ISSN: 1998-4464



Year 2011

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.
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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 5, 2011)


Phasor Measurement Unit Reliability Enhancement Using Real-Time Digital Filter
A. Ouadi, H. Bentarzi, J. C. Maun

Abstract: Phasors and frequency of three-phase power system may be measured with high speed and accuracy using modern power instruments such as Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU). However, this accuracy may be affected by several power disturbances such as fast and slow dc offsets decaying due to sudden current changes, interharmonics, etc. To avoid these effects for improving the quality of measurements, this work proposes a new method of real-time filter for removing the unwanted DC offset and hence improving SDFT algorithm. To validate the present method, the performance of developed PMU is tested using the data generated by Simulink/MATLAB simulator. The obtained simulation results are very encouraging.


The Stabilization and the Identification of the Rockets' Movement in Vertical Plane
Mihai Lungu

Abstract: The paper presents some angular stabilization systems of the rockets in vertical pane using differential or integrator gyroscope. The first system has not a correction subsystem, while the second one has. One has determined the transfer functions (in closed loop or in open loop) of the two systems. The positioning of the systems’ eigenvalues proofs the systems’ stability. The systems respond very fast to a step input – the duration of the transient regime, for the two systems, is about one second. Using three different methods (least square method, instrumental variables’ method - MVI and neural networks method), one makes the identification of the system. For both systems one obtains, using a Matlab/Simulink program, the frequency characteristics, indicial functions in the complex plane and in discrete plane, responses to impulse input in the complex and discrete planes. With least square method (LSM) the output of the system and the output of the model for the two systems were plotted. The identification is made very well – the two signals overlap. With the second identification method, one obtained the frequency characteristics for LSM and MVI on the same graphic. The identification is made using neural networks. Using this method, one obtained the indicial responses of the systems and of the neural networks (these signals overlap too), the weights and the biases of the neural networks and so on. The system’s identification made also be done using the prediction error method (MEP). This method is more complicated than the others, but it is more precisely. The author also presents other two systems for rockets’ stabilization: systems with accelerometer and correction subsystem (figures 16 and 17). These two systems also give good stabilization results.


New Non-Linear Adaptive Command System for the Aircrafts' Attitude Control
Mihai Lungu

Abstract: The paper presents a new complex adaptive non-linear system with one input and one output (SISO) which is based on dynamic inversion. The stabilization command of the linearised system using as input the difference between closed loop system’s output and the reference model’s output is made by the linear dynamic compensator. The state vector of the linear dynamic compensator, the output and other state variables of the control system are used for the obtaining of the adaptive control law; this law is modeled by a neural network. The purpose of the adaptive command is to compensate the dynamic inversion error. Thus, the command law has two components: the first is the command given by the linear dynamic compensator and the second one is the adaptive command given by the neural network. As control system one chooses the non-linear model of the aircrafts’ roll movements. One chooses a linear reference model. One obtains the structure of the adaptive control system of the roll angle and the Matlab/Simulink models of the adaptive command system’s subsystems. Thus, charac-teristics that describe the adaptive command system’s dynamics are obtained.


A Multi Biometric System Using Combined Vein and Fingerprint Identification
Hatim A. Aboalsamh

Abstract: In this paper, a compact system that consists of a CMOS fingerprint sensor (FPC1011F1) is used with the FPC2020 power efficient fingerprint processor ; which acts as a biometric sub-system with a direct interface to the fingerprint sensor as well as to an external PC for storing finger print templates. Added to the fingerprint system is a vein image extraction system; it consists of a set of LEDs (light emitting diodes) that generates near infrared light that penetrates the body Tissue. An image of the veins pattern is revealed as the near infrared light is reflected in the haemoglobin in the blood. A CCD (charge coupled device) camera uses a small, rectangular piece of silicon to receive incoming light. The CCD captures the image of the vein pattern through this reflected light. The Image is processed through an algorithm to constructs a finger vein pattern from the camera image. This pattern is then digitized and saved as a template for biometric authentication. The integrated system will extract two biometrics identifiers; namely, vein and fingerprint. Multibiometric fusion stages are pointed out; and future research issues are suggested.


Establishing Study of Automatic Control Drilling Applying on Micro-Robots
Paul Ciprian Patic, Mihaita Ardeleanu, Lucia Pascale, Florin Popa

Abstract: A micro-assembly station based on a micro-robot, under an optical microscope, is one of the typical styles to practical application of the task of assembling simple micro parts, even if they are still almost at the start phase. The demand for the manufacture of micro components is increasing because many products are slim due to their portable use. A new production system is an interesting time in micro-assembly systems. The performance of the micro-robotic system has the potential to have an important role in such applications with reference to the transportation, handling and storage of micro objects. For that, has developed an automated system consisting of multiple drilling micro-robots. In this paper, with the aid of the control of "cluster" type for more micro-robots may deduct an execution of an application by drilling into the work area. This control “cluster” type may provide some advantages having in view the accuracy and flexibility of micro fabrication. This study is a continuous our work in micro-robots domain, here one developed the automatic control drilling from electronic and informatics point of view.


Onset Time Determination of Precursory Events in Time Series Data by an Extension of Singular Spectrum Transformation
Terumasa Tokunaga, Daisuke Ikeda, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Tomoyuki Higuchi, Akimasa Yoshikawa, Teiji Uozumi, Akiko Fujimotok, Akira Morioka, Kiyohumi Yumoto

Abstract: To predict an occurrence of extraordinary phenomena, such as earthquakes, failures of engineering systems and financial market crushes, it is important to identify precursory events in time series. However, xisting methods are limited in their applicability for real world precursor detections. Recently, Ide and Inoue [1] have developed an SSA-based change-point detection method, called singular spectrum transformation (SST). SST is suitable for detecting various types of change-points, but real world precursor detections can be far more difficult than expected. In general, precursory events are observed as minute and less-visible fluctuations preceding an onset of massive fluctuations of extraordinary phenomena and therefore they are easily over-looked. To overcome this point, we extend the conventional SST to the multivariable SST. The originality of our strategy is in focusing on synchronism detections of precursory events in multiple sequences of univariate time series. We performed some experiments by using artificial data and showed the superiority of multivariable SST in detecting onset of precursory events. Furthermore, the superiority is also shown statistically in determining the onset of precursory events by using real world time series.


Recent Advances on Reducing Harmonics in Low-Power Adjustable Speed Drives
R. Carbone

Abstract: Problems and perspectives of single-phase PWM adjustable speed drives (ASDs) for low-power three-phase induction motors are investigated. Their positive impact on energy saving in large-scale residential house appliances and in small industrial settings is underlined. The problem of the generation of current harmonic components, both on the supply-side and on the motorside, is analyzed and different practical possibilities for bringing back the problem within acceptable limits are focused. After briefly recalling the state of art for passive and active power factor correctors (PFCs) for single-phase power electronic converters, firstly, an innovative passive approach recently introduced in the specialized literature to correct the power factor (PF) of single-phase low-power PWM ASDs is recalled. Then, a different passive approach, already introduced by the Author for correcting the PF of conventional high-power three-phase PWM ASDs, is specifically extended to low-power single-phase PWM ASDs. Criteria for designing aforementioned passive PFCs are presented and a lot of numerical simulations performed by using Pspice, under different working conditions of the motor, are utilized for underlining strengths and weaknesses of considered PFCs.


Impaired Speech Evaluation using Mel-Cepstrum Analysis
Ovidiu Grigore, Corina Grigore, Valentin Velican

Abstract: The study presents a simple solution for identifying impaired speech pronunciations using the Mel-Cepstrum Coefficients as features. The pronunciation defect studied was rhotacism – wrongly pronounced ‘r’ - in the case of Romanian language. By comparing the timbre variation over the duration of the analyzed speech an average of 78% correct classification rate has been obtained.


Impact of Rise Time Driving Signal and Mismatch Threshold Voltage MOSFET's in Parallel Connection of Push-Pull Power Inverter
Myzafere Limani, Qamil Kabashi, Nebi Caka, Milaim Zabeli

Abstract: Analysis of the dynamic sharing currents at turn-on process in power PWM inverter system with switching Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFET’s) connected in parallel is presented. The inverter circuit presented in this paper is low power inverter which can be used as a charger too. The influence of the diferent rise time driving signals and parameters mismatch between parallel MOSFET branches, over wide operating ranges is analyzed, resulting in dynamic currents, transition energy unbalance, time delay on switching process of parallel MOSFET’s, and time delay at output voltage of inverter. One of many potential causes of mismatch parameters is the threshold voltage Vth. Results are presented for the time delays during On switching of the parallel branches in inverter with five power MOSFET’s in each of two legs, selecting same threshold voltage initially, for various rise time driving signals of the two legs of inverter when only one MOSFET in particular leg has lower threshold voltage than others.


Simulation of Power Plant Superheater Using Advanced Simulink Capabilities
Pavel Nevriva, Stepan Ozana, Martin Pies

Abstract: The paper deals with simulation of both dynamics and control of power plant superheaters by means of Simulink Sfunctions. Superheaters are heat exchangers that transfer energy from flue gas to superheated steam. A composition of superheater, its input and output pipelines, and fittings is called a superheater assembly. Inertias of superheater assembly are often decisive for design of a steam temperature control system. Mathematical model of a superheater assemble is described by sets of nonlinear partial differential equations. To analyze accuracy of the mathematical model, the system was agitated by test signals. Experiments carried out at the power plant were simulated mathematically. Data obtained by the measurement was compared with simulation results.


Evaluation for Independent Quantization Learning Predictive Coding using Electrocardiogram
Shunsuke Kobayakawa, Hirokazu Yokoi

Abstract: This paper is presented a method for improving predictive coding. The method is the independent quantization predictive coding as its two predictors are learning. Its coding process is characterized in independently processing quantizations of an original series signal and a prediction series signal to eliminate quantization errors. It is performed to reduce prediction error as the predictors using error-convergence neuron network are learning. The method is the lossless data compression with the highest compression ratio, if quantization step size for an original series signal is the same as one when the signal was obtained. Then, computer simulations to evaluate its compression ratio were executed for a normal sinus rhythm electrocardiogram with using input-delay second-order Volterra neuron networks for neuron networks in an error-convergence neuron network predictor. As a result, the compression ratio was 1.71. In addition, an obtained quantization error series signal is more compressed with cabinet. Its compression ratio was 2.02. This method can be expected to perform excellent predictive coding for every signal with functional relationships between inputs and a prediction.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 5, 2011)


Edge Detection Algorithm Inspired by Pattern Formation Processes of Reaction-Diffusion Systems
Atsushi Nomura, Makoto Ichikawa, Koichi Okada, Hidetoshi Miike, Tatsunari Sakurai

Abstract: This paper presents a quick review of reactiondiffusion systems and the application of a discretely spaced reaction-diffusion system to edge detection in image processing. A reaction-diffusion system refers to a system consisting of diffusion processes coupled with reaction processes. Several reaction-diffusion systems self-organize spatio-temporal patterns of circular, spiral and periodic waves propagating in twodimensional space. In addition, some of the systems having rapid inhibitory diffusion self-organize stationary periodic patterns; the Turing pattern is one of the typical examples of stationary periodic patterns observed in reaction-diffusion systems under rapid inhibitory diffusion. We have previously found that a discretely spaced system of reaction-diffusion with rapid inhibitory diffusion has a mechanism detecting edges from an image intensity distribution. The mechanism divides an image intensity distribution into brighter or darker intensity areas with a threshold level, and organizes pulses along edges of the divided areas. By searching an output distribution of the reactiondiffusion system for pulses, we can achieve edge detection. However, since the threshold level is usually fixed at a constant value in the reaction-diffusion system, the mechanism is not applicable to gray level images. Thus, this paper furthermore proposes an edge detection algorithm consisting of two pairs of discretely spaced reaction-diffusion systems with a variable threshold level. We apply the edge detection algorithm and a representative algorithm proposed by Canny to several artificial and real images and confirm their performance.


Characterization and Breakdown of the Electricity Bill using Custom Smart Meters: A Tool for Energy-Efficiency Programs
Luis F. C. Duarte, Jose D. Zambianco, Douglas Airoldi, Elnatan C. Ferreira, Jose A. Siqueira Dias

Abstract: Understanding and monitoring the electrical energy use is fundamental to encourage consumers and small business owners to implement energy-efficiency measures and, therefore, to cut their energy bills significantly. This works presents the design, development and implementation of an electrical energy monitoring sensor network which can be easily installed to measure and monitor the energy use of every appliance in a house, presenting to the consumer a detailed report of the energy spent by each electrical device (TV, lights, showers, etc.). The measuring units and a coordinator form a wireless network, which is capable of measuring the electrical energy and recording the data of each home appliance in the flash memory of the coordinator. The data stored in the coordinator is sent (via a wireless connection) to a computer where the analysis of the data is performed and a detailed report of the energy breakdown is presented.


Relative Gain Array Interaction Analysis of UPFC Device for Damping Oscillations
N. Magaji, M. W. Mustafa

Abstract: UPFC devices are used to improve real power, reactive power, improve bus voltage and eliminate line loses in ac systems. An additional task of UPFC is to enhance transmission capacity as result of power oscillation damping. This paper use relative gain array (RGA) for analyzing the interactions among the UPFC inputs/ output signals. RGA analyses for UPFC inputs with power oscillation damping controller and without POD controller are treated based on the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transfer function matrix. With the help singular value and RGA, the dynamic input-output interactions are also analyzed. Then, the input signals for supplementary controller for oscillations damping is selected. A two area four machine power system with different operational conditions is simulated for the validations of the proposed approach.


Analysis of Modal Insensitivity for Generator Using Eigenstructure Assignment
Shu-Chen Wang

Abstract: This paper studies the modal insensitivity design of the synchronous generator in a power system using eigenstructure assignment. Model insensitivity means that the concerned system mode shape is insensitive to small variations in the system. In the proposed design procedure, modal insensitivity is achieved by assigning system eigenstructure and only algebraic computations are involved. Results from the study of a single-machine-infinite-bus system are presented.


Voltage Sag Planning of Industry Power System Using Hybrid Differential Evolution Considering CBEMA Curve
Yao-Hung Chan, Chi-Jui Wu, Wei-Neng Chang, Ying-Pin Chang

Abstract: This paper is used to investigate the voltage sag planning of a radial industrial power system using the hybrid differential evolution (HDE) method. The analysis considers the CBEMA curve and coordination of over-current relays. Firstly, the analytical equations for direct calculation of voltage sag are investigated to obtain the sag severity of the system after single or three-phase faults. The equations are useful in the planning procedures using HDE. Then, the effect of over-current relay setting on the sag duration is evaluated. Finally, the HDE is used to obtain the impedance values of transformers considering the CBEMA curves. The relay time multiplier factor is also a variable. The test on a radial industrial power system with three ?/Y-g connected transformers is chosen to reveal the effectiveness of this method. The study results show that the voltage sag severity can be controlled by the structure of the power system, the transformer impedances, and the relay setting.


Feature Localization Refinement for Improved Visual Odometry Accuracy
Aldo Cumani

Abstract: This work aims at improving the accuracy in the estimation of the path of a mobile platform from onboard passive stereo vision (so-called Visual Odometry). Our algorithm estimates motion steps by robust bundle adjustment of matched feature points, independently extracted from two pairs of stereo images. It is shown that, when using a fast Hessian-based feature detector/descriptor developed by us, a simple and computationally inexpensive algorithm can be devised to refine the image localization of features. Tests on real data confirm that this refinement actually yields a non negligible improvement in path estimation accuracy.


Filter Implementation for CMOS Adaptive Sampling Delta Modulators
R. Golanski, J. Godek, J. Kolodziej, W. Machowski, S. Kuta

Abstract: We illustrate the idea of the building delta modulator/demodulator with the help of the non-uniform sampling method. Each of element, both analog and digital, that is used for this realization can be put together on one chip, making up a piece of the System on Chip circuit or the ASIC chip dedicated to special purpose, such as: measuring, communication, control systems, data compression, data encryption wireless telecommunication. The Adaptive Non-uniform Sampling Delta Modulators (ANS-DM) modulation algorithm implementations, and the codec architecture are described in the paper also. We present a comparative study of integrated CMOS continuous time (CT) analog filters dedicated for speech codecs with adaptive non-uniform sampling. Five CMOS implementations of this block have been studied, four of them fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The system considerations and simulation results are shown.


Virtual Instrumentation used for Displacement and Angular Speed Measurement
N. Patrascoiu A. Poanta A. Tomus, B. Sochirca

Abstract: This paper presents a virtual instrument built in LabVIEW used like a software solution to implement a displacement and angular speed measurement for a mobile that is moving in a circular direction. The same virtual instrument can be used also for measuring displacement and speed on the linear direction, by converting the linear movement into a circular movement or by using a linear incremental encoder. For this, first is determined the function through which is possible to detect the direction of movement and then the algorithm through which are makes the measurements and these are implemented through the graphical programming language used in LabVIEW.


An Intrinsic Characteristic in the Multiple Use of Mobile Phone Terminals with GPS and its Application to the Positioning Error Reduction
Yuki Odaka, Yusuke In, Mayuko Kitazume, Masakazu Higuchi, Shuji Kawasaki, Hitomi Murakami

Abstract: In recent years, studies of location identification by mobile phone have been attracting a lot of attention. Especially, GPS contents of mobile phones are increasing for the purpose of various kinds of applications, such as games, navigations and so on. So far, many investigations have been carried out for the performance of conventional GPS devices, but few people study mobile phone GPS performance. In this paper, we measure and examine the performance of mobile phone GPS using various types of terminals of different venders under some environments. As for the performance improvement, we propose efficient methods and evaluate them for the methods including distance errors and direction errors of GPS. The reduction methods for such errors applying the group characteristics of mobile phones are also described.


Embedding a Multichannel Environmental Noise Cancellation Algorithm into an Electronic Stethoscope
D. Della Giustina, M. Riva, F. Belloni, M. Malcangi

Abstract: The paper describes a multichannel adaptive algorithm for the enhancement of cardiac sounds with respect to environmental noise. It combines sounds acquired from a couple of microphones to reconstruct the transfer function of a stethoscope head and its interaction with the patient’s body. This identification process allows to perform a distortion-less noise reduction. The filter is embedded into an electronic stethoscope, composed of a traditional acoustic head and an electronic section. This instrument allows to show on a display the heart sound and to store the acquisition into a removable media transferring data to a PC. A software tool able to reproduce, visualize, store and analyze cardiac sounds, for performing assisted diagnoses of cardiac diseases, completes the system. A demonstrator of the tool has been realized. Experimental results show significant improvements in noise reduction, when the filtering algorithm is applied.


Cardiac Sounds Segmentation Algorithm for Arrhythmias Detection by Fuzzy Logic
M. Fanfulla, M. Malcangi, M. Riva, D. Della Giustina, F. Belloni

Abstract: The heart auscultation is the main investigation approach used to evaluate the possibility of a diseases. In order to improve the automatic diagnosis capabilities of auscultations, signal processing algorithms are developed. A basic task for the diseases diagnosis from the phonocardiogram is to detect the exact timing location of the events presents in the cardiac cycle, especially in pathological cases. In this paper is presented a new technique for segmentation and identification of cardiac sounds able to operate even in the case of cardiac anomalies, and without any additional reference signal such as electrocardiogram signal. A framework to arrhythmias detection based on the heart rate variability, is presented. The advantage in term of low computational burden inherited from the characteristics of fuzzy logic has been tested with a set of normal and abnormal heart sounds achieving satisfactory results.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 5, 2011)


Environment Infrastructure and Multi-Sensor Integration for Autonomous Service Robotics
Vitaliy Rybak

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to enable autonomous service robots activities based on creation of an infrastructure parallel to the infrastructure of environment for daily human life and on cooperation of robot sensors. A mobile robot equipped with a manipulator is regarded as a service robot. A specific problem of control by the manipulator movement is concerned with changeable position of its base with regard to the position of the environment objects. The infrastructure contains both material and informative components. Material components are adjusted to the capabilities of the manipulator. Robot sensors provide functions based on position information. Control by the robot action starts with the assumption of exact knowledge of the initial pose of a mobile platform with regard to world coordinate system. The odometry sensors are used as metric reference. Visual sensors and laser rangefinder are used for verification of robot's current pose. Proposed collaborative sensors data processing is used to cut down analyzed space of scene by directed selection of the area of interest and to replace the pattern recognition problem solving by the verification of the state of known scene. We proposed the visual informative landmark and monocamera vision system that provide the robot direct measurement of its 3D spatial position with respect to landmark coordinate system and with additional environment information. It serves as the base to design an environment model representation as a hybrid of topological and metrical maps.


EMI Filters Worst-Case Identification by Alternative Measurement System
J. Drinovsky, Z. Kejik, V. Ruzek, J. Zachar

Abstract: This paper deals with the approximate worst-case test method for testing the insertion loss of the EMI filters. The systems with 0.1 Ω and 100 Ω and vice versa impedances are usually used for this testing. These measuring systems are required by the international CISPR 17 standard. The main disadvantage of this system is the 0.1 Ω impedance transformer. The dynamic range for the transformation from the 50 Ω, which is most common matched impedance for the measurement setups, to 0.1 Ω is very large. It is not easy to produce such transformers with this high impedance transformation ratio. These transformers have usually very narrow bandwidth and require the several of these transformers for one filter measurement. This paper discusses the alternative system with 1 Ω and 100 Ω impedances and also vice versa for the measuring the performance of the RFI filters. The modification itself was done according to the mathematical model for the first estimation of the filters’ performance and the optimal configuration with 1 Ω and 100 Ω impedances was chosen according the calculated results as the optimal compromise. The performance of this system was tested on several filters and the obtained data are depicted, too. The performance comparison of several filters in the asymmetrical and symmetrical systems is also included. The performance of alternate worst-case system is discussed in the conclusion.


Automatic Improvement of Image Registration Using High Information Content Pixels
Paula M. Tristan, Ruben S. Wainschenker, Jorge H. Doorn

Abstract: Image registration is currently used to refer the activity of make to coincide two or more observation of the same scene. This task is fundamental for several areas of image processing, such as: remote sensing, processing of medical images and video processing, among others. There are numerous publications addressing the image registration problem, from several points of view. It involves choosing one image as reference. The remaining images must be shift to match the one chosen as reference. Two images match between them whenever every region of the original scene is mapped on the same set of pixels in both images. The registration problem consists in finding the geometric transformation to accomplish the required modification of the image. Existing methods may be classified as: based on characteristics and based on areas. The first group of methods requires the intervention of an expert who chooses a set of distinctive points of the image, while the second group of methods automatically uses all pixels of the image. This does not take into account the fact that the information content of different pixels may be rather different. Pixels with low content of information degrade the contribution of the pixels with high information content. Information content is measured in relation with its contribution to define the geometric transformation. This paper details a method that automatically discards pixels with low content of information focusing the calculation on those with high information content.


Precise Algorithms for Pole-Zero Analysis in Electronic Circuit Design
Josef Dobes, Dalibor Biolek, Jan Michal, David Cerny, Libor Slama

Abstract: The pole-zero analysis is generally known to be very sensitive to the numerical precision of the computer arithmetics. In the paper, various methods are suggested for solving that problem. First, an optimal pivoting strategy of the algorithm that reduces the general eigenvalue problem to the standard one is presented for both fulland sparse-matrix procedures. The algorithm increases the precision of the semisymbolic analysis, especially for the large-scale radiofrequency circuits. A novel technique is also incorporated recognizing multiple poles or zeros, which are often computed inaccurately by standard algorithms. A new type of this procedure called secondary root polishing is described in the paper. The accuracy is furthermore increased using longer numerical data. First, the long double precision is utilized. Further, a novel application of a suitable multiple-precision arithmetic library is suggested. Finally, using the longer numerical data to eliminate possible imprecision of the multiple eigenvalues is evaluated. The algorithm is demonstrated in both low- and highfrequency domains. In the low-frequency domain, necessity of using the longer numerical data is demonstrated by a power operational amplifier with poles and zeros located in both hertz and gigahertz ranges, which are often computed inaccurately by the standard algorithms. In the high-frequency domain, the algorithm is demonstrated by estimating the frequency of a distributed microwave oscillator, and by estimating the bandwidth of a distributed microwave amplifier.


The Preliminary Processing of Images and Object’s Identification in Thermo-Optical Set for Reconnaissance of Coastal Zone
B. Zak

Abstract: The paper presents conception of thermo-optical set, which will processing information acquired from two optical cameras and thermal camera. The set will perform the continuous inspection on observed coastal zone and will carry out recognition and identification of sailing and low-flying objects basis on its classification features and thermal characteristics. The module of preliminary image’s processing and module of object’s identification were described. There were presented the methods of preliminary processing of optical and thermal images which were used in module of filtration and processing of thermal and visional images. Next the method of object’s identification on images acquired from thermo-optical set for reconnaissance of coastal zone using Hough Transform was presented. This method was used to create module of reconnaissance and identification in worked out system. More over the results of preliminary processing and filtration of images by created module were presented on the paper. At last the results of object’s identification for example images were presented.


Impact of Control Solutions on Ecology and Economy of Small-scale Biomass Boilers
Jan Hrdlicka, Bohumil Sulc, Viktor Placek, Stanislav Vrana

Abstract: Using an experimental platform for research of combustion process in small-scale biomass boilers using pellets, authors present some results from investigation focused on improvements of boiler’s operation, which can be achieved with a control system innovation based on a PAC. Presented results include reduction of the size in emission peaks that occur as a consequence of the grate movement process that has not been adapted to the topical load. This instrumentation replacement allowed implementing a PI control algorithm that has replaced the originally installed on-off controller. The newly proposed PI controller opens new way to additional control function that can bring enhancing features to the control system. From these features, in the paper it is discussed detection of the controlled variable discredibility or a search for an efficiency or emission optimum simultaneously carried out with the main control function. Results of experiments with original and newly designed control solutions are discussed showing important reduction of the fuel consumption and stability of the combustion process.


An Automatic Diagnostic Machine for ECG Arrhythmias classification Based on Wavelet Transformation and Neural Networks
A. R. Sahab, Y. Mehrzad Gilmalek

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to design a heart arrhythmias diagnosis instrument that has very low complicated computations. Therefore, a ECG classifier system based on discreet wavelet (DW) transformation and multi layer Perceptron neural network is presented. There is a new Idea in this paper in which signal is pre-processed in order to omit its noises firstly, then, using DW, 6db of signal is divided into eight levels and the minimum, maximum, variance and standard deviation of the signal are obtained. In addition, time features of the signal are obtained. Then combining time features with discrete wavelet output features an array of them are made to be used as final features in order to teach and test a 3- layer MLP neural network. Finally, using 255 heart signal samples existed in MIT-BIH data base, designed Classifier is taught and tested and in its best performance accuracy of 98% percentage have been obtained for three different heart arrhythmias of ECG signals include; RBBB,LBBB and normal heart rhythm.


Digital Differential Relay Reliability Enhancement of Power Transformer
R. Bouderbala, H. Bentarzi, A. Ouadi

Abstract: In this paper, an improvement of digital differential relay reliability for protecting a large power transformer is discussed. First, the Fourier sine and cosine coefficients required for fundamental, second, third and fifth harmonics determination have been calculated using rectangular transfer technique. Then, these harmonics have been used in harmonics restrain and blocking techniques used in differential protection system. Simulation testes have been carried out on a variety of magnetizing conditions (normal aperiodic inrush and over excitation conditions) using Simulink/MATLAB. The obtained results shows that the developedapproach provides good discrimination between the magnetizing current and the internal fault current.


Solving Switched Capacitors Circuits by Full Graph Methods
Bohumil Brtnik

Abstract: Circuits with switched capacitors are described by a capacitance matrix and seeking voltage transfers then means calculating the ratio of algebraic supplements of this matrix. As there are also graph methods of circuit analysis in addition to algebraic methods, it is clearly possible in theory to carry out an analysis of the whole switched circuit in two-phase switching exclusively by the graph method as well. For this purpose it is possible to plot a Mason graph of a circuit, use transformation graphs to reduce Mason graphs for all the four phases of switching, and then plot a summary graph from the transformed graphs obtained this way. First we draw nodes and possible branches, obtained by transformation graphs for transfers of EE (even-even) and OO (odd-odd) phases.


Sensor Placement for Activity Recognition: Comparing Video Data with Motion Sensor Data
Paul M. Yanik, Jessica Merino, Joe Manganelli, Linnea Smolentzov, Ian D. Walker, Johnell O. Brooks, Keith E. Green

Abstract: The development of ubiquitous sensing strategies in home environments underpins the promise of adaptive architectural design, assistive robotics, and services which would support a person’s ability to live independently as they age. In particular, the ability to infer the actions and behavioral patterns of an individual from sensor data is key to effective design of such components for aging in place. Frequently, activity recognition is accomplished using vision based sensors. The method employed in this paper makes use of self similarities in a video motion sequence to construct a descriptor of the activity in the form of a Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). Descriptors are used as exemplars for classification and are shown to accurately identify motion video recorded from other views. Three candidate motions were performed using a PUMA robot (for repeatability). Video of each motion was recorded from an array of vantage points on the surface of a virtual sphere surrounding the workspace of the robot. This method is then extended to non-video motion sensor data collected from the same set of points. Results show that mean HOGs generated from Self Similarity Matrices may serve as effective exemplars to classify motions in both video and non-video formats. Video data provides superior classification results. However, motion sensor data offers a less intrusive option with promising accuracy especially when multiple sensors outputs are fused to form aggregate readings.


Controllability and Observability of Matrix Differential Algebraic Equations
Yan Wu

Abstract: Controllability and observability of a class of matrix Differential Algebraic Equation (DAEs) are studied in this paper. The structure of a closed-form solution for the system is sought via two one-sided sub-systems. The solution is then used to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and observability of the time-varying matrix DAE systems. More straightforward conditions on the controllability and observability of linear time-invariant matrix DAE systems that only depend on the state matrices are also obtained.


Digital Circuit Architecture for a Median Filter of Grayscale Images Based on Sorting Network
Victor Jimenez-Fernandez, Denisse Martinez-Navarrete, Carlos Ventura-Arizmendi, Zulma Hernandez-Paxtian, Joel Ramirez-Rodriguez

Abstract: In this paper a digital circuit architecture dedicated to median filtering of grayscale images is presented. The architecture emerges from a sorting network based median algorithm which effectiveness is verified by Matlab programming and its hardware implementation tested on a Spartan-3E FPGA device. The median pixel computation is approached by a sorting network scheme which is constituted by seven three-data comparator modules and hierarchically composed by twenty one switch/compare circuits. The successful operation of the threedata comparator module is demonstrated by transistor level SPICE simulations using 0.5μm CMOS technology.


The Application of Dynamic Time Warping to Measure the Accuracy of ECG Compression
Gavin P. Shorten, Martin J. Burke

Abstract: Many different methods of ECG compression have been suggested over the last number of decades. They are typically classed into to three distinct groups – Direct Data, Parameter Extraction and Transform methods. The metric most frequently used to differentiate between the accuracy of the different types of compression is a percentage root-mean-square difference (PRD) calculation versus compression ratio, despite the accuracy of such a method having been acknowledged as greatly limited. In this article PRD calculation and an improved partial PRD difference method are investigated and their significant shortcomings highlighted. Dynamic time warping is presented as a method of quantifying the approximation error which may be present but goes undetected by the percentage PRD calculation due to approximation of the ECG. Dynamic time warping provides a significantly more accurate metric for comparing compression algorithms and their respective accuracies. It allows for detailed comparison of differing approximation methods and variations of the same approximation method, not possible using the RMS difference versus compression ratio. Its usefulness is fully investigated by comparing several direct data compression algorithms, including a novel threshold variation of the scan along polygonal approximation technique. Results provided demonstrate possible misdiagnosis of cardiac conditions resulting from the limitation of the RMS difference versus compression ratio metric and the benefits of the application of dynamic time warping in examining the accuracy of different compression techniques.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 5, 2011)


A Robust Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control Applied to the Double Fed Induction Machine
Sid Ahmed El Mahdi Ardjoun, Mohamed Abid, Abdel Ghani Aissaoui, Abedelatif Naceri

Abstract: In this paper we propose to design a robust control using fuzzy sliding mode for double-fed induction machine (DFIM), the stator and rotor are fed by two converters. The purpose is therefore to make the speed and the flux control resist to parameter variations, because the variation of parameters during motor operation degrades the performance of the controllers. The use of the nonlinear sliding mode method provides very satisfactory performance for DFIM control, and the chattering effect is also eliminated by the fuzzy mode. Simulation results show that the implementation of the DFIM fuzzy sliding mode controllers leads to robustness and dynamic performance satisfaction, even when the electrical and mechanical parameters vary.


Improving Data Association Based on Finding Optimum Innovation Applied to Nearest Neighbor for Multi-Target Tracking in Dense Clutter Environment
E. M. Saad, El. Bardawiny, H. I. Ali, N. M. Shawky

Abstract: In this paper, a new method, named optimum innovation data association (OI-DA), is proposed to give the nearest neighbor data association the ability to track maneuvering multi- target in dense clutter environment. Using the measurements of two successive scan and depending on the basic principle of moving target indicator (MTI) filter, the proposed algorithm avoids measurements in the gate size of predicted target position that are not originated from the target and detects the candidate measurement with the lowest probability of error. The finding of optimum innovation corresponding to the candidate valid measurement increases the data association performance compared to nearest neighbor (NN) filter. Simulation results show the effectiveness and better performance when compared to conventional algorithms as Nearest Neighbor Kaman Filter (NNKF), Joint Probabilistic Data Association Algorithm (JPDA).


Statistical Modeling of Static Leakage Power and its Variability in CMOS Circuits
B. P. Harish, Navakanta Bhat, Mahesh B. Patil

Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of process variations on the estimation of static leakage power and its variability. A statistical methodology for the estimation of static leakage power dissipation due to subthreshold leakage and gate tunneling leakage in 65 nm CMOS digital circuits, in the presence of process variations, is presented. A 2-input NAND gate is used as a representative library element, whose leakage power is extensively characterized, by rigorous mixed-mode simulations. Also, an analytical model for leakage power is proposed at the gate level in terms of the device resistance data, for computational simplicity. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by characterizing the variations in the leakage power of a 4-bit ? 4-bit Wallace tree multiplier by an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. To extend this methodology to a generic technology library for process characterization, an optimal second order hybrid model is proposed by combining a piece-wise quadratic model obtained by Least Squares Method (LSM) and Response Surface Modeling (RSM) of leakage power of NAND gate directly in terms of process parameters, using Design of Experiment (DOE). We demonstrate that our hybrid models based statistical design approach can result in upto 95% improvement in accurate prediction of variability with an error of less than 0.7%, with respect to worst case design. In terms of standard deviation, the predictability of leakage power distributions get tighter by atleast 13X, leading to considerable savings in the power budget of low power CMOS designs. This work aims to bridge the manufacturing to design gap, through the characterization of standard cell libraries for leakage power, in the presence of process variations.


Influence of the Perceptual Speech Quality on the Performance of the Text-Independent Speaker Recognition System
Robert Blatnik, Gorazd Kandus, Tomaz Sef

Abstract: In the following paper we examine the influence of the perceptual speech quality on the performance of the text-independent automated speaker recognition system (ASRS). The perceptual speech quality was objectively measured using Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method (PESQ). The speech quality was degraded under various conditions as imposed in Voice over Wireless Local Area Network (VoWLAN), GSM and PSTN telephony. The ASRS error rates of this evaluation are presented by means of detection error tradeoff (DET) curves. The results show the correlations between PESQ MOS and ASRS equal error rate (EER) and promise the objective speech quality measurements can be used for the prediction of ASRS performance.


A D.S.P (TMS320lf2407) based Implementation of P.W.M for Single-Phase AC-DC Bipolar Converter with a Unity Power Factor
H. Denoun, N. Benamrouche, S. Haddad, S. Meziani S. Ait Mamar

Abstract: This paper deals with the study and the implementation of a D.S.P (TMS320LF2407) controlled single-phase AC/DC converter using PWM strategy, including sinusoidal triangular strategy (SPWM). After the description of its functioning principles, its modeling and the converter control system, we have analyzed the modeling parameters influence on the converter behavior using that strategy. The study was led by simulation and validated experimentally on testing ground with a DSP designed and built in the laboratory.


Intelligent Fuzzy Model Conception in Unknown Environments
Hachour Ouarda

Abstract: In this present work, we present an algorithm for path planning to a target for mobile robot in unknown environment based on the principle of fuzzification. To build intelligent systems that are able to perform complex requiring massively parallel computation, a knowledge of the environment structure and interacting with it involves abstract appreciation of natural concepts related to, the proximity, degree of danger, etc. the implied natural language is represented through fuzzy sets involving classes with gradually varying transition boundaries. As human reasoning is not based on the classical two-valued logic, this process involves fuzzy truths, fuzzy deduction rules, etc. This is the reason why FL is closer to human thinking and natural language than classical logic. In this context, our proposed algorithm allows a mobile robot to navigate through static obstacles, and finding the path in order to reach the target without collision. This algorithm provides the robot the possibility to move from the initial position to the final position (target). The proposed path finding strategy is designed in a grid-map form of an unknown environment with static unknown obstacles. The robot moves within the unknown environment by sensing and avoiding the obstacles coming across its way towards the target. When the mission is executed, it is necessary to plan an optimal or feasible path for itself avoiding obstructions in its way and minimizing a cost such as time, energy, and distance. In order to get an intelligent component, the use of Fuzzy Logic In order to get an intelligent component, the use of Fuzzy Logic (FL), and Expert Systems (ES) is necessary to bring the behavior of Intelligent Autonomous System (IAS). The results are satisfactory to see the great number of environments treated. The results are satisfactory and promising for next developments and more design.


Smart Maintenance System for Three-Phase Power Transformer via Fuzzy Logic Approach
Bang-Fu Hsu, Yeong-Hwa Chang, Yi-Cheng Cheng, Sau-Lie Lie, Chen-Chin Lin, Chang-Hung Hsu, Chia-Wen Chang, Wei-Shou Jan, Chin-Hao Chou

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is the design and development of the data storage and analysis method of a measurement system. The novel device is used for on-line fault monitoring of power transformers. The measured-data is captured from multi-sensors and stored in the server equipment database. Besides, these data is used for the prediction of the power transformer life consumption. The transformer life consumption is analyzed by using the Weibull distribution theorem. Various faults could occur in a transformer such as overload current, overheating, partial discharge and arcing, which can judge various fault-related conditions. According to the conventional way of the dissolved gas analysis, the fault is probably determined. As researcher knows, the IEC codes cannot determine the fault in many cases. Therefore, this paper presents a fuzzy logic tool that can be used to diagnosis multiple faults in a transformer and monitor the trend. It has been proved to be a very useful tool for transformer diagnosis and customer servicing.


A Design Method and Algorithm for USBL Systems with Skew Three-Element Arrays
Mikhail Arkhipov

Abstract: This paper presents a design method and coordinate determination algorithm for ultra-short baseline (USBL) systems where the coordinates of the underwater object are determined with utilization both the orthogonal and non-orthogonal (skew) elemental (three-element) USBL arrays. In the article a five-element USBL receiving array is studied. The proposed design of five-element receiving array allows to have six orthogonal (four horizontal and two vertical) three-element USBL arrays and the four inclined skew three-element USBL arrays. The case of calculation of the Cartesian coordinates of the object in the reference coordinate system bounded up with the USBL system’s carrier is considered. The proposed design method and the algorithm are based on the determination of the object’s position on the basic three-element USBL receiving arrays (orthogonal and non-orthogonal) with the following averaging these results by applying multiple rotations of the elemental three-element arrays around the horizontal and vertical axes associated with the carrier coordinate system. It is supposed that the spatial orientation of the receiving USBL array is controlled by the measurement of its pitch and roll angles. The coordinate determination algorithm for the proposed USBL system is designedand tested with the assumption that the object can have arbitrary position in the lower hemisphere and the USBL array can have significant inclination.


Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of a Motherboard for Data Communications and Networking Protocols
Rosula S. J. Reyes, Ph.D., Carlos M. Oppus, Jose Claro S. Monje, Noel S. Patron, Raphael A. Gonzales, Oscar Idano, Mark Glenn Retirado

Abstract: Reconfigurable devices, such as the field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), have provided electrical, electronics and computer engineers with a versatile and costeffective platform for designing circuits, developing devices and implementing electronic, communications, computer and other related systems. Presented in this paper is the use of FPGA in the development of a motherboard to introduce the concepts of data and network communications protocol through different interfaces. Some of the protocols implemented are VGA, PS/2, serial communications and parallel communications. Since the motherboard is FPGA-based, it can be reconfigured to perform other protocols making it open to a lot of possibilities.


Determination of Flat band and Drain Voltage for Maximum Sensitivity and Linearity of Electrolyte Insulator Interface Si3N4 Field Effect Sensor to H+ Ion Concentration Based on PSpice Macro Model
R. Jarmin, Y. K Lee, H. Hashim, A. Ahmad, M. Mazzuan

Abstract: Integration of ISFET sensor with signal processing circuits has made it easier, thus enabling simpler and portable application, even potential on-site screening is possible with the recent advances of electrochemical sensors and silicon technology. ISFET sensor fabricated with CMOS technology benefits from low cost production, low power and miniaturization enabling for micro system. ISFET sensor is fundamentally a MOSFET with a gate structure comprising of a reference electrode and insulator. The ion concentration of electrolyte which completes the gate-source circuit, affects the gate potential to produce threshold voltage. It serves at the front end of the instrumentation system, with a critical role to interface between the electronic signals and measured signals. OrCAD PSpice facilitates the design and testing of circuitry before the costly fabrication, with a drag-n-drop sub-circuit block library of macro models. However, even with its current popularity, macro model for ISFET devices is not found. The paper proposes a macro modeling approach for the physical-chemical behavioral model of ISFET, to contribute to a new sub-circuit block for PSpice, to allow characterization and parameterization of such devices to be simulated. Its functional quality is ascertained by comparing its drain current characteristic against that generated from source code from previous work, with ±8% discrepancy in sensitivity for pH [4 7 10]. Then, it is used to design parameters for a Si3N4 FET sensitive to H+ ion, for operation characteristic to be as linear and sensitive as possible. The drain and flat band voltage optimal for this requirement are found to be 0.1volt and 1.5volt respectively. In the case of drain voltage, it is found that smaller voltage produces faster and more sensitive response. Higher drain current and lower cut-off voltage yields higher sensitivity. At the optimal drain voltage of 0.1volt, a sensitivity of 54.79mV/pH is reported. In the case of Vbias, Vbias of 1.5volt is preferred to 1.0volt for linear change in drain current to pH value.


Monitoring of Molecule Adsorption and Molecular Wire Formation by in Situ Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy
Rodica Morarescu, Frank Trager, Frank Hubenthal

Abstract: We have investigated adsorption of different molecules and molecular wire formation on gold nanoparticles by in situ surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. For this purpose, highly ordered gold nanoparticle arrays on fused silica have been prepared by nanosphere lithography and served as plasmonic substrates. Two arrays with different sized triangular nanoparticles, either with a base of the triangle of (74 § 6) nm or with a base of the triangle of (465 § 28) nm, were used for the sensitivity measurements. After molecular adsorption on the nanoparticles, we observed significantly larger plasmon shifts and an up to 4 times higher sensitivity for the small triangular nanoparticles. This higher sensitivity is attributed to their higher surface to volume ratio compared to the large triangular nanoparticles. After the sensitivity measurements, molecular wire formation has been performed using a ruthenium complex, a double cyclodextrin unit, and an iridium complex. The molecules have been stepwise assembled on highly ordered small triangular gold nanoparticles, which served as anchor points. We observed distinct shifts of the plasmon resonance from 20 nm to 46 nm, depending on the wire length. The results demonstrate that a molecular wire formation can be monitored with high sensitivity and in situ by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.


Modelling Human Speech Perception in Noise
A. Kabir, M. Giurgiu

Abstract: Human auditory system of speech perception tries to find out by applying computational technique how human perceive speech. The difference between the current state of art automatic speech recognition (ASR) and human speech perception (HSP) is the prior knowledge about a given speaker such as speaking style, gestures, eye movements and so on. Therefore if an ASR is feed by the knowledge of a given speaker, then it could be said as HSP system. This paper presents the preliminary research in order to develop a HSP system in Romanian with a view to make it language independent. Acoustic analysis and speech glimpsing are investigated in order to do so. The principal findings are machine tends to recognize noisy speech with a more or less constant recognition rate, but still with a poor recognition rate in compare to their human counterparts, and acoustic parameters have less influence in recognizing noisy speech. In addition, a Romanian speech corpus which we named as RO-GRID is collected in ordered to use as the common material in speech perception and automatic speech recognition. Utterances are simple, syntactically identical phrases such as “muta bronz cu p 2 agale.” The corpus is annotated at the phoneme, syllable and word level and is available on the website for research use.


An Investigation on the Quality of Denoised Images
Peter Ndajah, Hisakazu Kikuchi, Masahiro Yukawa, Hidenori Watanabe, Shogo Muramatsu

Abstract: The mean squared error (MSE) and its related metrics such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), root mean squared error (RMSE) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) have been the basis for mathematically defined image quality measurement for a long time. These methods are all based on the MSE. Denoised image quality has also been traditionally measured in terms of the MSE or its derivatives. However, none of these metrics takes the structural fidelity of the image into account. We investigate the structural changes that occur during the denoising process and attempt to study an alternative metric for determining the quality of denoised images based on structural changes. We also show the shortcomings of the MSE-based image quality metrics.


High-Speed Calculation for Tissue Characterization of Coronary Plaque by Employing Parallel Computing Techniques
Takanori Koga, Shota Furukawa, Eiji Uchino, Noriaki Suetake

Abstract: In recent years, remarkable progress can be seen in the field of computer-aided medical diagnosis of ischemic coronary arterial disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based tissue characterization of coronary plaque is a significant topic in this field. The authors have proposed the multiple k-nearest neighbor (MkNN) classifier for the tissue characterization of coronary plaque in an IVUS B-mode image. Although its characterization performance was highly evaluated, the calculation speed was too slow to use actually in medical practice. The purpose of this study is to accelerate the speed of MkNN classifier aiming for it to be actually used in the medical practice. Recently, some parallel computing techniques on central processing unit (CPU) or on graphics processing unit (GPU) have come into general usage. Especially, the general purpose computation technique on Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) has got into the limelight recently. In this study, the calculation speeds of the MkNN classifier are evaluated for cases of various implementations using the parallel computing techniques. By employing GPGPU technique, it has been confirmed that its speed has been drastically accelerated enough for the practical use.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 5, Volume 5, 2011)


A Novel Distribution Automation involving Intelligent Electronic Devices as IUT
M. Sadeghi, M. Gholami

Abstract: A Novel Distribution Automation is the bonnie state of art, comprising the new architecture based on the flexible electrical network of component together with an open communication structure debate the Future Distribution Automation System. Intelligent Universal Transformer (IUT) comprises from power electronic base equipment in addition with traditional current transformer introducing as an Intelligent Equipment Devices (IED) for Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) in forthcoming future. In contrast to ordinary transformer, IUT has full control compatibility as it has been considered for intelligent device. In this regards Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) is an advanced method based on fuzzy logic concept (first issued by Lotfy Zadeh) emphasizes on fuzzy algorithms which are formulated by linguistically rules, employing expert knowledge. Model free system, nonlinearity, robustness and flexibility under parameter variations are the benefit advantages resulting from the fuzzy logic controllers. In this approach four layers IUT topology with the diverse services like DC voltage option, 400 HZ utility for communication, 120 and 240 V AC 60 HZ together with fuzzy logic controller have been considered for evolving the stability, reducing the uncertainty and enhancing the efficiency of whole system. Fuzzy logic control schemes are proposed for employing current source controllers in IGBT inverters at input stage and DC voltage control source in output stage. Real time voltage regulation, automatic sag correction, three-phase power from a single phase line, Harmonic Filtering, Flicker mitigation, options for energy storage , dynamic system monitoring and robustness under load disturbances are the resulting benefits contributed from IUT four layers topology and fuzzy logic controllers.


Assessment of Negative Sequence Currents for Generators Connected to 345-kV Asymmetrical Transmission Lines from Measurement Data
Chi-Jui Wu, Ping-Heng Ho

Abstract: This paper is used to evaluate the negative sequence currents (NSC) of two generators in a generation plant, which are connected to the power pool through four asymmetrical 345-kV transmission lines. The two generators are located at the southern end of the Taiwan Power (Taipower) grid. These generators are very important to the system and provide base-period generation power. The simulation results by using PSS/E and EMTP are checked with the values from the wide area measurement system (WAMS). It can be observed that the factors such as parallel operations, lengths, current directions, and co-towered conditions of transmission lines will affect the values of NSC. The arrangement of conductors on the same tower in RST-R’S’T’ or RST-T’S’R’ configuration will have significant effects on the NSC values. This study estimates whether the generators need to reduce loading owing to the NSC to protect the generators. The study results give important information about generators connected to parallel asymmetrical transmission lines.


A Novel Method to Reduce Current Magnitude During Parallel Operation Period of Electric Power Distribution Feeder
Shu-Chen Wang, Chi-Jui Wu, Hsin-Chun Tsai

Abstract: A novel approach to reduce the current magnitude during feeder load transferring is presented in this paper. No matter in planning, designing, or system dispatching, it is desired to give un-interrupted electric power to customers. However, when the loading of a distribution system power feeder is too high or the feeder needs to be maintained, the feeder load should be transferred to other feeder. The un-interrupted type means that the electric power supplied to customers will not be interrupted during feeder load transferring. However, there are several factors to affect the feeder current magnitude during load transferring, such as transformer impedances, primary side power level, and original loading of the feeder. If the current is too high, the feeder protection system will trip the feeder breakers to shut down the power supply system. A novel approach is presented to reduce the feeder current magnitude during load transferring. The phasor measurement units (PMU) will be used to obtain the synchronous voltage magnitude and phase angle of the transformers, of which feeders are transferred. A power conditioner is installed in the secondary side of the transformer. Then the phase angle values from the PMUs will be sent to the power conditioner and the suitable phase shifting will be used to reduce the phase angle difference between the two transformers. The simulation results show the feeder current magnitude will be greatly reduced during load transferring.


How and why Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles Can Improve Real-Time Awareness?
Ilkka Tikanmaki, Tuomo Tuohimaa, Jyri Rajamaki

Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been used for a long time to improve situational awareness for many parties. During last 30 years UAVs role has received more attention and interest in global perspective. There are many reasons how and why this has occurred. This paper highlights those issues; why this matter is important and considerable. When discussing about situational awareness and real time picture, we should remember that many parties need these issues when they are working. Especially decision makers and their assistants need to know what is happening in the field. For that reason, it is noteworthy to focus on one of the most important way how to accelerate making of situational awareness and real-time picture. This is one of the components how to do it and why we need it.


Simple Modelling and Method for the Design of a Sigma Delta Class D Power Amplifier
Ph .Dondon, M. Cifuentes, G. Tsenov, V. Mladenov

Abstract: The class D amplifier is well known in audio applications since a few ten years. The MOS transistors switching power stage is able to drive a useful power up to 500W to the loud speaker with an excellent power ratio (greater than 90%). Designing such an amplifier is obviously more difficult than designing a classical class A or AB power amplifier. Unfortunately, only mathematical and very complex theoretical approaches are found in the scientific literature. So, we present here a simple and concrete method for students and young designers to design a sigma delta class D amplifier as easily as possible. The experimental results are given to illustrate the design method. Finally, we explain how we exported this work towards pedagogical application and practical lessons for our engineer students.


Feature Extraction of Objects in Moving Images and Implementation of the Purification Algorithm on the CNN Universal Machine
Emel Arslan, Zeynep Orman, Sabri Arik

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm that detects certain objects in a moving image and extracts their features. We named this algorithm as the purification algorithm because it is also used for purifying the remains of detected objects and for saving each purified object as a separate image file. The algorithm is implemented on the Bi-i Cellular Vision System which is a Cellular Neural Network(CNN) Universal Machine. The CNN Universal Machine is known as the analogical array computer and it contains two processors which can work interactively with each other. These processors are the ACE16k that is the hardware implementation of CNNs and the Digital Signal Processor(DSP). The purification algorithm is implemented with two different applications. In the first application, all phases of the algorithm are implemented just on the DSP. In the second application, the morphological operations of the algorithm are performed on the ACE16k and all other operations are performed on the DSP. Therefore, in the latter one, the application is run in coordination with both the ACE16k processor and the DSP. The obtained results are evaluated in terms of the run-time of the purification algorithm to show the comparison of these applications. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is good.


Modeling and Comparison of Fuzzy PID Controller with PSD Regulation in the Discrete Systems
S. Koprda, Z. Balogh, M. Turcani

Abstract: The development of computer technology has led to new modern management methods in the work experience. Evidence of this can be found in developments such as AC (adaptive control), robust control and, most clearly, AI (artificial intelligence) and expert systems. It is important to prefer regulator adaptation with minimal overshooting and speed and stability control for meeting criteria of technological process. This article describes one of possibilities for finding of PSD controller coefficients to reach the best quality control in comparison with standard procedures and is also devoted to creating a simple fuzzy PID controller.


Accentuating of the Resulting Effects after Connecting Power Active Filters on Supplying Line of the Electric Traction System
Ioan Baciu, Corina Daniela Cuntan, Raluca Rob, Caius Panoiu

Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects that are obtained after connecting an active filter in a traction substation. The active filter command is made in function of the active and reactive power obtained using Clarke transformation. The active filter simulated in PSCAD is connected at 110kV three phase system using power transformers. The authors present in this paper the currents and voltages variation waveforms for the mono phased an three phased circuits of a DC traction locomotive


Shunt Active Filter Command Designed in LabVIEW
Caius Panoiu, Raluca Rob, Ioan Baciu, Manuela Panoiu

Abstract: This paper represents a study about the command of an active filter with IGBT transistors using a data acquisition board. The main purpose of this active filter is to reduce the harmonic distortion in power distribution generated by an electro thermal installation with electromagnetic induction. IGBT transistors are controlled using a command scheme designed in LabVIEW.


Using LabVIEW Tool for Verifying the Functioning of an Electronic Programmable Circuit
Corina Daniela Cuntan, Ioan Baciu, Caius Panoiu, Raluca Rob

Abstract: This paper presents an electronic circuit that identifies a code introduced using a keyboard. If this code is corresponding to the stored code, the system actuates an electromagnetic device. If the input code does not correspond to the stored one, the system blocks the inputs. The electronic circuit is realized in LabVIEW and permits an analogical command to the electromagnetic device using a data acquisition board.


FPGA and Field Programmable Devices Architectures : A Tutorial
Hachour Ouarda

Abstract: Configurable hardware is an approach for realizing optimal performance by tailoring its architecture to the characteristics of a given problem FPGAs Field Programmable Gate Arrays .The complexity of VLSI circuits is being more and more complexes. Recently, the development of new type of sophisticated Field Programmable Devices (FPDs) has dramatically changed the process of designing digital hardware. Unlike previous generations of hardware technology in which board level designs included large numbers of SSI (Small Scale Integration) chips containing basic gates, virtually every digital design produced today consists mostly of high-density devices. . This is true not only of custom devices such as processors and memory but also of logic circuits such as state machine controllers, counters, registers, and decoders. When such circuits are destined for high volume systems, designers integrate them into high-density gate arrays. AS an attractive solution for the computationally –intensive functions FPD, we present the FPGA Field Programmable Gate Arrays which are used to prototype ASIC designs and are considered as specific purposeThe complex issue of programming FPGA may be approached in a wide range of ways. One extreme is to consider that the designer holds only have to ketch his design in an abstract way, leaving to automatic tools as much of the implementation job as possible, with as little human intervention as possible. This hands-off approach reduces development time and costs, at their expense of the performance of the implementation. At the other extreme, when performance is critical, the designer has to intervene in the whole design process. This may include low-level implementation work and require important expert knowledge and much longer development time. FPGAs are often used to prototype ASIC designs or to provide a hardware platform on which to verify the physical implementation of new algorithms. However their low development cost and short time to market mean that they are increasing finding their way into final products. In this paper we present a review of FPD Field Programmable Devices; where we present the importance of using FPGA circuit.


VHDL Circuits Hardware Description Language: Notes
Hachour Ouarda

Abstract: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) are usually programmed using languages and methods inherited from the domain of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) synthesis. These methods, however, have not always been adapted to the new possibilities opened by FPGA, nor to the new constraints do they impose on a design. For FPGA circuit we can use the VHDL language as hardware description (acronym for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language). The key of the art design is focused around high level synthesis which is a top down design methodology that transforms an abstract level using VHDL description. the synthesis tools allow designers to realize the mainly reasons: the need to get a correctly working systems at the first time, technology independent design, design reusability, the ability to experiment with several alternatives of the design, and economic factors such as time to market. VHDL allows for the description of hardware behavior from system to gate levels . To fit this level of description, the language has to offer lager degrees of abstraction, powerful algorithmic, wide capabilities for merging different description levels, and an easiness expression of causality, and also the possibility of introducing non determinism, which may be an interesting feature. To date, this level of description has not been synthesizable: no explicit architecture is described and no tool on the market offers a real and an efficient architectural synthesis (except for some specific target architecture. In this paper we present some useful notes of VHDL: main hardware concept of VLSI.


Modeling Surface Electromyogram Dynamics using Hammerstein-Wiener Models with Comparison of IIR and Spatial Filtering Techniques
Anish Sebastian, Parmod Kumar, Marco P. Schoen

Abstract: The national limb loss statistics paints a grim picture. Given the staggering limb loss numbers, the need to develop a “Smart Prosthetic Device” has never been more exigent. Despite years of effort by various government organizations and dedicated work on part of many scientists, we are still quite a ways away from creating the “perfect” prosthetic. Using electromyogram (EMG) signals to control prosthetic devices is and has been in the past, one of the most promising directions for this research. However, most of the control schemes being used, are based on either pre-programming the motion using threshold values of the EMG signal as reference, or using the root-mean-squared values of the EMG signal to actuate the prosthetic device. Using such a control strategy, makes it impossible to capture the underlying dynamics between EMG signals and the intended finger movements and forces. As a result of which the user needs to make an effort to learn to use the device, which can be very exhaustive. We propose to use system identification based dynamic models which are extracted from recorded surface EMG (sEMG) signals and the corresponding finger forces. A key influence on the resulting quality of such models is the filtering methods used for the EMG signals. This paper presents a thorough analysis of spatial filtering and other filtering methods as a possible solution to capture the dynamics of the sEMG signals, and perhaps in the future use hese models to implement control schemes which would mimic the intricate force changes for a prosthetic hand. The different filters are compared on the basis of the EMG-finger force model fit percentages, obtained from System Identification using various Non-Linear Hammerstein-Wiener models. The nonlinear spatial filters gave better fit values as compared to the standard filtering techniques.


Sampling - Reconstruction Procedures of Non Gaussian Processes by Two Algorithms
Vladimir Kazakov, Yair Olvera

Abstract: Two algorithms are investigated for the Sampling - Reconstruction Procedures of non Gaussian processes. The optimal algorithm is analyzed on the basis of the conditional mean rule and cumulant functions. The non optimal algorithm is based on the covariance function of the output process. Using this algorithm we obtain the total approximate reconstruction error function. We investigate the Rayleigh processes and the non Gaussian processes on the output of exponential and polynomial converters driven by the Gaussian Markov process. Comparison of both algorithms is given.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 6, Volume 5, 2011)


MLB Sports Frames Retrieval Using Color Cipher Similarities
Chiunhsiun Lin, Ching-Hung Su, Hsuan Shu Huang, Kuo-Chin Fan

Abstract: We present a realistic and fully automatic content-based approach for retrieval MLB sports frames efficiently. Specifically, we present a rule-based method for detecting primary and recurrent scenes in MLB videos (e.g., MLB pitching scenes in baseball). The proposed approach transfers each MLB sports frame to a color cipher using only straightforward 8 rules. Subsequently, we utilize the color ciphers to compare the MLB sports frames, namely color ciphers comparison. We succeed in transferring the MLB sports frames retrieval problem to color ciphers comparison, so the computational complexity is decreased obviously. Our system keeps both advantages of the content based videos retrieval system (similarity-based retrieval) and a text based videos retrieval system (very rapid and mature).


Infrared Radiation, Sensor, Source and Infrared Camera Measurement
R. Drga, D. Janacova

Abstract: The paper deals with the infrared radiation source EK-8520, ability to measure using a thermocouple TP334 and temperature by thermal imager for calculating spectral range. It prepares the theoretical and practical bases for testing infrared radiation detectors for security technologies.


Infrared Camera Measurement of Source
R. Drga, D. Janacova, H. Charvatova

Abstract: The paper deals with the infrared radiation source EK-8520, ability to measure using a thermocouple TP334 and temperature by thermal imager for calculating spectral range. It prepares the theoretical and practical bases for testing infrared radiation detectors for security technologies.


Spatial Filter Masks Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm and Modeling Dynamic Behavior of sEMG and Finger Force Signals
Anish Sebastian, Parmod Kumar, Marco P. Schoen

Abstract: Electromyography (EMG) signals are widely used for clinical and biomedical applications. One of the rapidly advancing fields of application of EMG is in the control of smart prosthetic devices for rehabilitation purposes. This paper presents the investigation of the use of System Identification (SI) for modeling sEMG-Finger force relation in the pursuit of improving the control of a smart prosthetic hand. Finger force and sEMG data are generated by having the subject perform a number of random motions of the ring finger to simulate various force levels. Post-processing of the sEMG signal is performed using spatial filtering. The linear and nonlinear spatial filters are compared based on the ‘kurtosis’ improvements and also based on the fit values of the models obtained using system identification, in particular the Hammerstein-Wiener models. The results of the modeling using linear spatial filters were found to be in the region of 30-45%, some of these linear spatial filter masks were selected randomly to investigate if there is any improvement in modeling the sEMG-force relation. The spatial filter masks are optimized using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for two conditions; constrained and unconstrained. The model fit values of the identified models are used as the cost function in the GA optimization scheme. The results are compared to the reported filter mask values in the literature. The unconstrained GA based filter mask values and in some instances the constrained GA based mask values perform better than the filter masks reported in literature in 24 out of the 26 cases tested.


Features of Acetone Dynamic Effects Induced to Acrylic Teeth Superficial Layer: A Time Domain C Scan (En Face) OCT New Approach
Adelina Elena Stoia, Cosmin Sinescu, Mihai Rominu, Adrian Gheorghe Podoleanu

Abstract: The main reason of this study is mainly represented by the C Scan (En Face) OCT time domain investigation of acetone dynamic effects induced to the superficial layer of acrylic teeth. One of the organic solvents used in order to improve the adhesion of acrylic teeth to denture base resin is acetone.
The ridge lap area of 20 acrylic second upper molars (Spofa Dental complete denture kit) was milled to flat. Afterwards the molars with the milled ridge lap area were cut in two halves. The artificial teeth were randomly assigned in 2 groups. : Group 1. (control) (without treatment), Group 2. Acetone treatment. The both sample groups were submitted to OCT C Scan (En Face) investigation for 200 seconds. The both sample groups were also submitted to SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) nondestructive investigation. The dynamical changes of acrylic teeth superficial layer induced by acetone, among which the superficial layer hardening, were captured with C Scan OCT, proving the fact that time domain C scan OCT could be used in order to investigate the dynamics of the effects of this organic solvent to the polymeric acrylic teeth substrate.


Image Restoration Based on Edgemap and Wiener Filter for Preserving Fine Details and Edges
S. Suhaila, T. Shimamura

Abstract: This paper presents a method for removing noise while preserving the image fine details and edges in blind condition, based on the Wiener filter and a constructed edgemap. The noisy image is denoised with different weights of Wiener filtering to generate two restored images; one with highly reduced noise, and the other with preserved fine details and edges. The edgemap image is constructed directly from the noisy image by using a new edge detection method. The Wiener filtered images and the edgemap are utilized to generate the final restored image. Simulations with natural images contamina- ted by noise demonstrate that the proposed method works effectively over a different range of noise levels. A performance comparison with other Wiener filter-based denoising methods and the state-of-the-art denosing methods is also made.


A Low Power, Battery Operated Precision Portable Thermal Chamber with Double Thermoelectric Module
Anderson W. Spengler, Elnatan C. Ferreira, J. A. Siqueira Dias

Abstract: A low-power thermal chamber with a volume of only 2.5 liters capable of reaching temperatures over the -5ºC to 70ºC range was designed and constructed. Two small 12 V batteries are used as the power supply for the complete system. Thermoelectric modules were used as actuators since their size and performance characteristics allow the portability and precise temperature control. The PID control provided stability and errors better than normally found in expensive commercial thermal chambers, with maximum temperature error of ±0.2ºC with respect to the setpoint and with a fluctuation of ±0.1ºC.


3D Partitioning for Interference and Area Minimization
Hsin-Hsiung Huang, Tsai-Ming Hsieh

Abstract: This work defines a novel problem in which a set of modules is assigned to a set of silicon layers in order to minimize the total chip area while satisfying the characteristic constraints. An integer linear programming (ILP)-based partitioning approach is also developed to assign a set of modules to the layers of a three-dimensional architecture during a floor-planning phase. The proposed approach attempts to minimize the chip area, which is the maximum silicon layer area among the set of layers in a three-dimensional system-in-package (SIP) architecture. Moreover, the circuit properties in which the digital and analog modules not to assign to the same layer are incorporated to increase signal integrity during the partitioning stage. The optimal module assignment for the three-dimensional SIP architecture could be obtained because all the constraints in this work are linear functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed ILP-based method can minimize the chip area while meeting the SIP constraints of circuit properties to reduce the potential interference of the wires in the digital and analog modules. The chip area is larger than that of the method that does not consider interference properties of modules. Importantly, the proposed ILP-based approach significantly reduces the number of the potential interference to be zero by assigning analog and digital modules to the different layers of the SIP architecture.


Power Quality Requirements for the Smart Grid Design
Aleksandar Janjic, Zoran Stajic, Ivan Radovic

Abstract: Power quality issues are one of the most important aspects of future smart grid design and operation. The first reason is the more active consumer participation in the power sector, and the other one is the introduction of renewables, having a great impact on voltage variation because its intermittency. This paper discusses power and especially voltage quality issues in the smart grid environment. New demands that are placed in front of the distribution network by introducing the concept of Smart (Intelligent) network are presented. Through several practical examples from the distribution utilities in Serbia, a few typical problems regarding power quality, which have to be solved in a new environment are presented, together with proposed smart grid architecture and description of distribution management system functions. The need of strategic planning of smart grids is illustrated on some examples of non-compliance of laws and practices in Serbia.


Decentralized Controller Design, a Case Study
M. R. Hojjati, S. Akraminejad, H. quanbari

Abstract: Large scale system are complex to be modeled and controlled by centralized controllers. In this paper, a multi variable non-linear system (two inverted pendulum coupled by a spring) is linearized about equilibrium point and formed to decentralized optimized control decentralized control law is designed basis on existing theorems and modern techniques and its stability is surveyed. This opens a possibility that based on this model to formulate some benchmark problems to simulate a wide research interest in large scale control.


Hardware Implementation of BLDC Motor and Control System Diagnosis
Robert I. Lorincz, Mihai E. Basch, Ivan Bogdanov, Virgil Tiponut, Adrian Beschieru

Abstract: In today's automotive applications the usage of BLDC (Brushless DC) motors is becoming very popular because of its advantages over the DC motors. For automotive applications the permanent fault diagnosis and protection of the BLDC motor and control system is mandatory. This paper presents several concepts for extensive diagnosis implementation for different fault conditions that may appear in the BLDC motor or its control electronics (the three phased bridge inverter and control ASIC). The detectable failure conditions by the methods described in this paper are: short circuit conditions at the motor terminals (short to battery, GND or even short between the phase terminals); internal, external power supply voltages and over-temperature failure conditions; position, hall signals failure conditions. The implementation is done using hardware circuits which can be easily integrated in the BLDC motor control ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit).


Low Cost Design of Precision Medical Ultrasound Power Measurement System
Imamul Muttakin, Yeap S.Yu, Muhammad M. Mansor, Mohd H. M. Fathil, Izzeldin Ibrahim, Ismail Ariffin, Camallil Omar, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Ultrasound power measurement system is widely used in health care institutions especially to measure the power generated by ultrasound therapeutic machines. The existing ultrasound power meter, however is high cost, heavy and only for specific machine. Besides, most of them have limitation of resolution, are not considering temperature disturbance and no graphical interface for further analysis. Since piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has been explored to be a potential candidate for ultrasound sensor, this work has observed this polymer film behavior in medical ultrasound power measurement application. Effects of distance, frequency, voltage and temperature on the received signal (voltage) were analyzed. In order to enable PVDF sensor for low cost ultrasound power meter, a robust low-cost casing has been built. The casing has been designed to enable optimum capturing ultrasound power from therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound machine, minimize interference effect and noise as well as stabilize mechanical construction of sensor. Test result shows acceptable correlation between ultrasound intensity and sensor’s generated voltage. For signal processing unit, a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based ultrasound processing platform has been proposed. This platform is able to process data from two PVDF sensors and a temperature sensor with high precision. It was prepared to measure ultrasound frequency from 500 kHz to 10 MHz with temperature range from 10 °C to 50 °C and power range from 1 mW/cm2 up to 10 W/cm2 (with resolution 0.87 mW/cm2). In addition, a graphical user interface (GUI) has been utilized for further analysis. Test result shows that the platform is able to process 10 µs ultrasound data with 20 ns time-domain resolution and 0.12 mV magnitude resolutions then display these waveform and calculation result in the GUI.




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