of structural members or components, especially if no other tools are usable. During the last two decades new advanced non-traditional building materials have been developed, but their physical-mechanical properties, namely their characteristic and design values and partial safety factor are not generally known. One of the possible ways how to determine characteristic and design values of material properties is the determination using the philosophy of the design assisted by testing. The paper is focused on the application of the methods of the design assisted by testing for the determination of material properties of cement composites reinforced by fibres using mainly for the building façade claddings, but also as a part of load-carrying structures, according to our experiences for the slab of steel-concrete composite beams, for example. The methods of the design assisted by testing are based on the evaluation of the experimental results arising from the statistical and probabilistic approaches. The procedures for the determination of characteristic and design value of the material property is usable not only for usual cases of the large test number, but also for small or very small test number, where the test number, type of the property distribution and its statistical characteristics are taken into account. In the recent period also new structures and structural details have been developed and used in practice, so that many times the design using test results only allows determine the design resistances of structural members, details or parts. On that account it is important and interesting to deal with the problems of the design resistance evaluation not only from the viewpoint of the influence of the test number and statistic parameters of variables directly determining the design resistance value, but also from the viewpoint of the mathematical function form of the design resistance model, which can be significant for the resulting design resistance. On several particular examples, the standard procedure for the design resistance evaluation with respect to the test number, mathematical exactness and complexity of the resistance model and variability of the basic variables is shown.

Title of the Paper: Probabilistic Model of Optimal Price Search on the Retail Core Banking Services Market

Authors: M. Hedvicakova, I. Soukal, J. Draessler

Pages: 386-393

Abstract: The paper is focused on the Stigler’s model adjustment for the purpose of modeling the price information asymmetry on the small market. As a case study using this model there is used own research of retail core banking services market for physical entities in the Czech Republic. The demand on this market carries the impacts of the price information asymmetry. Our model shows that more than 50 % of account suitable for the mainstream client profile can be replaced by cheaper one even under the influence of information asymmetry.

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Optimal Reaction Time of the Lupine Protein Hydrolysis using Fermented Whey

Authors: S. Hubalovsky, J. Jelinek, J. Sedivy

Pages: 394-401

Abstract: The paper focuses to the process of modeling and computer simulation of the real experiment. Step by step there is shown system identification and creation of mathematical model of determination of optimum reaction time of whey acidic for the hydrolysis of proteins of lupine flour. Computer simulation model created in MS Excel spreadsheet and visualized in MS Excel XYZ surface chart is used to validate mathematical model.

Title of the Paper: A Nutrient-Induced Seasonal Algal Bloom Model

Authors: Wichuta Sae-jie, Kornkanok Bunwong, Elvin J. Moore

Pages: 402-410

Abstract: A model for nutrient-phytoplankton dynamics is constructed and analyzed. We contribute theoretical analyses for a constant nutrient input and a time-varying nutrient input in terms of steady state, local and global stabilities, and limit cycle behavior. Numerical simulations of the model are carried out to examine the dynamics of the model for four types of nutrient input: 1) constant input, 2) sinusoidal input, 3) periodic step function input with fixed upper and lower amplitudes, 4) periodic step function input with time-varying upper and lower amplitudes. The numerical solutions confirm the non-oscillatory and oscillatory behaviors predicted from the theoretical analysis. It is shown that periodic nutrient inputs of types 2) and 3) cause phytoplankton blooms with periodic behavior and that changes in the frequency of the input produce blooms with a wide range of different dynamical behavior. It is found that nutrient inputs of type 4) give the best agreement between the model and the observed data.

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Harvesting Policies for a Fishery Model Including Spawning Periods and Taxation

Authors: Tawatchai Petaratip, Kornkanok Bunwong, Elvin J. Moore, Rawee Suwandechochai

Pages: 411-418

Abstract: We consider a fishery model containing predator fish and prey fish in which the predators are the commercial fish. We also divide each year into a spawning period and a harvesting period. The modified Lotka–Volterra interspecific competition model is applied to the fisheries system in spawning periods while an additional variable, harvesting effort of fishermen, is introduced to the system during the harvesting period. The existence of steady state solutions and closed orbits are theoretically studied and the local and global stabilities of steady state solutions are also studied. The fisheries population dynamics, total revenue earned by government and fishermen are investigated numerically for a range of taxation levels and a range of limits imposed on maximum fishing effort.

Issue 3, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Lyapunov Stability of a Microbioreactor under the Influence of External Noise

Authors: Pratap R. Patnaik

Pages: 419-426

Abstract: Microreactors are being increasingly preferred over traditional macroreactors for sophisticated microbial processes because the accurate controls possible in the former are desirable for sensitive biological reactions. Sensitivity to disturbances is an important consideration here because cellular processes are constantly under the influence of noise from different sources. While intra-cellular noise has been analyzed in some detail, the effects of noise from the environment are less well understood. Since external noise is a ubiquitous feature of many microbial processes, the present communication analyzes its effect on microbioreactor stability. This is done by using the Lyapunov exponent as an index of stability. For glucose fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, simulation results show that the microbioreactor loses stability beyond a threshold variance of the noise. This threshold increases with the concentration of glucose and it is larger for an optimal distribution of cells than for a conventional uniform distribution. However, owing to the Crabtree effect, the glucose concentration has to be optimized between robustness to noise and inhibition at large concentrations. Previous results for macrobioreactors suggest that a similar optimization may be beneficial for filtering of the noise inflow in order to promote stochastic resonance.

Title of the Paper: Analytical Results on Systems Arising in Enzymatic Reactions with Application to Phosphofructokinase Model

Authors: Jean–Paul Morillon

Pages: 427-434

Abstract: A reaction-diffusion system based on somebiological systems, arising in enzymatic reactions, hasbeen considered. The iterative method by means of a fixedpoint theorem has been applied in order to solve thissystem of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations.The existence, uniqueness and positiveness of the solutionto system with Robin-type boundary condition have beenobtained. A biochemical system has been extended andsolved analytically. Quasi-steady states and linear stabilityanalysis have been proved.

Title of the Paper: On the Stability of Coalitions: A Rough Set Approach

Authors: Jiri Mazurek, Elena Mielcova

Pages: 435-442

Abstract: The aim of the article is to evaluate coalition stability in multi-party systems with the use of the rough set theory. In this approach an information system including all members of a legislature with their votes is used, and coalitions are considered rough sets defined by their lower and upper approximations. Based on these approximations, three categories of coalitions according to their stability are defined: stable, conditionally stable and unstable; and a stability index is introduced to express a degree of coalition stability, which can provide useful information about coalitions’ potential persistence in the long run. The method was applied to the evaluation of government coalition stability in the Czech Parliament during 2006-2010 electoral term.

Title of the Paper: Dynamics in a Environmental Model with Tourism Taxation

Authors: Paolo Russu

Pages: 443-451

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to analyzethe dynamics of a model describing the interactionbetween tourists (T) and environmental resource (E)in the presence or absence of a tourist tax , usedto protect the environmental resource. The modelhighlights how the introduction of tourist tax complicatesthe dynamics of the system, thus giving origin anew internal equilibrium that is a saddle point, whichthe stable manifold separates the basin attraction ofthe locally attractive internal positive point from theone equilibrium point (K; 0), which is also locallystable. Moreover, starting from a system with = 0,which has an unstable internal equilibrium, a suitablecombination of tourist tax and defensive expendituresleads to a stabilization the protect system.

Title of the Paper: Computational Kinematics Sensitivity Analysis of Eccentric Reciprocating Slider Mechanism

Authors: Waluyo Adi Siswanto, Mohd Norihan Ibrahim

Pages: 452-459

Abstract: Kinematics behavior of an eccentric reciprocating slider mechanism depends on its geometrical dimensions. When a shock effect at the slider point is intended for a particular purpose such as in compactor application, an eccentricity of the slider’s axis is required. The kinematics evaluation of the slider considers velocity and acceleration functions at the slider point. This paper provides kinematics sensitivity functions at the slider point based on vector analysis of the eccentric slider mechanism. The functions have three design variables: eccentricity, length of connecting rod and the radius of crank rotation with an additional rotational variable for plotting purpose. The sensitivity functions are coded in SMath to do all calculations and graphical plotting. Validation results show that the functions calculate correctly of known example problems. For a test case, the kinematics sensitivity functions are employed to obtain a feasible optimum design of eccentricity value to achieve maximum peak of acceleration in a slider mechanism.

Title of the Paper: Chemical Reaction and Diffusion Dynamics

Authors: M. M. Stevanovic-Huffman, J. B.Savkovic-Stevanovic

Pages: 460-469

Abstract: In this paper diffusion with chemical reaction was investigated. The concomitant advances in theory, measuring systems and computer simulation bring the new perspectives to the chemical reaction with diffusion studying. The chemical rate and diffusion rate parameters were considered. The obtained results shows effects the chemical reaction rate and diffusion rate. The obtained results demonstrate characterization of the dynamic and steady state conditions, transition between them and how it can be used to predict the stability of the system.

Title of the Paper: Analyzing and Mapping the Car Parking Sites Distribution in Technical University of Crete Campus - A DEMAND and OFFER Approach

Authors: Androniki Tsouchlaraki, Georgios Achilleos

Pages: 470-481

Abstract: This paper discusses the distribution of parking sites on the Campus of Chania, in relation to the existing building facilities. The approach is based on the model of “OFFER and DEMAND” (or Supply and Demand) and the analysis which is carried out includes concepts such as “DEMAND COVERAGE” and “FAILURE” of Urban Planning Standards, according to which the required parking spaces on campuses are specified. The concepts of demand and demand coverage are defined via a theoretical and a practical/factual approach, and then the ensuing differences are examined. Next, the paper estimates the way in which the measured quantities are affected by the construction of a new building complex. The concept of “POTENTIAL” is utilized in order to transform the variables of demand and demand coverage into continuous spatial variables, while techniques of interpolation and three dimensional surface imaging are called forth, in order to then manage the emerging distributions. The results are mapped, the distributions are evaluated and the conclusions drawn are very interesting as to the overall perception of the phenomenon.

Title of the Paper: Associations between Organizational Specific-Attributes and the Extent of Disclosure in Charity Annual Returns

Authors: Saunah Zainon, Ruhaya Atan, Raja Adzrin Raja Ahmad, Yap Bee Wah

Pages: 482-489

Abstract: Researchers have investigated associations between organizational specific-attributes and the extent of disclosures in charity organizations. Findings have consistently shown the organizational performance, size and the external governance mechanism are significantly associated with the extent of disclosure, while mixed results have been reported for non-financial performance, and the internal governance mechanism such as board size and board composition. The purpose of this paper is to further extend the examination of the associations between the organizational specific-attributes and the extent of disclosure. The results of multiple regression analysis of 65 charity organizations confirm significant and positive association between the extent of disclosure and financial performance, organizational size, and the existence of an independent audit. No significant association is found between non-financial performance, board size, board composition and organizational age with the extent of disclosure. This paper contributes to the literature particularly in the context of charity organizations reporting of information through its disclosure in annual returns.

Title of the Paper: Legal Values and Legal Entropy: a suggested Mathematical Model

Authors: Massimiliano Ferrara and Angelo, Roberto Gaglioti

Pages: 490-498

Abstract: We will describe the fundamentals of a mathematical model for the quantitative analysis of the legal phenomena, intended to provide with a framework of legal general theory, allegedly applicable to every legal situation. In particular, the model can identify any legally material event using a logical hypothetical tool (the Model Situation) and associating to any Situation a certain axiological potential, what makes possible to determine even the amount of axiological potential, at disposal for the discretionary policies of the legal operator. Legal conflicts among axiological potentials may be easily and property rights objectively entitled and adjudicated amongst many challengers. We will try and apply the model to one legal rule of universal applicability (art. 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, attributing the right to life) and put some seminal considerations regarding the concept of Legal Entropy as related to the welfare level within the legal system.

Title of the Paper: An PSO-based Approach to Speed up the Fractal Encoding

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Tin, Shao-Wei Leu, Shun-Hsyun Chang

Pages: 499-506

Abstract: Fractal block coding method is based on a large amount of self-similarity which is exhibited in the image. During the encoding phase of fractal block coding, the size of domain pool determines how much time the encoding spends on searching the best match for each range block. Therefore, most of fractal image coding researches focused on obtaining the best possible accuracy with the smallest possible domain pool. This paper introduces three elaborative designed factors in the fitness function for particle swarm optimization (PSO) and a newly design method to obtain optimal domain blocks. The proposed method based on clustering technology and PSO method obtains the best possible accuracy with the smallest possible domain blocks in optimal pool. As a result, the proposed method greatly reduces the number of searches in the matching process. This paper experimentally demonstrates the proposed method on Java and verified with 3 medical images. By examining the experimental result, one sees that the domain blocks in optimal pool can well approximate the experimental images, and the why all natural images are rich in affine redundancy and have the property of local self-similarity. The proposed method by optimizing domain blocks achieves the image encoding that resulting in the best quality with as little searching as possible. The experimental results also indicate that the proposed method outperforms Jacquin’s method for less number of searches in matching process with the quality of image after encodes remaining acceptable. We conclude that proposed method could be obtained domain blocks in optimal pool and successfully used to image encoded and decoded with an efficient search in encoding phase and without noticeable loss of image quality.

Title of the Paper: Prudence Principle and Students’ Perception on Measurement in Financial Reporting

Authors: Jiří Strouhal, Marie Paseková, Beata Blechová, Carmen Bonaci, Ionela Andreicovici

Pages: 507-517

Abstract: Prudence principle belongs to traditionally generallyaccepted accounting principles and is closely linked with anotheraccounting principle - going concern in the foreseeable future. Both ofthese accounting principles, based on which accounting systems arebuilt, have one common denominator; it is measurement as one of thebasic methodological elements of accounting. The fundamental problemin the use of the above instruments of prudence principle is a strongdependency of accounting of the companies on tax incidences. Paperalso provides an analysis focusing on knowledge of Czech universitygraduates in the area of accounting measurement and perceptions inrelation to a series of transformation processes taking place at nationaland international level. The employed research methodology relies onimplementing a questionnaire survey. Paper documents relatively goodknowledge of local accounting legislature, however the huge knowledgegap in international legislature.

Issue 4, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: A Pull Management Model for a Production Cell under Variable Demand Conditions

Authors: M. Gallo, R. Revetria, E. Romano

Pages: 519-526

Abstract: The objective of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics enacted by the demand variability and influencing decision-makers with their manufacturing strategies. In particular, we consider a single kanban cell, in which the main actors are typically a production department that acts as a supplier and an assembly department which acts as a customer.This cell is subjected to a variable demand modeled as a random variable with a known statistical distribution. This variability complicates the cell operation. In order to maintain the system productivity and to limit the queues in the system, a management model for cell operation, called ”virtual kanban strategy", has been proposed. In this work the authors have utilized an approach based on the system dynamics simulation model.

Title of the Paper: On the Group Classification and Conservation Laws of the Self-Adjoint of a Family Benjamin-Bona-Mahony Equations

Authors: M. S. Bruzon, M. L. Gandarias

Pages: 527-534

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a family of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation with strong nonlinear dispersive whichis of considerable interest in mathematical physics. We determinethe subclass of equations which are self-adjoint. By using ageneral theorem on conservation laws proved in [21], [22]conservation laws for this equation are presented.

Title of the Paper: The Procedure of Warehouses Designing as an Integral Part of the Warehouses Designing Method and the Designing Software

Authors: M. Kostrzewski

Pages: 535-543

Abstract: The paper describes the new warehouses designingmethod, which includes e.g. the procedure for warehouses designing,the main subject matter of the paper, and the procedure foroptimization of functional and spatial areas. There is also special caregiven about the critical review of the warehouses designing methodsexisting in the literature of the problem. Some information is givenon implementation of the new designing method into the designingsoftware OL09. In case of testing the OL09 software’s correctness,the verification of implemented warehouses designing procedure hasbeen prepared and described. The verification was done in a way of acase study connected to designing a warehouse (an example consistsof two solutions). While working on the software there wereidentified theoretical and practical aspects connected to the problem.There are also specified requirements for software development andfurther researches on the method itself.

Title of the Paper: Knowledge of Mathematical Foundations of the Modeling as a Condition Effective Deployment CAx Technology

Authors: Josef Sedivy

Pages: 544-551

Abstract: Significant of part of scientific research is carried out using models. Study your own reality and real systems are often transferred to the study models. In some case, we only using model to discover their properties. We can find out facts about the real system, the model represents. As an example, let us study the dynamics of planetary systems, study the nature of the hydrogen atom, or the study of population dynamics. Real systems represented by the above models can/t study directly. One way to represent models, especially in physics, mathematics and economics, the equation of these models is, as well as the theoretical structure, referred to as mathematical models.

Title of the Paper: Application of the Convergence and Divergence of Two Functions

Authors: Claude Ziad Bayeh

Pages: 552-559

Abstract: The Convergence and Divergence of two functions is anoriginal study introduced and developed by the author in themathematical domain, the main goal of introducing this study is toknow the behavior of two functions in the Cartesian coordinatesystem. This study will allow us to determine if two functions areconverging or diverging or running parallel to each other. This studycan have many applications in mathematics, physics and engineeringdomains, for example in physics one can study the behavior of twoobjects in the space such as a rock and a satellite and see if they willcollapse or not in the future by studying their functions, we can knowalso if they are converging, diverging or running parallel in everypoint in the space and this will allow us to control the satellitedirection and to eliminate the possibility of collapse with the rock. Inthis paper, the author limited the study in developing the mainconcept in mathematics.

Title of the Paper: Introduction to the Angular Coordinate System in 2D Space

Authors: Claude Ziad Bayeh

Pages: 560-574

Abstract: The Angular Coordinate System is a new andoriginal mathematical Coordinate System introduced by theauthor in the mathematical domain. It has own propertiessimilar to other coordinate systems such as Cylindricalcoordinate system, Cartesian coordinate system or any othercoordinate system. The main goal of introducing thiscoordinate system is to describe the whole universe in 2Dspace using two angles only formed by the center of a unitcircle of the universe. This new coordinate system isintroduced also to facilitate the drawing of many complicatedcurves that are difficult to produce using the traditionalcoordinate systems. It has many applications in physics forexample the unit circle can be considered as a black hole andwe have to describe the formed universe according to thisblack hole using only two angles. In this paper a completestudy is introduced for the new coordinate system and fewexamples are presented in order to give an idea about how toform and study curves in the Angular coordinate system.

Title of the Paper: Influence of Atmospheric Parameters on Speech Quality in GSM/UMTS

Authors: Miroslav Voznak, Jan Rozhon

Pages: 575-582

Abstract: The paper deals with a relation between atmosphericconditions and speech quality in GSM/UMTS networks. The resultsare based on more than 20 thousand measurements. Authorsdeveloped monitoring tool which carried out a call every five minutesand the transmitted calibrated speech samples were compared withthe received by PESQ method, the computed MOS to every call wasstored in database. The meteorological station, which was located inuniversity campus provided information about a temperature, ahumidity, a dew point, a rain, a wind speed and an atmosphericpressure. The aim of our research project was to investigate acorrelation between the speech quality in GSM/UMTS andmeteorological data. The measured data were analysed by K-meansclustering method. We observed nearly a 50 percent decrease ofMOS during a heavy rain. The paper describes the way ofmeasurements and analysis of collected data.

Title of the Paper: The Analysis of the Deterministic and Stochastic Models with Delays which Describe the Financial Crises Contagions

Authors: Aura Loredana Ciurdariu, Mihaela Neamtu

Pages: 583-591

Abstract: A nonlinear dynamic model is set up to describe the international financial crises contagion. The deterministic and stochastic dynamic models with two delays are analyzed. In the deterministic model we set the condition for the existence of the delay parameter value for which the model displays a Hopf bifurcation. For the stochastic system, we identify the differential equation for the square mean value. The Hopf bifurcation is found when the delays are identical. The last part of his paper includes numerical simulations and conclusions.

Title of the Paper: On Weighted Possibilistic Informational Coefficient of Correlation

Authors: Robert Fuller, Istvana A. Harmati, Peter Varlaki, Imre Rudas

Pages: 592-599

Abstract: In their previous works Full/er et al. introducedthe notions of weighted possibilistic correlation coefficient andcorrelation ratio as measures of dependence between possibilitydistributions (fuzzy numbers). In this paper we introduce a newmeasure of strength of dependence between marginal possibilitydistributions, which is based on the informational coefficient ofcorrelation. We will show some examples that demonstrate somegood properties of the proposed measure.

Title of the Paper: A Tensorial Approximations Method as a Universal Filter

Authors: A. Milnikov

Pages: 600-607

Abstract: A new method of elaboration of non-parametric universal filter elaborated. The method is based on low rank tensorial approximation of singular matrixes of SVD problem. Results of the approximation method were compared with classical methods of solutions of singular value decomposition problem. It was shown that the elaborated method can be successfully used as a non-parametric universal filter for both stationary and non-stationary time series filtration.

Title of the Paper: Nonparametric Methods for Fitting the Precipitation Variability, Applied to Dobrudja Region

Authors: Alina Bărbulescu, Judicael Deguenon

Pages: 608-615

Abstract: Modeling the precipitation evolution at a regionalscale is a topic of interest in order to predict the weather evolutionand climate change, with their multiple consequences, in a regionwhere the annual drought frequency is about 89%, as in Dobrudja.Therefore, in this article we present the result of modeling the annualand monthly precipitation evolution in the period January 1965 -December 2005, in Dobrudja, a region of situated in the South – Eastof Romania, between the Danube and The Black Sea. ANOVA,followed by the Tukey LSD and the Scheffe tests led us to theconclusion that between the ten studied series, one has a particularbehavior, due to the geographical position of the meteorologicalstation. Thus, the precipitation evolution in the entire region has beenmodeled using the data provided by the other nine series, with smallloss of information. The models proposed by us used nonparametricapproach (wavelets and smoothing splines) and the comparisonbetween them has been done.

Issue 5, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Modelling the Annual Precipitation Evolution in the Region of Dobrudja

Authors: Alina Bărbulescu, Judicael Deguenon

Pages: 617-624

Abstract: In this article we describe the regional evolution ofprecipitation in Dobrudja, a region situated in the South – East ofRomania, using the mean annual precipitation collected from 1965 to2005, at ten hydro-meteorological stations. Firstly, the statisticalanalyzes of the ten series have been performed. ANOVA followed bythe Tukey and the Scheffe tests reveal possible grouping ofhomogenous data series. Since Sulina series has a particularbehaviour, due to its geographical position, models for theprecipitation evolution have been built using all the series or onlynine (without Sulina) and comparisons have been done. Themodelling techniques used were nonparametrics - local linearsmoothing and smoothing splines.

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Aspects of Acceptance Sampling Procedure

Authors: Eraldo Banovac, Darko Pavlovic, Nikola Vistica

Pages: 625-633

Abstract: A mathematical background generally important for the usage of acceptance sampling procedure is shown in this paper. A theoretical base of the Lot Acceptance Sampling Plans used to control large lots of different components purchased and installed during maintenance and overhaul is elaborated. The differences between main types of the Lot Acceptance Sampling Plans are explained. Considering the costs in the integral production – assembly chain, an economic way of items' inspection is chosen, and an acceptance scheme of the Philips sampling plan for the considered case is drawn.

Title of the Paper: Data Quality Improvement through Horizontal Fragmentation in Data Warehouses

Authors: Ljiljana Brkić, Igor Mekterović, Slaven Zakošek

Pages: 634-642

Abstract: In this paper we propose the procedure forhorizontal fragmentation of data warehouse tables andshow how it affects data warehouse’s data quality,namely, completeness and timeliness data qualitydimensions. Horizontal fragmentation is suitable whendata from multiple, more or less independent,organizational units are stored in the same fact table. Insuch cases, proposed procedure enables horizontal dataseparation based on the configured attributes thusisolating one institution’s data quality problems fromanother. The proposed procedure relies on metadata andis generic and applicable to any data warehouse.

Title of the Paper: A Monte Carlo EM Algorithm for Discretely Observed Diffusions, Jump-Diffusions and Levy-Driven Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Erik Lindstrom

Pages: 643-651

Abstract: Stochastic differential equations driven by standardBrownian motion(s) or L/evy processes are by far the most popularmodels in mathematical finance, but are also frequently used inengineering and science. A key feature of the class of models isthat the parameters are easy to interpret for anyone working withordinary differential equations, making connections between statisticsand other scientific fields far smoother.We present an algorithm for computing the (historical probabilitymeasure) maximum likelihood estimate for parameters in diffusions,jump-diffusions and L/evy processes. This is done by introducinga simple, yet computationally efficient, Monte Carlo ExpectationMaximization algorithm. The smoothing distribution is computedusing resampling, making the framework very general.The algorithm is evaluated on diffusions (CIR, Heston), jumpdiffusion(Bates) and L/evy processes (NIG, NIG-CIR) on simulateddata and market data from S & P 500 and VIX, all with satisfactoryresults.

Title of the Paper: The Multi-Meta Database Model as a Foundation for Schema Reuse in Conceptual Database Design

Authors: Mirta Baranović, Slaven Zakošek, Ljiljana Brkić

Pages: 652-660

Abstract: We are proposing a multi-meta model that serves as afoundation for schema reuse in conceptual database design. Multimetamodel is based on entity-relationship model. According to theproposed model corresponding database, called multi-meta databaseis built. Multi-meta database contains descriptions of the existingdatabase models and serves as a basis for design of new models. Toavoid ambiguity regarding the model descriptions the redundancy hasbeen maximally reduced without loss of any existing knowledge. Theprocess of the design of a new database model can cause therestructuring of existing knowledge contained in the multi-metadatabase. In the proposed non-redundant model the restructuring issimplified, while the consistencies are preserved. The necessaryconditions that have to be satisfied by each database model aredefined. In case that these conditions are not met, the describedprocedures for the model restructuring have to be applied.

Title of the Paper: A Study of Competitive and Cooperative Strategies on Taiwan Amplifier and Speaker Manufacturers

Authors: Chunwei Lu, Chenghsien Sung, George Y. Wang, Weichin Li

Pages: 661-669

Abstract: Economic globalization had forced and was still forcing firms to develop new global manufacturing and distribution concepts. Through the development of economic globalization, every government and firms in the world was proceeding to reform and redevelop in order to deal in globalization to get competitiveness. From designing products, searching customers, getting orders, inbound, operations, outbound to after services, the value chain of firms had become globalization. This study found the competitiveness of the Taiwan amplifier and speaker manufacturers, and questionnaires were issued to the object companies. The purpose of this study was to find out how competitive and cooperative strategy of the industry and what kind of cooperative strategy was properly for the industry. Based on M. E. Porter’s competitiveness theories and value chain, a specialist questionnaire was utilized to establish a complete evaluation framework for the firms. Furthermore, cooperative strategy was a crucial issue for firms to develop their manufacturing or marketing service. Firms were able to apply their core value with strategic alliances as main tools to lower costs. They had to respond by introducing lean production and flexible organizations with a high innovation capability. Strategic alliance in the reorganization of relations to the other actors, notably, customer and suppliers were important. Therefore, interdependent relations in this industry were emphasized. The study found that most of the firms emphasized on self-development and products’ differentiated, and they would cooperate customers rather than with the other manufacturers in the same industry. Moreover, the study indicated that “quality manpower and resources of the industry”, “supports from suppliers”, and “cooperate with customers” were the three main factors on the competitiveness of the industry. The implication of this research was to enhance on procurement ability, equipment application, and apply human resources should be used for the industry to review and enhance its competitiveness in the future.

Title of the Paper: Stability and Bifurcation Analysis of a Model for the Signal Transduction Process with a Signal Amplification Delay

Authors: Wanwarat Anlamlert, Yongwimon Lenbury, Warunee Sarika

Pages: 670-678

Abstract: All living cells need to sense and respond to theirenvironment. Cells communicate with each other throughextracellular signaling molecules [1]. Signal transduction is theprocess by which information from an extracellular signal istransmitted from the plasma membrane into the cell and along anintracellular chain of signaling molecules to stimulate a cellularresponse. Many situations have been reported where altered signalingpathways produce dramatic changes in cell survival, cellproliferation, morphology, angiogenesis, longevity, or otherproperties that characterize cancer cells. Signal transductionabnormalities have been linked to the development of many seriousdisorders, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia and Alzheimer’sdisease [2, 3]. In this study, a model with delay of the signaltransduction process is analyzed. After showing that the modeladmits positive solutions, we derive conditions on the systemparameters which give rise to different dynamical behaviors whichcould be expected in the signaling pathway under the impact ofdelays. Numerical simulations are carried out and discussed insupport of the theoretical analysis. We found that the system changesits dynamic behavior from stable to unstable around the system’ssteady state when the delay increases in value so that it crosses acritical value via a Hopf bifurcation and bifurcation of a family ofperiodic solutions can be expected if the delay is in the vicinity of thecritical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to support thetheoretical predictions concerning various dynamical behaviourspermitted by different values of the amplification effect delay.

Title of the Paper: Improving Business Valuation with the Use of Simulation Techniques

Authors: Ondřej Nowak, Jiří Hnilica

Pages: 679-687

Abstract: This paper discusses the intricacies related to business valuation under uncertainty. It shows that under common practice only point estimates are employed which often proves to be misleading and incorrect. The paper further emphasizes that such pure deterministic analysis ignore valuable information regarding what is already known about an uncertain factor and its expected behavior. The suggestion is to integrate uncertainty and risk analysis in the valuation model using probability distributions and the Monte Carlo Simulation. This approach offers not only potential for the quantification of expected behavior of uncertain variables but also simple solutions to common problem areas, including the integration of expert opinions, nonrecurring events and non-linear dependencies among model variables.

Title of the Paper: Application of Ant Colony Optimization for Buyer Coalition in e-Marketplaces

Authors: Anon Sukstrienwong

Pages: 688-697

Abstract: Several heuristic algorithms were developed to optimization problems. Ant colony optimization (ACS) based on real ants for finding good solutions represents an important branch of such metaheuristics. It has been used successfully in many different areas. However, it is rarely used in forming the buyer group in electronic marketplaces. In this paper, the proposed approach, called BCF_2ACO, applies two ant colony optimizations to searches for the best way to form a buyer coalition according to the total utility earned from sellers. The first ant colony searches the best disjoint subsets of all buyers based on the total utility obtained by the works of the second colony of artificial ants. The second ant colony also searches the way to purchase several units of goods within bundles of items to obtain the best total utility to partitioned groups of buyers. Though the ACO has no guarantees to find the optimal solution, but our simulation of BCF_2ACO algorithm shows that the proposed algorithm searches the solution better than the results obtained by genetic algorithm (GA) called GroupPackageString scheme in the terms of the global optimal solution.

Title of the Paper: Testing Mediator and Moderator Effects of Independent Director on Firm Performance

Authors: Wen-Hsi Lydia Hsu, George Yungchih Wang, Yuan-Pai Hsu

Pages: 698-705

Abstract: This study tests the moderator and mediator effects of independent director on firm performance. The direct and indirect effects of independent directors on firm performance were also explored. The findings, based on a sample of 4,229 publicly listed firms in Taiwan for the period of 2006-2011, provide robust support for the mediating model. The effect of CEO duality on firm performance shrinks upon the addition of independent directors to the model, indicating that the independent director mediates the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance. The results do not, however, support the moderating model, indicating that the independent director does not moderate the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance. Previous studies have not adequately considered the mediating and moderating roles of independent directors in studying the association between Chief Executive Officer duality and firm performance. The study contributes to the existing literature by providing a comprehensive understanding of the moderating and moderating roles of independent directors on the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance. The results may assist the existing corporate literature in developing a new corporate governance theory.

Issue 6, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Tree Diameter Models from Field and Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Gints Priedītis, Ingus Šmits, Irina Arhipova, Salvis Daģis, Dagnis Dubrovskis

Pages: 707-714

Abstract: The objective of research is to find DBH prediction models that: use variables derived from remote sensing, field mensuration and previous forest inventory data; can be used in STRS methods; are suitable for Latvian forest conditions. In paper different tree DBH predicting models from field and remote sensing data were researched. The study site is a forest in middle of Latvia at Jelgava district (56?39’ N, 23?47’ E). The area consists of mixed coniferous and deciduous forest with different age, high density, complex structure, various components, composition and soil conditions. Aerial photography camera (ADS 40) and laser scanner (ALS 50 II) was used to capture the data. LiDAR resolution is 9p/m2 (500 m altitude). The image data is RGB, NIR and PAN spectrum with 20 cm pixel resolution. Image processing was made using Fourier transform, frequency filtering and reverse Fourier transform. LiDAR data processing methods was based on canopy height model, Gaussian mask and local maxima. Field measurements are tree coordinates, species, height, diameter at breast height, crown width. Totally seven different linear models were developed, using data collected. General linear model that predicts DBH includes a tree height, effective crown area, soil type and age factors. It showed strongest relationship between predicted and measured DBH (R2 = 0,872). Summary results show that the models predict DBH reasonably well and factors included in all models are significant. Using combined LiDAR and optical imagery data is able to detect at least 63 % of all trees and about 85% of the dominant trees. Not identified trees at 82% of cases diameter at breast height was less than 20 cm and 88% of cases height was less than 20 m. Relationship between the Lidar detected height and observed total height shows showed strong relationship (R2 = 0,986), also between Lidar and aerial photography detected and observed tree crown is strong relationship (R2 = 0,869).

Title of the Paper: The Liquidity Effect in Stock Markets Evidence from Taiwan

Authors: George Yungchih Wang, Kuang-Wen Chang, Chunwei Lu, Lydia Wen-Hsi Hsu

Pages: 715-722

Abstract: In stock market, various concepts of stocks, or so-called investment styles, have been raised by fund managers to catch the attention of investors. Style investing was referred to as investing stocks with similar company characteristics to form a style portfolio in order to obtain excess returns. Since liquidity in stock trading was important information for investors to obtain for investment decision-making, this study examined whether there existed a liquidity effect in stock markets by applying the style portfolio approach to test statistical significance of short-run and long-run excess returns among several liquidity-related style portfolios. With the data of Taiwan publicly-listed companies, three findings were concluded: First, the high liquid stocks were found to have a higher cumulative return of 193.40% relative to the benchmark portfolio, the market, for the period of 1999-2008. Second, when we integrated the stock liquidity into company characteristic and firm size to form two dimensional style portfolios, the returns of those were significantly higher than the returns of one dimensional style portfolios, such as liquidity, value, and small-cap stocks. Third, the returns of the liquidity-related portfolios were also significant in different market conditions. The study therefore concluded that the liquidity effect was a significant investment style in stock market.

Title of the Paper: The Effect of Manager's Earnings Forecast Error on Actual Earnings and Share Price :A Case Study of Listed Companies

Authors: Po-Sheng Ko, Jui-Chan Huang, Hui-Chin Tang

Pages: 723-730

Abstract: The corporate net income is made based on accrual basis. However, the flexibility within accounting recognition gives managers certain control upon accruals, and thereby proceed earnings management to affect corporate net income. Such manipulation caused many financial frauds of companies recently. According to research samples of 2000-2009, this research finds discretionary accruals were predictable for managers to influence future earnings. In addition, given further classification into discretionary current and non-current accruals, namely discretionary current accruals showed abundant information content on earnings management. Therefore, the research believes discretionary accounts receivable, accounts receivable, inventory and depreciation were the most relevant components frequently used for earnings management and information transmission. Among the four components, the inventory possessed notable influence to future corporate net income because most investors have differences in the degree of expertise of the financial statement and the inventory is likely to make most investors understand the abundant information. Meanwhile, the inventory provided good prediction for future stock returns.

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Cell Cathode with High Temperature

Authors: S. Srimongkol, S. Rattanamongkonkul, A. Pakapongpun, S. Pleumpreedaporn, D. Poltem

Pages: 731-738

Abstract: In this paper, the study of fuel cells is briefly reviewed.To reduce the cost, the mathematical modeling is an essential toolto study the behavior of fuel cell. Various mathematical modelsare used to investigate the performance of various fuel cells. Thus,the investigation of mathematical modeling of fuel cell cathode iscrucial. The model is coupled the equations for electron transport,the Maxwell-Stefan equation, and Darcy’s law for flow in porousmedia. The numerical results is used the high temperature, 1273K.The numerical results of the fuel cell cathode are examined usingfinite element method. The mass fraction of oxygen, velocity field,and electric potential are presented. It is showed that the mathematicalmodel is able to model the high temperature fuel cell cathode.

Title of the Paper: Stochastic Conception of Input-Output Model: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

Authors: Jan Suchacek, Petr Sed'a

Pages: 739-747

Abstract: Complexity is immanent to economic-spatial structures and relations. There are not many models that allow for capturing the economic qualities of territories in a satisfactory manner. Input-output model can in spite of its simplicity be treated as one of success stories. Original version of input-output model is of deterministic character and reckons with deterministic inputs and outputs. In order to overcome this deterministic limitation when analyzing and forecasting the possible scenarios of territorial development, it is useful to introduce the interval estimates. Thus, the objective of the paper is to provide the insight into the stochastic version of input-output model. This innovative conception of input-output model will be examined from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

Title of the Paper: Parsing Algorithms for Regulated Grammars

Authors: Sherzod Turaev, Alexander Krassovitskiy, Mohamed Othman, Mohd Hasan Selamat

Pages: 748-756

Abstract: Petri nets, introduced by Carl Adam Petri [12] in1962, provide a powerful mathematical formalism for describingand analyzing the flow of information and control in concurrentsystems. Petri nets can successfully be used as control mechanismsfor grammars, i.e., the generative devices of formal languages. Inrecent papers [4], [5], [9], [16] Petri net controlled grammars havebeen introduced and investigated. It was shown that various regulatedgrammars such as random context, matrix, vector, valence grammars,etc., resulted from enriching context-free grammars with additionalmechanisms can be unified into the Petri net formalism, i.e., agrammar and its control can be represented by a Petri net. Thisunification allows approaching the membership (parsing) problem informal language theory in the new point of view: instead of a usualderivation tree, one can use a Petri net derivation tree in which thecontrol mechanism is also considered as a part of the tree. In thispaper, we show that the parsing problem for regulated grammars canbe solved by means of Petri net derivation trees constructed usingthe net unfolding. Moreover, we present a parsing algorithm for thedeterministic restriction of Petri net controlled grammars based onthe well-known Earley parsing algorithm.

Title of the Paper: The Performance of Optimum Response Surface Methodology Based on MM-Estimator

Authors: Habshah Midi, Mohd Shafie Mustafa, Anwar Fitrianto

Pages: 757-764

Abstract: The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method is oftenused to estimate the parameters of a second-order polynomialresponse surface methodology (RSM) model whereby a face-centeredcomposite design of experiment is considered. The parameters of themodel are usually estimated using the OLS technique. Nevertheless,the classical OLS suffers a huge set back in the presence of a typicalobservations that we often call outliers. In this situation, the optimumresponse estimator is not reliable as it is based on the OLS which isnot resistant to outliers. As an alternative, we propose using a robustMM-estimator to estimate the parameters of the RSM andsubsequently the optimum response is determined. A numericalexample and simulation study are presented to assess theperformance of the optimum response-MM based, denoted asOptimum-MM. The numerical results signify that the Optimum-MMis more efficient than the Optimum-OLS.

Title of the Paper: An Exercise of Stress-Testing for the Fleet Usage and the Loss-Given-Default in an Operating Leasing Business

Authors: Elena Dragomir, Adela Ioana Tudor

Pages: 765-774

Abstract: The constantly increasing risk in today’s globalfinancial markets has emphasized the importance of correctlyestimating future credit losses. Recent experience shows thatunderestimating the probability of default and the loss given defaultassociated with financial transactions can threaten the stability offinancial markets. Subsequent to calculation and estimation of thesekey risk parameters, stress testing has also gained importance infinancial institutions with the introduction of Basel II. Althoughdiscussed from many perspectives, the predominant use for stresstesting is in predicting how a portfolio would respond to changes inthe macroeconomic environment. The present paper evaluates theimpact of national and international macroeconomic shocks on thecommercial fleet usage of a major operating leasing company. Byanalyzing the fleet usage under a range of macroeconomic scenariosover time, our research provides a dynamic framework for stresstestingthe fleet usage and the expected and unexpected loss-givendefault,with a number of foreseeable applications to financialstability related issues.

Title of the Paper: The “Úlice Syndrome”: A New Generation of Environmental Risks

Authors: Luboš Smrčka, Markéta Arltová

Pages: 775-781

Abstract: The work assesses the seriousness of some new risks that have appeared over the last decades as the pressure has mounted for replacing carbon-based fossil fuels with renewable energy. In this respect, the authors conclude that while the replacement of traditional products and resources with their plant-based equivalents may stabilize the demand for traditional resources such as oil and coal, the issues linked to the mass production of these substitutes begin to emerge as unimaginable and uncontrollable. Besides this environmental problem, another one has been identified via mathematical models and assessment of time series: a significant correlation between growing prices of electricity and natural gas and an increasing demand for coal as a cheaper alternative for heating and warm water production in households.

Title of the Paper: Increasing Threat of a “Total Financial Crisis” in the Upcoming Years

Authors: Luboš Smrčka, Markéta Arltová

Pages: 782-790

Abstract: Since 2007, the chronic financial crisis has become a standard part of the economic development, merely by changing its shape constantly. Beginning as a crisis caused by the collapse of the US mortgage market and the associated depreciation of financial derivatives derived primarily (although not exclusively) from US household mortgages, it transformed itself into what was predominantly a crisis of banks and financial institutions and their mutual trust in 2008. Since 2009, and with increasing intensity in 2010 and 2011, we have seen it as a government debt crisis that has reached the stage of actual insolvency in many countries. Other countries, including OECD members, will face insolvency in 2012. There is an imminent threat that the crisis may find a new shape before our decade reaches its half point, a crisis that we can call a “general crisis of household debt”. This paper analyses the symptoms of that crisis and assesses its true and potential danger, concluding that this crisis would start a new stage that we may call “total financial crisis”.

Issue 7, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Fitted-Modified Upwind Finite Difference Method for Solving Singularly Perturbed Differential Difference Equations

Authors: Gemechis File. Y. N. Reddy

Pages: 791-802

Abstract: A fitted modified upwind finite difference method is presented for solving singularly perturbed boundary value problems with delay and advance parameters that are sufficiently small. The second order singularly perturbed differential difference equation is replaced by an asymptotically equivalent singularly perturbed boundary value problem. A fitting factor is introduced in a modified finite difference scheme and is obtained from the theory of singular perturbations. Thomas Algorithm is used to solve the system and its stability is investigated. The method is demonstrated by implementing several model examples by taking various values for the delay parameter , advance parameter ? and the perturbation parameter .

Title of the Paper: Implementation of a 3D Hilbert SFC into a Parallel Cartesian-Grid Flow Solver

Authors: Stephen M. Ruffin. Jinwook Lee

Pages: 803-810

Abstract: The efficient parallel computation of unstructured grid flow solver requires an adequate grid decomposition strategy because of its complex spatial data structure. The difficulties of even and block-contiguous partitioning in frequently adapting unstructured Cartesian grid are overcome by implementing the 3D Hilbert space-filling-curve (SFC). Grids constructed by SFC in a parallel environment promise shorter inter-CPU communication time while maintaining perfect load balancing between CPUs. The load imbalance due to local solution adaption is simply apportioned by resegmenting the curve into even pieces. The detailed structure of 3D Hilbert SFC and the parallel computing efficiency results based on this grid partition method are also presented.

Title of the Paper: Exact Solutions to Advection-Diffusion Problems using Differential Constraints: Applications in Heat Exchangers Design

Authors: J. Zabadal, V. Ribeiro, F. Van der Laan, V. Borges, P. Melo

Pages: 811-818

Abstract: This work proposes a new analytical method for solving advection-diffusion equations via differential constraints obtained from boundary conditions or other restrictions to be prescribed. The differential constraints are employed for solving the target equation by splitting or successive reductions of order. Applications in heat exchangers design and simulation are reported.

Title of the Paper: Queuing with Reneging, Balking and Retention of Reneged Customers

Authors: R. Kumar, S. K. Sharma

Pages: 819-828

Abstract: Customer impatience has become a serious problem in the business world. Customer retention is the key issue in the organizations facing the problem of customer impatience. Keeping in mind this hot topic, we study single as well as multi-server Markovian queuing systems with reneging, balking and retention of reneged customers. We study four queuing models and present their steady-state solutions. Some important measures of performance are derived and finally, some queuing models are derived as particular cases of these models.

Title of the Paper: An Overview of Critical Path Applied to Project Management with WinQSB Software

Authors: M. A. Gurau, L. V. Melnic

Pages: 829-836

Abstract: Planning of transportation projects is vital as it involves huge costs and large periods of implementation. Numerous tools and techniques have been developed and put in use by different firms. Starting with an introduction discussion about the CPM method and PERT method, this paper introduces some aspects about the advantages and disadvantages of the PERT/CPM module and of using it in a project. Modern management strategies aim for the maximum reduction of projects duration. One of the techniques usually used, applied to activities on the critical path of course, is the Crashing, consists in allocating more resources on a activity to make it end before; in this case the total project cost will increase. The case study presents a real situation of a furniture manufacturing company that wish to expand their opportunities for sale, on the internet. The project, should be carried out in a shortest time and with a lower cost, therefore, the analysis of critical path was done using PERT/CPM module, of the WINQSB decision analysis software.

Title of the Paper: Using of Cross-Linking Protein Hydrolysates for Preparing of Thermo-Insulating Panels from Printed Circuit Boards Waste

Authors: Dagmar Janacova, Hana Charvatova, Pavel Mokrejs, Vladimir Vasek, Antonin Blaha, Karel Kolomaznik, Gordana Paravanova

Pages: 837-844

Abstract: The paper describes possibility to use recycled printing circuit boards plastic materials to manufacturing of thermo-insulating panels. It describes methods used for finding of an optimal composition of adhesive mixture made of hycol and crotonaldehyde as crosss-linking agent. In the second part are presented results obtained by laboratory testing of thermoinsulating properties of panels made of plastic meal stucked together by the prepared adhesive mixture.

Title of the Paper: Computer Simulation and Verification of Deliming Process Mathematical Model

Authors: Hana Charvatova, Dagmar Janacova, Vladimir Vasek, Pavel Mokrejs, Karel Kolomaznik

Pages: 845-852

Abstract: The paper deals with chemical deliming process that is one of operations of natural hides treatment. Nowadays, this process is characterized by great consumption of water, chemical agents and electrical energy needed for sufficient decrease of lime in processed hides. Therefore we search optimal technological procedure that will be advantageous from both economic and ecological aspects. We describe method that we used to determination of fixing power which is lime bound to collagen fibers of pelt. This data enabled us to verify mathematical model that we formulated for description of removing of lime from pelt during deliming in the bath system.

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Model and Control System for Chromium Recycling Process

Authors: Dagmar Janacova, Vladimir Vasek, Ondrej Liska, Karel Kolomaznik, Pavel Mokrejs, Petr Dolezel

Pages: 853-860

Abstract: The paper deals with application of computer controlling and displaying system of the technological recycling process of both liquid and solid wastes from the tanning industry. The chrome tannery wastes are potentially dangerous to the environment. A proposal for chrome recycling technology, realization of the laboratory equipment and programming possibility are likewise presented. The idea of recycling technology lies in using reaction of non - environmentally friendly chrome liquid and solid wastes and creating new products that are not toxic and can be used in the other industrial applications. Described mathematical model for the recycling technology is based on the chemical - physical engineering description of a heterogeneous kinetics. The method of regressive analysis was used for determining of parameters for each kinetic equation from the experimental data. The proposed model was used for a simulation test and an optimum calculation in the connection with minimum procedural costs of recycling technology. The real process presentations are built with laboratory equipment for a closed recycling technology of real chrome liquid and solid wastes taken from the tanning company TAREX. The computer controlling and displaying system has two levels. The technological level is composed on a PC with the technological extension card Advantech PCL-812PG ensuring the direct control over the real process. The software for this level was created in the C language with the real time library RTMON. The supervisory level creates a personal computer with professional displaying software by Wonderware InTouch. The parts of software are DDE server module ensuring the communication between both levels of the control system via the serial link RS 232.

Title of the Paper: Knowledge Mining in Higher Education

Authors: Nittaya Kerdprasop, Ekkachai Naenudorn, Jatsada Singthongchai, Wilairat Yathongchai, Chusak Yathongchai, Kittisak Kerdprasop

Pages: 861-872

Abstract: The term higher education refers to learning stages conducting at colleges, universities, and institutes of technology. Learning at this stage includes undergraduate, postgraduate, vocational education, and training. In this paper we discuss the roles of a novel computational technology known as knowledge mining, or data mining, that can facilitate the improve in learning competency and the support for administration in many aspects. Automatic knowledge acquisition and discovery from learners’ profiles and institutional repositories are expected to be major sources of intelligence not only to support a better learning object design, but also to help administrative decision making. We review the knowledge mining technology, its potential applications to higher education, and then present case studies of knowledge mining to support student recruiting and student retention planning.

Title of the Paper: Effects of Vitamin D and Time Delay on Bone Resorption and Bone Formation: Mathematical Modeling Approach

Authors: Chontita Rattanakul

Pages: 873-884

Abstract: A mathematical model proposed by Rattanamongkonkul et al. [1] is modified here to study the effects of both vitamin D and time delay. Hopf bifurcation theorem is then applied to derive the conditions on the model parameters for which a periodic solution exists. Computer simulation is also carried out in order to support our theoretical result. Both theoretical and numerical results show that a periodic behavior observed clinically in the level of vitamin D can be expected in our model. Moreover, different kinds of dynamic behavior are investigated numerically.

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Modeling for Stress Distribution in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: S. Srimongkol, S. Rattanamongkonkul, A. Pakapongpun, D. Poltem

Pages: 885-892

Abstract: Stress distribution in total hip arthroplasty is the important tool to indicate the crack or failure of the total hip arthroplasty. Thus, this paper focuses on stress distribution in cemented hip arthroplasty which is affected by static and dynamic loads. Governing equations used in the simulation consists of stress equilibrium equations, the geometric equation and constitutive equations. Numerical results show that different loads lead to different stress distribution. Moreover, higher load increases stress in the top part of cemented hip arthroplasty. It is indicated that not only implant design affect total hip arthroplasty but also patient activity affect the life span of the total hip arthroplasty.

Issue 8, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Hopf Bifurcation and Dynamical Behavior of a Stage–Structured Predator Sharing a Prey

Authors: Suwicha Boonrangsiman, Kornkanok Bunwong

Pages: 893-900

Abstract: In this paper, we divide the predator’s life cycle into two stages of foliage maturity, namely immature and mature. Both types of predators have hunting ability and compete for the same prey. Naturally, their consumption rates and growth rates are limited by the presence of the prey population. Therefore, a stage–structured model with Holling type II response function is proposed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the existence of a local Hopf bifurcation. Bifurcation diagrams of one–parameter family and two–parameter family are also expressed into several regions of different dynamical behaviors. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out in support of the theoretical results.

Title of the Paper: On Taylor Expansion Methods for Multivariate Integral Equations of the Second Kind

Authors: Boriboon Novaprateep, Khomsan Neamprem, Hideaki Kaneko

Pages: 901-908

Abstract: A new Taylor series method that the authors originally developed for the solution of one-dimensional integral equations is extended to solve multivariate integral equations. In this paper, the new method is applied to the solution of multivariate Fredholm equations of the second kind. A comparison is given of the new method and the traditional Taylor series method of solving integral equations. The new method is adapted to parallel computation and can therefore be highly efficient on modern computers. The method also gives highly accurate approximations for all derivatives of the solution up to the order of the Taylor series approximation. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method.

Title of the Paper: Two-Phase Flow of Air and Soybeans during a Silo Discharge Process

Authors: W. Chuayjan, W. Jumpen, P. Boonkrong, B. Wiwatanapataphee

Pages: 909-916

Abstract: The paper aims to present mathematical model and numerical simulation of a granular material flow during a silo discharge process. The material flow in the silo is a form of two-phase flow consisting of particulates and an interstitial fluid. These two phases are soybeans and air. The homogeneous flow is assumed. The effect of the bottom design of the silo on the twophase flow is investigated. The bottom shape including flat shape and cone shape and the diameter of outlet width including 0.08 m and 0.12 m are chosen for this investigation. The results show that the mathematical model can capture the granular material flow in the silo. The bottom design has significant effect on the velocity, pressure and shear rate in the granular material during the silo discharge process.

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Financing the Municipalities in the Czech Republic

Authors: P. Kotatkova Stranska

Pages: 917-925

Abstract: Municipalities not only in the Czech Republic need for providing ensuring their activities sufficient financial resources. In the Czech Republic tax revenues represent the most important income of municipal budgets. These are the yields of taxes which are redistributed to municipalities from the state budget on the basis of tax assignment. The tax assignment affects the fiscal autonomy of municipalities and it is undergoing constant development. The reform of public finances, particularly the area of decentralization, brought municipalities considerable burden on their budgets. Municipalities are forced to spend more money on providing local services. Each of the states is looking for new ways to ensure adequate funding, at the present. The Czech Republic is no exception. In the Czech Republic is one of the options to raise funds from the state budget, particularly in the tax assignment. The adjustment methodology used to calculate the share to 21.4% shared taxes would increase tax revenues, which comprise the part of total revenue budgets of municipalities. Change should be in the introduction of new criteria, and it the criterion of inhabitants over 65 years.

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Road Traffic Noise Propagation

Authors: Claudio Guarnaccia, Joseph Quartieri

Pages: 926-933

Abstract: Road vehicular traffic is one of the most important acoustical noise source in the urban environment. The annoyance produced by noise, in fact, can heavily influence the quality of human life. Thus, a proper modeling of the source and of the propagation can give important assistance to the noise prediction and thus to the urban planning and development design. In this paper, the authors approach these issues by means of field measurements analysis, defining and evaluating a “degree of linearity” coefficient, related to the power law of the source-receiver distance in the logarithmic propagation formula. This value is expected to be 10 in the linear scheme, i.e. the approach of several literature studies and regulation models, or 20 in the point scheme. Plotting the results for this parameter in the two available sets of experimental data, the authors will corroborate the linear hypothesis. Even if in this study reflections, absorbing surfaces, atmospheric factors, etc., have not been considered in the theoretical model, but, of course, they are included in the measurement results, the results are in agreement with literature. In addition, by analyzing the data with respect to traffic flow, i.e. number of running vehicle per hour, “degree of linearity” coefficient results are close to the expected value, i.e. 10, especially in the medium range of traffic flow.

Title of the Paper: Flexibility Consideration in Equity Valuation

Authors: E. Kramna

Pages: 934-942

Abstract: Static discounted cash flow model fails to capture the value of flexibility in decision-making or determination of business value. Companies from sector of building materials are dependent on the growth of the economy and of course on the commodity price. These companies face and uncertain business environment. To illustrate how the flexibility may influence the value of the company the equity of the analyzed company by applying real options concept is determined. The article concentrates on the valuation under risk and flexibility. Empirically, business model for valuation and corporate financial decisions created by Thomas S. Z. Ho and Sang Bin Lee were tested. The equity value and analyze of the potential impact of active management intervention to company value is accomplished. The paper brings new view on business valuation with integration of flexibility.

Title of the Paper: Possible Approach to Creation and Utilization of Linear Mathematical Model of Heat Source for Optimization of Combined Production of Heat and Electric Energy

Authors: Pavel Navratil, Libor Pekar

Pages: 943-954

Abstract: This paper shows one of the possible approaches to optimization of the heat source with combined production of heat and electric energy. Heat source is described by linear mathematical model. This mathematical model was created from historical data which were obtained from the heating plant Brno. This model is used to determination of load distribution between separate production units, which are separate boilers, and to determination of electric output produced by separate turbines. This linear optimizing problem is solved by using two optimization methods.

Title of the Paper: Impact of Transparency Level on the Value Relevance of Accounting Information: Empirical Analysis for SEE Countries

Authors: I. Pervan?, M. Bartulovic

Pages: 955-962

Abstract: In this paper, based on the sample of 97 corporations the authors analyzed the value relevance of accounting information on the capital markets of Southeast Europe. In the first part of the research authors analyzed and compared value relevance on the following capital markets: Ljubljana Stock Exchange, Zagreb Stock Exchange, Sarajevo Stock Exchange, Banja Luka Stock Exchange and Belgrade Stock Exchange. The research results have shown that the accounting information are value relevant on all the observed markets but also that there are certain differences in the value relevance among countries. In the second part of the research authors tested the hypothesis that level of transparency is positively related with value relevance i.e. higher transparency of annual report should result with higher value relevance of accounting information. According to the empirical research hypothesis is confirmed since it is possible to distinguish companies that belong to group of countries with lower value relevance from those that belong to group of countries with higher value relevance based on data about transparency level, i.e. IFR score.

Title of the Paper: Sticky Costs: Evidence from Croatian Food and Beverage Industry

Authors: M. Pervan, I. Pervan

Pages: 963-970

Abstract: Understanding the theory and practice of costs behaviour is important for managers, economist and investors since they relay on cost information in decision making process. Traditional literature on costs behaviour assumes symmetric relation between cost and volume regardless of whether the volume increases or decreases. Alternative view, tested in this research and known as sticky costs theory, assume that costs increase more when activity rises than they decrease when activity falls by an equivalent amount. Such behaviour of costs occurs because managers deliberately adjust the resources in response to the changes in the volume. In order to test sticky costs theory, we conducted analysis on a sample of Croatian companies that operated in the food and beverage industry during the period from 2003 to 2010. The results of the analysis allowed us to accept the sticky costs hypothesis since the results revealed that material costs and costs of employees (M&E costs) increase 0.85% for every 1% increase in sales and decrease 0.68% per 1% decrease in sales.

Title of the Paper: Eddy Current Problem for a Moving Medium with Varying Properties

Authors: Valentina Koliskina, Inta Volodko

Pages: 971-978

Abstract: Analytical solution of eddy current problem for a moving medium is obtained in the present paper. A single-turn circular coil is located above a conducting two-layer medium. The upper layer is moving in a horizontal direction with constant velocity. The lower layer of the medium is fixed. The electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of the upper layer are exponential functions of the vertical coordinate. The solution is found by the method of Fourier integral transform. The change in impedance of the coil is obtained in terms of double integral containing Bessel functions. A particular case of a moving half-space with varying properties is considered in detail. The solution can be generalized for the case of a moving multilayer medium.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Cohesion in Visegrad Countries in Comparison with Germany and Austria by Multivariate Methods for Disparities Measurement

Authors: L. Melecky

Pages: 979-989

Abstract: Measurement of disparities between countries or regions is an important topic of many regional analysis and scientific papers. In European Union (EU), there is no mainstream approach of disparities measuring. There are many opinions and methods of measurement and evaluation of disparities between states or regions at national and European level. The methods differ in structure of using the indicators of disparities and ways of their processing. The main goal of the paper is to classify the Visegrad Four Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) to homogeneous units (clusters) in comparison with Germany and Austria according to the similarity of selected indicators of economic, social and territorial development by cluster analysis in reference period 2000-2010 with focus of three milestones years (2000, 2005 and 2010). The paper evaluates the level of economic, social and territorial disparities in evaluated countries in the period 2000-2010 on the basis of selected mathematical and statistical methods leading to construction of synthetic indices of disparities. The theoretical part of the paper defines the concept of disparities in the EU and focuses on selected convenient methods of the disparities measurement and evaluation. The empirical part of the paper deals with the evaluation and comparison of disparities in the Visegrad Four Countries, Germany and Austria by cluster analysis and subsequent through computed values of synthetic sub-indices of disparities and weighted (aggregate) synthetic index of disparities.