ISSN: 1998-0140


Year 2011

All papers of the journal were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.

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    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 1, Volume 5, 2011)


Geometric and Rough Set Approach to Inverse Kinematics for Arm Manipulator
Krzysztof Tokarz, Christian Manger

Abstract: In this paper the construction of the arm of the robot has been presented. The possibilities of different methods of calculations of reverse kinematics has been discussed. The geometric approach intended to work with the controller based on low-resource microcomputer has been presented. Details about mechanical and electronic construction of the arm of the robot has been described. Additionally, Rough Set Theory which deals with imperfect knowledge is proposed to be used to manipulate the robot arm. The information system considered in the Rough Set Theory can be obtained in a myriad of techniques usually belonging with either statistical analysis or machine learning methodologies. The approach presented in this paper is the example of the latter category.


Fast Encoding Algorithms for Vector Quantization Based on Orthogonal Transform
Jiann-Der Lee, Yaw-Hwang Chiou

Abstract: For vector quantization (VQ), it is extremely time-consuming to extract the similar codeword with input vector during the encoding process. In this paper, three efficient algorithms are proposed to extract the features of input vector using orthogonal transform, i.e., PCA transform, Hadamard transform, Haar wavelet transform, respectively. These features are then used to early remove impossible codeword in the distortion computations stage. From the experimental results, it is shown that the proposed approaches can largely decrease the computation time for achieving VQ coding with the same quality with full search algorithm. More specifically, compared with the DHSS algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational time by 31% to 61%. Compared with the Pan’s algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational time by 62% to 75%. Compared with the Lai’s algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational time by 48% to 58%. Compared with the HTPDE algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational time by 27% to 44%. Compared with the WTPDE algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational time by 21% to 45%. Moreover, the computation time of the HWT-based approach is less than all other previous algorithms.


On Claim Size Fitting and Rough Estimation of Risk Premiums based on Estonian Traffic Insurance Example
Meelis Kaarik, Merili Umbleja

Abstract: Financial and actuarial mathematics offer various problems related to estimation of distributions. Classical models for premium calculations usually require some estimates for both the distribution of individual claim size and also the number of claims. In this work we mainly consider the problem of estimation of individual claim size, but also some basics on the fitting of the distribution of claim number and tools to find rough estimates for risk premium are provided to complete the model. Most of the ideas are applied to a real-life data from Estonian traffic insurance from mid 2006 to mid 2007. The research was initiated by Estonian Traffic Insurance Fund and therefore is of practical importance. The first four sections of the article focus on the distribution of the individual claim size, we search answers for questions like: • what candidate distributions to use for fitting the data? • what fitting techniques to use? • how to measure which of the proposed candidates is best? We choose five commonly used distributions as possible estimates: lognormal, Pareto, Weibull, beta and gamma. The fitting techniques are based on moment matching or maximum likelihood estimators. For testing goodness of fit (GOF) several classical tests including Chi-square test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test are used. The accuracy of our approach is evaluated by matching the first and second moments and by plotting PDF-s and CDF-s. The last section of the article focuses on estimation of the the claim amount for the whole portfolio and also describes a simple idea how the standard deviance principle can be used to find a first rough estimate for risk premium when the available history is limited. The estimates for risk premiums are found by the classical collective risk model. Several simplifications are made due to the lack of information, turns out that the resulting estimates are comparable with those used in practice by insurance companies.


Performance Study of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot
A. Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani

Abstract: In this work we introduce the kinematic model and dynamic model of an omnidirectional mobile robot with three-center directional wheels. These models allow us to simulate the behavior of the robot and evaluate its performance.


Effect of Moisture Transfer on Thermal Inertia in Simple Layer Walls: Case of a Vegetal Fibre Material
C. Maalouf, A. D. Tran Le, M. Lachi, E. Wurtz, T. H. Mai

Abstract: In building design, thermal inertia is an important passive parameter that affects occupants’ thermal comfort. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of moisture transfer on material thermal inertia for different materials by studying the behaviour of a simple wall under variating outdoor conditions and mainly to study transient hygrothermal behaviour of a vegetal fibre material made of a mixture of lime and hemp fibres. To study moisture transfer in materials, we used a coupled heat and moisture transfer model in which moisture transport is made through liquid and vapour phases. The liquid phase is supposed to move by capillarity whereas the vapour phase diffuses under vapour partial pressure gradient. For the numerical approach, a simulation model was developed and implemented in the program oriented object SPARK. Simulations were used to study the effect of moisture transfer on the damping effect, time lag and heat conduction loads through simple layer walls.


Subjective and Objective Metrics for Selfevaluation of Public Administration Organization
Stanislava Simonova, Hana Skopeckova

Abstract: Application of methods for monitoring organization output and for production quality assessment is considered a necessity, if an organization wants to reach good output in a longterm. However, public administration organizations have certain delay in application of these methods of monitoring and assessment of quality. There is an effort to increase the quality of services provided, but it lacks financial stimulus, which is apparent in production sphere. Process approach and application of measuring processes is supported mainly by decision of superior authorities. That is the reason why first-time usage of quality measuring methods is very often formal. Methods recommend using subjective and objective indicators, of course with accent on objective indicators and objective evaluation processes. Nevertheless public administration organizations rather start with application of subjective processes and they use objective indicators and approaches less often. The article is engaged in meaning and ways to use subjective and objective metrics for self-evaluation of public administration companies; it documents meaning and usability of various evaluation methods.


Computer Simulation of Stock Exchange Behavior in Maple
Zuzana Chvatalova, Jiri Hrebicek, Martin Zigardy

Abstract: This paper describes computer simulation of behavior Prague Stock Exchange (PSE) with use of application software (Maple) with special user-friendly interface (Maplet). It is very useful tool for the company management operating in the capital market. Firstly, we briefly mention the specifics of the PSE in the Czech Republic. Then we introduce some the proposed algorithms for modeling continuous development of shares with application the methods of mathematics and statistics. Computation and simulations of Stock Exchange behavior are made by Maplet with both numeric and symbolic computations. The developed Maplet is designed for easy user friendly control. The example of the master thesis of the Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology (shortly FBM BUT) of one of co-authors of the paper is presented. It demonstrates the close link of the educational process and practice at FBM BUT.


An Inverse Control of the Extraction Column
J. Djurovic

Abstract: In this paper inverse modelling method was investigated. In order to perform the state prediction necessary to the future system behavior, an inverse system is developed based on input/output data. Much of work deals with dynamics of processes, system identification, state variable estimation, disturbance estimation, filtering and smoothing. Identification and control system to the variation of the state variables over time in multistage process unit were investigated. A liquid-liquid extraction column was used. Several models were built. Inverse control methods reverse the process finding the response of a system to a particular form of input or disturbance for a given set of initial conditions, and attempt to find the control inputs required to achieve a particular response. With inverse dynamic modelling the control variables, in order to make the plant output, follow the desired set-point. The control system was developed based on input/output data. Numerical simulation was performed. The obtained results show improving products quality control, determine optimum set points, and a troubleshooting day to day operating problem.


Stability, Permanence and Positive Periodicity in a Model of Bone Remodeling under Impulsive PTH Control
Mantana Chudtong, Yongwimon Lenbury, Chontita Rattanakul

Abstract: In this paper, a mathematical model of bone remodeling process, which incorporates the effect of impulsive hormone supplementary treatments, is investigated both numerically and theoretically. A three dimensional model proposed in our earlier work in 2003 is first extended to incorporate impulsive treatment of estrogen supplement. It is illustrated that it is possible for the treatment to be interrupted with no apparent drop in its desirable effect on maintaining a normal bone mass. When the parathyroid hormone is assumed to have a very fast dynamics, the model in its reduced two dimensional form is then analyzed in terms of the boundedness, asymptotic stability, permanence, and oscillatory behavior. We show that there is a stable periodic solution, at the vanishing level of osteoclastic cells, when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. The conditions for permanence of the system are then given. Finally, it is shown that as the impulsive period increases beyond a certain critical value, the emergence of stable positive periodic solution may be observed under appropriate conditions on the system parameters. Thus, dynamic behavior of the system is sensitive to the period and amplitude of the hormone supplements so that the variation of these parameters are crucial for the proper management and control of this complex system.


Recognizing DNA Splice Sites with the Frequent Pattern Mining Technique
Nittaya Kerdprasop, Kittisak Kerdprasop

Abstract: The completion of Human Genome Project in 2001 yields the entirety of human genetic information, or genome. A genome is organized in chromosomes and composed of thousands of genes, which are the heredity units of traits such as hair color and blood type. Genes in complex organisms such as primates and humans are composed of regions that code for protein, called exons, and non-coding regions, called introns. During the transcription from the DNA template for later translating into amino acid chain of protein structure, introns are to be removed and exons are then joined to form a continuous messenger-RNA strand. Splice sites are the junctions or borders between introns and exons. Accurate detection of splice sites from the fragments of DNA sequence is important to the success of gene prediction. Due to huge amount of genetic information in most genomes, computational techniques are essential for the interpretation and recognition of specific genetic sequences. In this paper, we propose a splice site prediction technique based on frequent pattern analysis. We apply association mining to each splice junction types, that is, exon/intron, intron/exon, and none of the two types. The frequent DNA patterns are then combined and prioritized with respect to their annotated confidence and support values. The final result of our method is a set of cascaded rules to be used for gene prediction. From the experimental results, our method can make a high recall prediction comparative to other classification-based methods. We also demonstrate computational improvement via a concurrency technique. Running time reduction is considerably observable.


Possibilities of Modeling the Creative Part of Engineering Design Process using the Synergetic Approach
Dmitri Loginov

Abstract: In this paper the problem of modeling the creative part of the engineering design process has been analyzed from the synergetics perspective. The analysis possessed from a general point of view. The characteristics of the creative tasks of the engineering design have been defined and novel notion of the Autonomous Design System (ADS) has been introduced. ADS is considered as an advanced CAD system that has Artificial Intelligence (AI) functionality and particularly the functionality to deal with creative components of the engineering design process. A couple of cybernetic models which may be further optimized by the methods of synergetics were proposed. The presented discussion forms theoretical foundations and philosophical motivation for an ongoing research in this field. This work constitutes the introduction to the extension of the author’s original research in the field of CAD systems’ optimization.


Network Service Systems for Chemical Engineers
J. Savkovic-Stevanovic, L. Filipovic-Petrovic, R. Beric

Abstract: Process operation makes history data base of manipulates object variables. User can make different service databases model. Input data bases are linked with routines which realized heuristic algorithms and scenarios for customer satisfaction. The results are stored in a database for further use. In the process analysis and product planning simulation various models and conditions were included. This work illustrates network product system coordinating interface events with its functionality events.


A Multistage, Multiphase and Multicomponent Process System Modelling
T. Mosorinac, J. Savkovic-Stevanovic

Abstract: In this paper an integrated modelling method was presented. At transfer phenomena modelling, the interphase and intercomponent transfer mechanisms were investigated by integrated modelling. Modelling method started with system definition, elements identification and their interrelations definition according to goal state. The general multistage process information structure, which enables the integrated modelling was built. The process models were generated for batch, semi-batch and continue multistage process units. Using the advanced method, one can evaluate by multi-convergence criteria dynamic state and steady state of the multistage system. For the process models distillation and absobtion multistage with and without chemical reaction were used. As a virtually process representation a multistage, multicomponent distillation process was used. The obtained results show benefits of the integrated modelling method.


Optimization of Buffer-Size Allocation Using Dynamic Programming
Masayoshi Hasama, Takao Ito, Seigo Matsuno

Abstract: Assembly-like Queueing systems are used in the assembly processes in production lines in the chemical industry as well as dataflow in computer systems. While many models are constructed in tandem and merge systems, assembly-like systems are known to be more complicated and difficult to analyze. These systems are not investigated in queueing theory. Whereas most research focuses on simple assembly-nodes, in this paper, we evaluate by dynamic programming using numerical analysis to propose buffer-size optimal allocation algorithm.


The Efficiency of the Clustering Techniques in the Energy Losses Evaluation from Distribution Networks
Gheorghe Grigoras, Gheorghe Cartina, Marcel Istrate, Florina Rotaru

Abstract: The reduction of energy losses in distribution networks represents an important issue during planning and operation with important technical and economical implications. Level of energy losses depends upon a number of parameters and variables, such as the nominal circuit voltage, the installed transformer capacity, the number of transformation points, the load level, etc. In this paper is to describe an approach to determine the levels of the energy losses using the K-Means Clustering Method. The methodology is applied to a distribution network with the nominal voltage by 6 kV, but it can also be applied to distribution networks operating at other voltage levels.


Numerical Study of the Fluid Flow and Interface Deflection for Crystals Grown by Bridgman Technique
Simina Maris, Liliana Braescu

Abstract: A stationary, free boundary model describing the process of crystal growth in a vertical Bridgman installation is considered. For this model, the influence of the temperature profile in the furnace and gravitational field on the fluid flow and interface deflection, are investigated numerically by finite element method through FreeFem++ software.


Multidimensional Modeling of Cohesion Regions
Pavel Petr, Jiri Krupka, Romana Provaznikova

Abstract: The submitted paper focuses on the utilization of the concept of aggregated indicators for expressing the competitiveness of regions. The statistical methods, factor and cluster analysis, have been used for the modeling. In this modeling process real data from the Eurostat statistics database are used. These data contain diverse information about the second level of nomenclature of territorial units for statistics and comparable regions. The result of the factor analysis is the development of a set of new composite indicators that markedly contribute to the increase of competitiveness of a given region. The results of the cluster analysis algorithms (K-means and Self-Organizing maps) are clusters of the selected regions constructed by clustering composite indicators values.


The Wind Energy System Performance Overview: Capacity Factor vs. Technical Efficiency
Ciprian Nemes, Florin Munteanu

Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to develop a probabilistic model for capacity factor and technical efficiency estimation for a wind turbine located in a specific area, model based on the output power distribution of wind turbine. This model was applied for a wind turbine located to a region in the North-East of Romania, the model results being validated by results from Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the effects of wind turbine generator parameters, for a given wind profile, on the capacity factor and technical efficiency values.


Estimation of the Mathematical Model of the Reheating Furnace Walking Hearth Type in Heating Curve Up Process
Jiraphon Srisertpol, Suradet Tantrairatn, Prarinya Tragrunwong, Vorapot Khomphis

Abstract: The slab reheating process for iron rolling to the small diameter wire in Ratchasima Steel Products Co.,Ltd. factory (Nakron Ratchasima, Thailand) use the reheating furnace walking hearth type which control the temperature of the process about 1150-1200 Celsius (up to each zone) and consume time about 2 hours. The air fuel ratio control of this furnace is feedback control which use PID controller. The problems in the present are reducing production cost and increasing performance in energy consumption which most cost of the factory from in the slab reheating process. So the factory has the idea to change the energy source to the cheaper source such as nature gas, bio-gas etc and improve the performance of the temperature control of the reheating furnace walking hearth type in heating curve up process. Consequently the controller isn’t suitable for the slab reheating process in the present then can’t control the desired temperature and lose the energy. From the mentioned reason, we have to analysis and study to estimate the mathematical model of reheating furnace for design the controller. This paper present the mathematical model of reheating furnace walking hearth type using system identification method to estimate the parameter of the mathematical model with the temperature response of slab reheating process.


Novel Mixture Model for Mixed Pixel Classification of Multispectral Image Data
Mitsuhiro Tomosada, Hiroe Tsubaki

Abstract: We propose a novel mixture model for use in the mixed pixel classification (MPC) of a multispectral image such as remotely sensed multispectral image data and Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI). Although the MPC method utilizes a generic statistical model of mixture such as a linear mixture model or a finite mixture model, the proposed mixture model of a single pixel in this paper is established on the basis of the process of mixed pixel generation in a real multispectral image. The variance-covariance structure for a pixel vector is considerably different from the variance-covariance structure derived from existing mixture models. Furthermore, we present an MPC method using the generalized method of moments (GMM), which satisfies the proposed mixture model and estimates the mixing ratio for each component in a single pixel, and the expected value and variance-covariance matrix of the pixel vector for each component. First, the MPC method is applied to a simulated image data. Estimated parameters close to actual values are obtained, and the simulated image data is found to be in agreement with the constructed mixture model since the evaluation function is close to the actual value. The proposed mixture model and MPC method are applied to real multispectral image data acquired by Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) onboard Landsat-7satellite as one example of a multispectral image. As a result, it was found that pixels in an ETM+ image, for which the mixing ratio of one component is high, are consistent with pixels in an image which are assumed to have the same component by visual inspection.


Operational Risk – An Assessment at International Level
G.-V. Anghelache, B.-O. Cozmanca, C.-A. Handoreanu, C. Obreja, A.-C. Olteanu, A.-N. Radu

Abstract: In recent years, thanks to the development of new products and activities have been a number of changes occurring in the banking and financial markets worldwide, and default risk became much larger and more complex. This was given to the increased importance of identifying and measuring risk and capital adequacy of financial institutions. Cases resounding operational losses have led to increased attention on operational risk management. The purpose of this article is to create an operational risk analysis worldwide. Such work is structured in three parts: first presenting theoretical information related to operational risk, the second will contain analysis on this type of risk, and the final will serve to identify results.


The Enzyme Separation Plant Modelling, Design and Optimization
J. Lukic, M. Vico-Stevanovic,L. Filipovic-Petrovic, R. Beric

Abstract: A new approach for plant model building was illustrated. The use of flowsheeting in design, however, differs from its use in operations and this should be reflected in the development of the simulation procedure. In design, attention focuses on the main elements of material and heat balances, on equipment investment, and more generally, on process economics. The systems approach permits the evaluation of feasibility and global plant integration, always for a predicted behavior of the operation systems. A plant for the β-galaktosidase separation from E. Coli was used. The global optimization of the plant design was provided.


An Application of Differential Geometric Techniques to a Problem in Optical Navigation
Sven Herzberg, Andrew Shaw, Karlheinz Spindler

Abstract: Differential geometric techniques in estimation theory are applied to an image processing problem arising in optical spacecraft navigation. Data from local images of high resolution and from global images of low resolution are optimally merged and integrated into a homogeneous information context. Two variations of an algorithm used to match the various data are presented which both satisfactorily solve the problem at hand.


Asymmetry of Information during the Application of the Model for Valuation the Sum Insured in Case of Business Interruption in the Czech Republic
L. Preckova

Abstract: The article titled as Asymmetry of information in the model for valuation the sum insured in case of business interruption in the Czech Republic is focused on identification closed information, which affects correct application of estimative model. Model result is an insured value entering a policy as the sum insured. The information creates asymmetry on the market, which can dramatically affect the amount of sum insured and the amount of the premium and the benefit. The identification these asymmetry of information is contained in the paper too. The aim of the article is the characteristics of asymmetric information and the determination of influence on the amount of the sum insured when arranging the policy for business interruption. The theoretical part comprises of critical analysis of literature and law valid in the Czech Republic. The practical part includes analysis and comparison of information intended for application of a given model which is applied consequently and the insured value is set accordingly. The influence of each variable of the calculation ion the insured value is calculated and compared.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 2, Volume 5, 2011)


Novel Dynamic Model of Self-Excited Induction Generator with Iron Losses
Mateo Basic, Dinko Vukadinovic, Dusko Lukac

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic model of a self-excited induction generator (SEIG), in which the iron losses are included and represented as a variable parameter, dependent on both air-gap flux and stator frequency. The air-gap flux influence is expressed by means of the corresponding iron loss current. In addition, the iron losses are modeled by means of a variable equivalent iron loss resistance, connected in parallel with the magnetizing reactance. To determine the iron loss resistance as well as the magnetizing inductance of the actual induction machine, we performed a series of no-load tests over a wide range of frequencies, using sinusoidal supply. In order to provide this kind of supply for the induction machine, we used a synchronous generator driven by a DC motor. In addition, we built the proposed dynamic model of a SEIG in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. This is, to the best knowledge of the authors, the first SEIG model with variable iron losses that was entirely built in Simulink. In order to analyze the performance of the proposed model, we carried out a number of simulations and experiments. It is shown that the proposed model better approximates the actual induction machine in comparison with the conventional model, in which the iron losses are neglected.


Solving Circuits by Multiple Transformation Graphs
Bohumil Brtnik

Abstract: This paper deals with solving electronics circuits by method of the transformation graphs only. As described, the Mason/s formula for calculation of the result can be left out in selected cases, and the theory of the transformation graphs is quite sufficient for the whole full graph solving selected simply circuits with the switched capacitors, too.


Practical Aspects Regarding Spare Parts Reliability Evaluation within an Integrated Management System
Marin Silviu Nan, Constantin Nicolescu, Dumitru Jula, Cornelia Bolovan, Gabriel Valentin Voicu, Grigorie Petre

Abstract: Product quality means its degree or level of correspondence to the consumption needs, therefore reliability means, the use of products for their design parameters, their safe and continuous exploitation in well determined conditions during a given period of time. Due to the fact that a series of parts and subsets have a large proportion in the amount of expenses of a company, their operation monitoring is imposed in order to control their influence on the operational costs and therefore taking a series of decisions in order to increase their reliability. Monitoring their operational behavior has to be made during the entire life span of these spare parts, starting with their entering the company until taking them out of operation, the scope being that of determining their operational reliability. Therefore, in an Integrated Management System, it is imposed to implement not only the procedure of following the operation of spare parts during the defects notification period, procedure which only handles the means of solving the defects which may appear by the suppliers, but also a procedure for the evaluation of the reliability of parts supplied.


Mathematical Model of the Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Infections of Swine Flu
P. Pongsumpun, I. M. Tang

Abstract: Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza. This disease is transmitted between the persons through coughing or sneezing with the virus. Persons may also become infected by touching something, contaminated with flu virus and then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. The most common clinical findings are fever, cough, sore throat, malaise, headache, vomiting and diarrhea have also been common, both of which are unusual features of seasonal influenza. In this paper, the transmission of Swine flu is studied through standard dynamical modeling method. The symptomatic and asymptomatic patients are considered with the different transmission rates. The analytical solutions of the model are obtained. The numerical simulations are shown to support the theoretical predictions. The basic reproductive number is produced for introducing the alternative way to decrease the disease outbreak.


The Impact Assessment of Social Benefits on Relative Poverty Reduction in Romania
Cristina Stroe, Eva Militaru, Silvia Cojanu, Andreea Cambir, Cornelia Barti

Abstract: This paper is a diagnosis of relative poverty impact of social benefits, by analyzing the characteristics of relative poverty in 2008, the profile of persons / households that are below the relative poverty threshold, even in the presence of some social programs, some of them directly designed and focused on the extreme poverty reduction. By our methodology, for highlighting the impact of social benefits groups on relative poverty, established at a threshold of 60% of median income per adult equivalent, we compare the influences of social programs, when these groups of social benefits are and are not included in total income. The simulation reports are obtained by processing the Romanian Household Budget Survey data, of the National Institute of Statistics, Romania.


Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Making Method Applied to Selection of the Best Touristic Destinations
Olimpia I. Ban

Abstract: We adapt a recent method in fuzzy multicriteria decision making to find the best tourist destinations from the point of view of the possible future customers. We obtain a hierarchy of the destinations, so that the travel agency has the possibility to virtually contract the most desired destinations. The theoretical development is completed by a real numerical example. The list of attributes considered the most important are obtained using a focus group and the levels of importance of different attributes after applying a questionnaire in a sample of 400 individuals from the target group.


The Romanian Labour Supply and Demand: Analysis on Sex and Age Sub-Groups
L. Aparaschivei, M. E. Andreica, A. Cristescu, N. Cataniciu

Abstract: This study models the labour demand and supply in Romania, during the period 2000-2009. We considered 6 age and sex sub-groups for the employment and labour force and constructed 6 system equation models in order to quantify the impact of minimum wage. We have also proposed two scenarios for the evolution of the minimum wage and forecast the evolution of the 15 - 19 and 20 – 24 years sub-groups employment and labour force for both females and males.


Influence of Memory Time on the Resonant Behavior of an Oscillatory System Described by a Generalized Langevin Equation
K. Laas, R. Mankin, E. Reiter

Abstract: Motivated by subdiffusive motion of biomolecules observed in living cells, we study the output response of a system with memory described by a generalized Langevin equation under the impact of an external periodic force. The influence of fluctuations of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the system is modeled by a multiplicative dichotomous noise and by an internal Mittag-Leffler noise. The long-time behavior of the output response is obtained and the presence of stochastic resonance effects are analyzed. In the short memory time limit of Mittag-Leffler noise the dynamics of the system corresponds to a fractional oscillator driven by an internal noise with a power-law autocorrelation function. However, at intermediate and long memory times the dynamics has qualitative difference. Particularly, it is established that the critical memory exponent which marks a dynamical transition in the behavior of the system considered depends strongly on the ratio of the period of the external deterministic force to the memory time. The phenomena of the resonance versus the memory time as well as friction-induced transitions between different stochastic resonance regimes are also discussed.


Some Issues of Bankruptcy Procession: Case of the Czech Republic
Marie Pasekova, Dagmar Barinova, Monika Randakova, Jiri Strouhal

Abstract: Corporate and personal entities, businesses or not, can find themselves in a situation where they are not able to fulfill their obligations. This condition is and insolvency, bankruptcy and the solution is determined by law. This paper is explaining the principles and forms of bankruptcy proceedings by liquidation, restructuring, discharge from debts and special forms. Briefly it deals with bankruptcy register and questions regarding bankruptcy proceedings after 1st January 2008.


Characteristics of Dynamic Companies from Romania
Nicloae Bibu, Diana Sala, Mariana Prediscan, Marian Nastase

Abstract: The paper analyzes an ongoing research process in growth-oriented SMEs from Romania, especially western region. Our survey is based on administered questionnaires and field research about participating companies. Based on the analysis of 50 completed questionnaires we are presenting the conclusions related to the following: SMEs resources, entrepreneurs as a person, their skills, and entrepreneurial process. Growth-oriented SMEs are founded mostly by entrepreneurs with higher education, especially in their specialization field. Most of them had previous entrepreneurial experience, are very well trained in management and entrepreneurship. Also, they have good managerial skills and a good management team. These entrepreneurs are very market oriented, responsive to clients needs, used an organic growth and their companies are competitiveness.


GARCH Type Portfolio Selection Models with the Markovian Approach
Gaetano Iaquinta, Sergio Ortobelli Lozza, Enrico Angelelli

Abstract: This paper describes different GARCH type portfolio models using a bivariate Markov process. In particular we approximate the GARCH process with a Markov chain in order to value the price/return distribution at the investor’s temporal horizon. Then we discuss the computational complexity of the optimization problem and we implement an heuristic algorithm for the global optimum. Finally we propose an ex-post comparison among portfolio selection strategies based on reward/risk performance ratios.


Using Econometric Tools for Accounting Harmonization Measurement
Razvan V. Mustata, Carmen G. Bonaci, Dumitru Matis, Jiri Strouhal

Abstract: Paper focuses on emphasizing the manner in which econometric instruments can serve the development of accounting research. While empirical studies are mainly associated with mainstream research, we have chosen to introduce our discussion on the process of globalization and its interrelation with accounting by making reference to critical accounting literature. This approach is also helpful in setting the stage on the development of accounting research. Nevertheless, the positive potentiality of globalization is further exploited within the paper. Introductory thoughts are set on offering an overview on current realities and underline the effects of such a complex process, as globalization. It is therefore shown how the ability to measure accounting harmonization can be helpful from the perspective of a globalized world. The main part of the paper reviews empirical studies in accounting literature in order to document the role econometric tools play in this regard. Summing up, paper starts by following how globalization and accounting interrelate and then document how accounting research, more precisely studies measuring accounting harmonization, and econometric instruments also interrelate in harmony, adding value to scientific knowledge.


A SVAR Approach of the Relationship between Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate: The Case of United States
Adriana AnaMaria Alexandru, Ion Dobre, Catalin Corneliu Ghinararu

Abstract: The paper analyses the relationship between shadow economy and unemployment rate using a Structural VAR approach for quarterly data during the period 1980-2009. The size of the shadow economy as % of official GDP is estimated using a MIMIC model with four causal variables(taxes on corporate income, contributions for government social insurance, unemployment rate and self-employment) and two indicators (index of real GDP and civilian labour force participation rate). Their dimension is decreasing over the last two periods. The relationship between the two variables is further tested by imposing a long-run restriction in the Structural VAR model to analyze the impact of the shadow economy to a temporary shock in unemployment. The impulse response function generated by the Structural VAR confirms that in the short-run, a rise in the unemployment rate in formal sector will lead to an increase in the number of people who work in the shadow economy. We extend the classical Okun law, in order to estimate the relationship between growth rate of official economy, unemployment rate and the size of the shadow economy. The results reveal a significant direct relationship between shadow economy and the unemployment rate and an indirect relation between shadow economy and growth of official sector.


Labor Market Participation, Social Benefits and Wages in Romania
E. Militaru, C. Stroe, S. Cojanu

Abstract: A large share of the Romanian population relies on social benefits and labor market participation is decreasing. The present paper aims, firstly, at investigating the determinants of labor market participation in Romania with a special emphasize on the relationship between social benefits and labor market participation. We find out that more dependent an individual is to social benefits, less likely is for him to participate on the labor market. Secondly, using the results of this estimation we shall construct a wage equation by controlling for selection bias in participation using the Heckman two-step procedure. The independent variables used in the wage equation account for human capital endowment (education, work experience), socio-demographic characteristics (gender, marital status) and geographical characteristics (region). The wage equation shall be further used in order to build a counterfactual for the wage of non-participants to the labor market if they had participated. We find out that observed characteristics such as socio-demographic and geographic characteristics as well as the endowment with human capital have statistically significant effects on wage levels, and unobserved characteristics which make labor market participation less likely tend to be associated with lower wages. We shall discuss whether the income gain measured as the difference between the simulated wage (in work income) and the unemployment benefit received (out of work income) could be an incentive for labor market participation and work does pay. We build our analysis on 2007 EU-SILC micro data for Romania.


Discrete-Time Deterministic and Stochastic Triopoly Game with Heterogeneous Players and Delay
Mihaela Neamtu, Nicoleta Sirghi, Carmen Babaita, Renata Antonie-Nitu

Abstract: In this paper the discrete-time triopoly game with heterogeneous players has been studied. We take into consideration the deterministic and stochastic cases. A study for the local stability of the fixed points is carried out. The bifurcation flip and its normal form are analyzed. Also, the case when the system contains delay is discussed. Numerical simulations are performed for the above models. Finally, some conclusions and future prospects are provided.


The Analysis of the Inflation's Influence over the Profit Corresponding to Turnover and Profitability Ratios
Caruntu Constantin, Lapadusi Mihaela Loredana

Abstract: The priority given to prices stability should be a fundamental objective of the monetary policy towards promoting a sustainable economic growth, to the extent in which it does not damage the fulfilment of its fundamental objective. The financial structure reflects the financing method through own resources or borrowed. The adoption of a certain financial structure represents an important aspect of financial policy of the company. The decision of the financial structure depends on the company, of its economic growth objectives, on the level of the planned profitability and on the risks is prepared to assume and also on the shareholders, banks, state, as the economic conjuncture. The study of the profitability evolution can be done in absolute changes through profit and in relative measures through profitability ratios. The classic patterns of analyzing dynamic rates of return (between accounting periods) met in the specialized literature are built by leaving aside the inflation, and results cannot be compared. The information of the profit and loss account is reported at the date when sales and expenses are made. For a better understanding, We will present IAS 29 “Current cost financial statements”, par. 30 “Global income statement” according to which: the statement of the global income to the current cost, before retreatment, generally reports current costs at the date the transactions or events generating them occur. The cost of sales and depreciation are recorded at current cost at the time of consumption; sales and expenses are recorded at current costs at the time of consumption; sales and expenses are recorded at money value at that time. This is why all values should be retreated in the unit of measurement existing at the end of the reporting period, using a general price index. We will present next the methods to analyze sales related profit and the rates of return under conditions of inflation, using present values as compared to rated values.


Survival Rates in Unemployment
Vasilica Ciuca, Monica Matei

Abstract: In this paper we use survival analysis tools for the examination of some aspects of the labor market in 16 counties of Romania. Our analysis is developed on a database which includes individual information about the subjects registered at the National Agency for Employment of Romania during three years, starting with 2007. We analyzed the unemployment duration and we used the Kaplan Meier estimator of the survival functions in unemployment in order to estimate the probabilities of leaving unemployment.The results of our estimation show that the survival rates in unemployment are influenced by age, education, gender and also that each county has a different survival function.


A MILP for Installation Scheduling of Offshore Wind Farms
Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Jens Heger, Michael Lutjen, Anne Schweizer

Abstract: Construction and utilization of offshore wind farms is going to increase within the next years. So far the first German offshore wind farm was constructed and put into operation by “Alpha Ventus”. Experiences illustrate that bad weather conditions are the main cause for delays in transport, handling and installation of offshore wind farms. This can lead to extensive project delays up to several months. The main objective of current logistical research activities is the robust design of planning and control methods for offshore installations. In this study, the basic conditions and existing disturbances of supply chains for offshore installations are analyzed. Based on these results, a planning and control concept will be introduced. Additionally, a mathematical model using mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is developed. It calculates the optimal installation schedule for offshore wind farms by observing different weather conditions. The model can be used to reduce vessel operation times in dependence on seasonal or up-to-date weather forecasts.


The Value of Mitotic Counting in Prostate Carcinomas
Daniela Diaconescu, Sorin Diaconescu, Antonella Chesca, Sebastian Toma

Abstract: Mitosis counting remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in tumour pathology. The aim of this study was to assess the proliferative activity of primary prostate cancer and lymph node metastases using the volume-corrected mitotic index (M/V). Mitotic figures were quantitated as number of mitotic figures/mm2 of neoplastic epithelium in a series of 40 prostatic adenocarcinomas, and the results were related to clinical and histological features of the primary tumours. High-grade tumours showed higher mitosis counts than intermediate-grade tumours, and metastasis was related to mitotic indeces as well. The proliferative activity was significantly higher in lymph node me¬tastasis than in primary tumours. The mitotic index did not correlate significantly with any clinical or histo¬logical feature of the primary tumours. However, the results show that mitotic index (M/V) can be considered an useful, quick, and efficient factor in evaluation of ma¬lignant tumor prolife rative activity, and could be an useful prognostic parameter in prostatic adenocarcinomas.


Solution of Iterative Ordinary Differential Equation by Numerical Integration Method
Maitree Podisuk

Abstract: In [1], A. Pelczar introduced and proved the existence and uniqueness of the second order iterative ordinary differential equations. The proof of the existence and uniqueness theorem of the general equation of iterative ordinary differential equation was given by M. Podisuk in [2]. In [3], M. Podisuk introduced and proved the existence and uniqueness of the simple iterative ordinary differential equations. In [4], M. Podisuk and W. Sanprasert introduced the integration method for finding the numerical solution of the initial value problem of ordinary differential equation with the help of Taylor series expansion. This integration method gives the way of solving for the numerical solution of the iterative ordinary differential equation. However the method of finding the analytical solution of the iterative ordinary differential equation is not known.


A Diffusion Model for Coefficient Identification during Growth of Nitrides
J. Bernal, A. Medina, L. Bejar, S. Rangel, A. Juanico

Abstract: Nitrogen diffusion coefficients during the growth of nitrided concomitant layers produced by microwave post-discharge nitriding were estimated through an inverse problem model. Diffusion coefficients in each phase are estimated by setting the inverse problem associated with growth of compacts nitrided layer ?’-Fe4N1, austenite layer ?, and a nitrogen diffusion zone in ferrite. The evolution of nitrogen concentration profile from supersaturated ferrite to the formation of compact nitride layers is described. Nitrogen concentrations in each phase and diffusion zone are not considered to be bounded by their solubility limits. Evolution for large periods (quasi-steady periods), coincides with layer growth evolution considered in mass balance models.


Estimation of Eye Retina Exposition During the Laser Attack
Frantisek Racek, Teodor Balaz, Jan Komenda

Abstract: The direct laser attack of the eye can cause a significantly serious after-effect, which can inflict strong decrease of ability of the operator to control the mean of transport. The physiological reaction of human organism is to turn round the head or quicker reaction like eye closing or eyewink. To determine the quantity of light energy that passes through the eye, illuminates the eye retina and causes the physiological reaction has to be taken into account. Therefore the paper deals with measurement of eye reaction on laser attack and model of it for eye retina illumination computation.


Firing Stability of Mounted Small Arms
Jiri Balla, Marek Havlicek, Ludek Jedlicka, Zbynek Krist, Frantisek Racek

Abstract: The article1 focuses on the motions of the automatic weapons on the tripod during a burst fire. The presented dynamic model has got eight degrees of freedom. The calculated results were verified on the real weapon. The excitation force as the input data was obtained analysing of measured data from the functional diagram in course of the functional cycle. The main components of the excitation force are discussed for their using in calculations. The experimental determination of the motions of the weapon has been obtained using of two high-speed cameras and laser displacement gauges. The procedure can be used in the process of the evaluation or assessment of the weapon system during procurement process, during military testing, etc.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 3, Volume 5, 2011)


Dynamics of Mounted Automatic Cannon on Track Vehicle
Jiri Balla

Abstract: The article deals with the vibrations of the main parts of the weapon system where the automatic cannons are mounted. The dynamic model has 8 DOF with three parts: hull, turret and elevation parts. The presented procedure is able to evaluate the possible changes of the elevation angles like the aiming errors during the variation of the dynamic characteristics for example the masses, mass moment of inertia, stiffness, damping coefficients, weapon operation principle. The sensitive analysis was applied on the system. The excitation force obtained from measuring was used for tuning of the system and afterwards was replaced with the simple analytical formula.


Analysis of Pre-Emphasis Techniques for Channels with Higher-Order Transfer Function
B. Sevcik, L. Brancik, M. Kubicek

Abstract: A transmitter pre-emphasis techniques to overcome high-slope losses of printed circuit board (PCB) with higher-order transfer function used in high-speed serial link design is presented. The pre-emphasis technique based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) using timing resolution instead of amplitude resolution to adjust the filter transfer function is analyzed and applied to channel with high-order transfer function. Leading-edge digital silicon manufacturing processes are pushing the maximum swing below 1.0 V and just PWM scheme is a good alternative for these cases. In addition only one coefficient can be used to set equalizer transfer function in depending on channel properties. Standard approaches to transmitter pre-emphasis and novel PWM pre-emphasis are compared in advanced PCB backplane model.


Problems Linked to Cross-Border Mergers: Focused on the Company Located in the Czech Republic
R. Sklenar

Abstract: To allow free movement of capital among the Member States, European Committee published the 10th European Directive no. 2005/56/EC about cross-border mergers. However there are still some big differences, which can disallow preceding this type of mergers. This paper points out barriers, which causing disability of cross-border mergers between the Merger States and points to some significant problems that may be for the candidate of merger interesting and complicate the process from the Czech perspective. This paper also describes types of mergers, merger process and reasons for mergers. After short introduction it describes differences in implementation of 10th European Directive into national laws of Merger states. Paper is extended from mergers to foreign entities enterprise branches, permanent establishments and organizational units settled by the Czech company broad or foreign company in the Czech Republic. Huge part of this paper is pointed at problems linked to cross-border merger, exactly problems with valuation and revaluation differences, which occurs at the merger process. Paper also describes international regulation of mergers, accurately aimed to IFRS 3 – business combinations.


Cubic Spline and Characterization of Metronidazole to Determine the Changes in the Solid Solution
Gonzalez Flores Marcos, Cortez Jose Italo, Gonzalez Coronel M. Antonio, Moreno Rodriguez J. Albino, Romero Jovel Santa, Hernandez Apam M. Angel, Gomez Velasco Hillary S.

Abstract: Studies in pharmaceutical systems are used to improve the physicochemical properties of drugs, one of them are solid dispersions requiring a carrier to achieve that purpose. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) is used as a carrier, because it has a high hydrophilicity and is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an excipient and active. In this work the PEG6000 merges with metronidazole for the formation of three solid dispersions, the antiparasitic drug is insoluble in water, creating problems of bioavailability in the body. Solid solutions were prepared with a ratio of 1:0.25, 1:0.50, 1:0.75 metronidazole: PEG6000. The study of bioactivity of the solid solutions was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), showing that part of metronidazole is retained in the volume (structure) of PEG6000 and some joins the surface. The data analyzed were for the absorbance of each sample that were applied a cubic interpolation to determine differences between the dispersions.


Typology of Regional Innovation Systems in Europe – A Neural Network Approach
Veronika Hajkova, Petr Hajek

Abstract: The concept of regional innovation systems is discussed in this paper. They are understood as cooperation between companies and institutions in the development and dissemination of knowledge in innovation processes. Previous typologies of regional innovation systems are summarized in order to design a set of input variables characterizing regional innovation systems in Europe. These determinants include three broad categories: economy, R&D and education. Input data are analyzed by the model merging neural networks and cluster analysis algorithm with the aim of data dimensionality reduction and, moreover, the model makes it possible to visualize regional innovation systems in topological maps. The use of clustering quality index shows that there are nine categories (classes) of regional innovation systems in Europe. These categories have different employment structures.


Selection and Classification of Public Capital Projects using IF-Sets
Petr Hajek, Vladimir Olej

Abstract: The paper presents basic notions of intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IF-sets) introduced by K.T. Atanassov. Further, we define a set of criteria for the selection and classification of public capital projects. The selection and classification process is realized by two approaches. Sanchez‘s approach is based on the max-min-max composition of IF-relations, while Li’s approach consists in the optimization of IF-relations. The results show that IF-sets provide a good description of public capital projects by means of membership functions and non-membership functions since they enable processing of a great deal of uncertainty.


Government Indebtedness and Family Indebtedness as an Inseparable Twins in the Modern World
Lubos Smrcka

Abstract: This work seeks to explore the ties between certain aspects of government indebtedness in various countries (and the indebtedness of public budgets at large) and indebtedness of families in modern developed economies. Despite the differences between national economies that modern states shape to their liking and the situation of families in developed countries that are coerced to act within the limits outlined by the legal framework imposed by governments, a number of similar behavioural patterns may be identified between the two groups. A substantial amount of evidence exists that proves the thesis that a change in the behaviour of modern families stems out of not just the increased focus of banks on retail clients but also of the idea of indebtedness as an acceptable and natural model of behaviour, with the modern states leading by their example. The correlation analysis based debt ratios of selected countries and their families were made. A strong dependence was found between the evolution of government debt and their families in Hungary and the Czech Republic. No evidence of significant correlation between changes in the debt ratio of families and government debt was found in case of Euro area (16 countries).


Kinematic Analysis of Powered Lower Limb Orthoses for Gait Rehabilitation of Hemiplegic and Hemiparetic Patients
M. R. Safizadeh, M. Hussein, M. S. Yaacob, M. Z. Md Zain, M. R. Abdullah, M. S. Che Kob, K. Samat

Abstract: In this paper, the kinematic analysis of constructed assistive robotic leg for rehabilitation of patients who encounter the neurological injury is presented. In order to design an efficient new mechanism, studies were carried out to distinguish the human architecture and dynamics. In the study, the motion of a healthy physical subject in walking situation of 1 km/h speed was recorded. Thereafter, a novel robotic leg mechanism was developed to produce similar motion. The robotic leg is driven by a single actuator to drive both the hip and the knee joints mechanism. In order to verify the robot motion with respect to human motion, kinematic analysis of all robot’s joints and links are formulated and are simulated in MATLAB software. The results obtained from the kinematic analysis of the developed assistive robotic system show that its motion conforms to the motion and dynamics of a healthy human.


EBIT Criterion: Financial Analysis' Issues
Bohuslava Knapova, Tomas Krabec, Jaroslava Roubickova

Abstract: Paper delivers an elaboration of various approaches towards profit composition and its use and interpretation in financial analysis and business valuation. By focusing on the mutually incompatible needs of different stakeholders we try to prove that a comparison of performance indicators based on financial statements derived from the framework of US GAAP, IFRS or Czech national regulation is misleading. On an example of the category of profit called EBIT which is a widely used performance criteria in mainstream Anglo-Saxon text books on corporate finance, financial analysis or business valuation, we explain that whereas the „real EBIT” is based on the cost structure defined by function, the „Czech EBIT” derived from an income statement based on cost structure defined by nature are not compatible in terms of their interpretation. In the end we conclude the main issues users and authors of financial analysis have to face by trying to apply „Czech EBIT” in various mainstream models of financial analysis and business valuation.


Modeling of Flow of Medium with Homogeneous Microstructure
V. I. Prosvetov, P. P. Sumets, N. D. Verveyko

Abstract: The model of a medium, with a glance to its microstructure, is reviewed in this work. Accounting of the characteristic dimension of the medium in the main equations is fulfilled through specifying the strain velocity tensor. A model demonstrating liquid flow in a cylindrical pipe has been built. Dependencies describing distribution of the velocity in the pipe cross section have been presented. The rate of fluid flow, with a glance to the microstructure’s influence, has been calculated.


Auditing of SMEs: Issues Caused by International Harmonization of Financial Reporting (From Czech Perspective)
Libuse Mullerova, Marie Pasekova, Jiri Strouhal, Adela Deaconu, Bohuslava Knapova, Dana Dvorakova

Abstract: Small-and-Medium Sized Enterprises represent the most important group within national economies. Paper deals with the auditing issues in these companies from the Czech Republic firstly introducing the accounting and auditing legislature in the country. Starting with the general issues dealing with the requirements of SMEs’ owners, paper discusses the measurement issues from the perspective of owner and manager. The crucial part of this paper is focused on the inaccuracies found during the auditing process in these companies.


A Personalized Classification of Employment Offers using Data Mining Methods
Cristina Ioana Muntean, Darie Moldovan, Ovidiu Veres

Abstract: In this paper we describe a method designed for filtering the information available on job portals, according to users’ preferences. We started by collecting the information needed crawling the specialized web sites, in order to build the necessary dataset. Testing two classification algorithms (Naive Bayes and J48) we found that the second obtained higher performances, thus we concluded to be a good candidate for this type of classification and suggested possible applications for users of such web sites.


Genetic Algorithms Application to EVA Mode Choice Model Parameters Estimation
Irena Strnad, Marijan Zura

Abstract: This paper presents parameters estimation of EVA (EVA – German abbreviation for Erzeugung, Verteilung and Aufteilung meaning Production, Distribution, and Mode Choice) mode choice model of city of Ljubljana, Slovenia by using genetic algorithms software. First we present design of stated preference survey, then we briefly review EVA mode choice model, present different types of utility functions, Maximum likelihood method as the estimation method and application of genetic algorithms software. Probabilities of choosing each of four considered modes (private car, public transport, bike, walking) can be calculated by using estimated mode choice model parameters. A practical example of mode choice probabilities for an actual trip is shown at the end. Final log-likelihood enables comparison among different types of utility functions. Results show that absolute differences in final log-likelihood among most types of utility functions are not high in spite of differences in function shapes, which implies that different functions may best describe different variables. Log-likelihood function for most utility function types by using standard optimization tool only convergated to local maximum, what clearly states the need to use genetic algorithms software to find the best solution.


Thermal Crack Growth Modeling in Refractory Linings of Metallurgical Installations
Andrew V. Zabolotsky

Abstract: A cracks growth in metallurgical installations refractory linings under thermal shock was investigated with mathematical modeling methods. As an example a standard periclasse – chromite refractory lining of DH-degasser was taken. Two types of thermal shock were considered – during heating and cooling of the lining. Thermal stress while preheating process was also calculated. A dynamic heat field was an initial data for thermal stress calculating. A finite elements method was choused for all calculations. The size of lining damages was calculated with method of «heat displacement». The moments of crack appearance were determinate with 3-dimentional stress field modeling. The calculating results are in good correspondence with real damage sizes, measured after finish of installation usage.


Development of a Low Cost Vibration Sensor based on Flat Coil Element
Mitra Djamal, Ramli, Suparno Satira, Suprijadi

Abstract: A new type of vibration sensor based on flat coil element has been made. This paper describes the development of vibration sensor based on flat coil element that has low manufacturing cost and high sensitivity. In this research, the flat coil element is used to measure the position of a vibrating object as a function of time. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. A sensor model based on mathematical approach for determining frequency and amplitude of the sensor has been developed. The model shows a good result with relative error under 3%.


Time Evolution of the Edge Length Distribution of Networks Generated by Random Transports on a One-Dimensional Lattice
Nobutoshi Ikeda

Abstract: The restriction on the Euclidian edge length is an important consideration in the study of geographical network modeling. We herein investigate a network model developed in a onedimensional (1-D) lattice, in which the restriction on the Euclidian edge length is a result of dynamical processes on the network, the prosperity of random transports represented by a random walker, and the ageing of edges. Based on numerical calculations, we show that the time evolution of the distribution of the edge length is subject to the 1-D heat conduction equation with a radiation term. ccording to this equation, the typical equilibrium length of edges is determined by a balance between the diffusion rate and the decrease rate of the edge length density. We can relate these rates to a model parameter that adjusts the aging of edges by comparing the solution of the equation with numerical results. The calculation of the mean shortest path length and the sum of the edge length along the shortest paths shows that the model assumption provides a large traffic capacity on the network and an automatic mechanism causes a natural extinction of the unapproachable area for the walker with the consequent removal of circuitous routes with long edges. The calculation of the clustering coefficient also reveals that the local clustering strength on each vertex is stabilized for a certain value, regardless of the vertex degree. These global and local properties of resulting networks emerge spontaneously from random events in the network, the movement of the random walker, and the aging of edges.


Local Jacobian based Galerkin Order Reduction for the Approximation of Large-Scale Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
Georg Fuchs, Alois Steindl, Stefan Jakubek

Abstract: In automotive applications large-scale nonlinear dynamical models are utilized for hardware-in-the-loop simulations and model-based controller design. A projection-based order reduction of these models, on the one hand, yields substantial advantages in computational speed and on the other hand, simplifies the controller design procedure. In this work a mathematical-empirical approach is chosen for the order reduction of a real-time diesel engine model. It is based on recorded time-snapshots for typical system excitations. Flat and nonlinear Galerkin approximations are obtained by projection onto a lower-dimensional sub-space. In the nonlinear Galerkin approach a novel scheme for the reconstruction of the omitted states is introduced. It makes use of the local model parameters in the local Jacobian matrix, obtained from a linearization of the complete nonlinear model for various points of a local model network. The results from the application of the reduction methods to the engine model are presented and discussed for different reduced model orders and the benefits of the iteration scheme are demonstrated.


Introduction of a New Network Reliability Model to Evaluate the Performance of Sensor Networks
Louis A. Petingi

Abstract: In this paper we present a new network reliability measure that is particularly useful to evaluate performance objectives of wireless sensor networks. A communication network can be modeled as directed graph G = (V, E), composed of a set of nodes V, and a set of directed links E. Given that the links of the network underlying graph fail independently with known probabilities (nodes are perfectly reliable), and given a set K of terminal nodes (or participating nodes) and a distinguished terminal node s of K, the K-terminal-to-sink reliability measure, RK,s(G), is the probability of the event that the surviving links span a sub-digraph of G such that for each node u of K, there exists an operational directed path from u to s. In this paper we study a combinatorial property of graphs called the domination invariant which has been applied to efficiently compute the reliability of communication networks. Moreover we model wireless networks as random digraphs using current results in Information Theory and we discuss how the K-terminal-to-sink reliability could be applied to tackle several optimization as well as design problems in sensor networks.


A Residential Real-Estate Valuation Model with Reduced Attributes
Bahar Bulut, Novruz Allahverdi, Humar Kahramanli, Sukran Yalpir

Abstract: Prediction of real-estate prices by using its properties together is called as real-estate valuation. However, to predict approximate rate will be very complex problem. Since, every real-estate has many different features due to the location and the usage of it. Though, it is possible to find estimated values instead of exact values. In this paper, effects of attribute reducing on real-estate valuation were investigated. Real-estate data which were collected from Konya region were used to test the success of method. Attribute reducing has been applied to data. For this purpose correlation was used. Two data sets were created: First data set was created with all attributes and second data set was created with reduced attributes. 10 fold cross validation has been used for evaluation. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used for modeling. Statistical calculations showed that the prediction success of method which was created with reduced attributes is higher than the prediction success of method which was created with all attributes.


Analysis of a Dengue Disease Transmission Model with Clinical Diagnosis in Thailand
R. Kongnuy, E. Naowanich, P. Pongsumpun

Abstract: An S-I-R epidemiological model with clinical diagnosis of dengue transmission, Dengue Fever (DF), Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) dynamics in a population in Thailand is discussed. Our model consists of seven non-linear differential equations. The standard dynamical analysis is used for analyzing the behavior for the transmission of dengue disease. Local existence results are given for the resulting ordinary differential system. The numerical results are discussed in terms of threshold parameters and the numerical simulations are shown to confirm our results.


A Model that Presents the States of Consciousness of Self and Others
Snezana Cerepnalkovska Dukovska, Biljana Percinkova

Abstract: Model, that comprises of multi agents and their relations or information states, and represents the states of consciousness of Self and Others, is presented. This multi-agents model and the arrangements made by information states are presented as an opportunity to make a model in artificial intelligence conscious for Self and Others. The model consists of agents and their complex relations, contributing in definition of mater and inner life. It gives how the conscious for self and physical is defined. In the paper is enclosed the model’s basic description, attributes of the relations between agents, examples of states of consciousness for Self and 1-D bounded space. The time and space in unbounded continuum is presented as well as the most important structure, the biggest circle structure. Also, arrangements done by the relations of agents using the theory of groups and different representation of the arrangements with matrixes are given. Then, the qualification of the attributes of the relations is presented using the fuzzy granular membership functions, to attain representation of the category likeness or equivalence necessary in contribution of phenomena. As a conclusion are given some issues for future work.


Cognitive Tasks Behavior of Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots
Hachour Ouarda

Abstract: In this paper we propose a neural network based navigation for intelligent autonomous mobile robots. The proposed neural networks algorithm deals with unknown static obstacles. Neural Networks deal with cognitive tasks such as learning, adaptation generalization and they are well appropriate when knowledge based systems are involved. To solve navigation problems, neural networks prove interesting to deal with the behaviour of autonomous mobile robots near the human being in reasoning. This paper deals with an algorithm for two dimensional (2D) path planning to a target for mobile robot in unknown environment. A complete path planning algorithm should guarantee that the robot can reach the target if possible, or prove that the target can not be reached. Just as human being, a neural network relies on previously solved examples to build a system of “neurons” that makes new decisions, classification and forecasts. Networks of neurons can achieve complex classification based on the elementary capability of each neuron to distinguish classes its activation function. In designing a Neural Networks navigation approach, the ability of learning must provide robots with capacities to successfully navigate in the environments like our proposed maze environment. The simulation results display the ability of the neural networks based approach providing autonomous mobile robots with capability to intelligently navigate in several environments.


Guided Maximum Entropy Method Algorithm for the Network Topology and Routing
Milan Tuba

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm that applies a guided maximum entropy method to the network design problem. Network design problem is a well known NP-hard problem which almost always involves underdetermined systems, especially when routing policy has to be determined. The maximum entropy method is a relatively new technique for solving underdetermined systems. We adjusted the network design problem, primarily the routing feasibility, to the maximum entropy method requirements. Computationally feasible algorithm is developed which includes additional constraints that direct uniformity of the solution in the desirable direction. Proposed algorithm computes a reasonable solution that is robust with respect to often required dynamic changes of the cost function. This modified method exploits the property of the MEM that it can smoothly move from cases where constraints can be satisfied to cases where constraints become desirable goals that are satisfied as much as possible. A software system was developed which includes all the mentioned features.


Adaptive Crossed Reconstructed (ACR) K-mean Clustering Segmentation for Computer-aided Bone Age Assessment System
Hum Yan Chai, Lai Khin Wee, Tan Tian Swee, Sh-Hussain Salleh

Abstract: The development of computer-aided design (CAD) system for clinical usage has been given excessive attention in recent years. Nonetheless, many problems still remain unsolved in the CAD field especially the segmentation problem in digital image processing. In order to increase the accuracy and efficiency in Bone age assessment (BAA), CAD system has been developed to assist the doctor and radiologist. The crucial step in the system is the bone segmentation before proceeding to the subsequent analysis and comparison with atlas. Therefore, in this paper, a method proposed to solve the problem based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and k-means clustering, namely adaptive crossing reconstruction (ACR) k-mean clustering method. The method begins with bands separations into vertical and horizontal direction. Next, the pixels of each section are clustered and performed with GLCM texture analysis. At last, all the sections will be reconstructed based on the texture analysis. The resulting outcome shows that this method could segment the bone from the soft-tissue region and background effectively compared to global clustering method.


Automatic Implementation Method of the Decision Process based on the Real Time Information Collected from Market Research
Sterian Maria Gabriela

Abstract: The present paper presents the structure of an automatic decision-making system in the case of Poisson detection, based on the MAP (or PM) decision criteria, known from the information theory. The purpose of the system is to analyze the results of the market study, namely the exit from the measurement process and to decode the message transmitted, taking into account the presence of market noise which generates errors in the decoder’s decision. The discrete version of “the decoder” is very suitable for examining the method of functioning of this type of decoder. In the integrated version of the system, the adders are replaced with integration circuits.


Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Constrained Problems Optimization
Nadezda Stanarevic, Milan Tuba, Nebojsa Bacanin

Abstract: Original Karaboga’s artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm was applicable to unconstrained problems only and modifications for constrained problems were introduced later. In this article we propose an improved artificial bee colony algorithm for constrained problems. Since the ABC algorithm for constrained problems does not consider the initial population to be feasible we introduced a modification, besides penalty function and Deb’s rule, in a form of ―smart bee? (SB) which uses its historical memories for the location and quality of food sources. This modified SB-ABC algorithm was tested on standard benchmark functions for constrained optimization problems and proved to be better.


A Regression Model of Social Capital and Self-Evaluated Health
Hsieh-Hua Yang, Shu-Chen Kuo, Yi-Horng Lai, Hung-Jen Yang, Jui-Chen Yu

Abstract: The aim of this study was to map the social capital profile and examine the association between social capital and three dimensions of self-reported health in Taiwan. Data were taken from a nationwide survey conducted in 2010. The results confirmed that (1) there was no difference for social capital between males and females; (2) individual-level social capital was the consistent and significant predictor of physical, psychological and social health, while females’ physical health was not as good as males’. Theoretical and empirical implications and future research are discussed.


Identifying Factors of Energy Usage in Taiwan
Jui-Chen Yu, Lung-Hsing Kuo, Hsieh-Hua Yang, Hung-Jen Yang

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the energy use in Taiwan. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how energy use characteristics can help explain the energy. Using CR5.0 regression models, this paper explored the factors affecting energy demand conditional on energy forms, sectors and sources. Results suggest that explained models could be used as a well foundation for energy policy decision making.


The Perceptions of Technology for Household Energy - A Technological Method Approach
Jui-Chen Yu, Hung-Jen Yang, Hsieh-Hua Yang, Lung-Hsing Kuo, Hsueh-Chih Lin

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify technology perceptions for household energy based upon both a technology structure approach knowledge level approach. Energy research could put focus on either of source or consuming. Energy consumer is the one who really decide how to use the energy. It is important to understand user’s before trying to promote safety, energy conservation, and carbon reduction


The Business Cycle and Unemployment: Empirical Evidence from the Visegrad Group Countries
Michal Tvrdon

Abstract: The paper deals with a relationship between the economic cycle and unemployment in the Visegrad group countries. The paper examines the causes of the economic crisis and its consequences on the labor market. Quarterly Eurostat and OECD data were used for the analysis of labor market performance. We also used the Beveridge curve which implicitly depicts a negative relationship between the rate of unfilled job vacancies and the unemployment rate and so it can properly link related creation of new job vacancies and the unemployed. Another finding is that shifts of individual Beveridge curves correspond to shifts of the theoretical Beveridge curve. In the last part of the paper, the Johansen test and the Error Correction Model were applied on 2000-2010 data to examine cointegration between the number of the unemployed labor force and output. On the basis of the unit root test, we found that in all countries, both variables are stationary except for their first differences Cointegration was proved only in the case of Slovakia.


Corporate Governance Lesson Taught by the Financial Crisis: A Research Note
Jiri Strouhal, Carmen G. Bonaci, Eugenia A. Matis

Abstract: Corporate governance represents a highly debated topic, taking significant part of the ink during the last decade. Furthermore, it was the financial crisis of 2007-2009 that brought the subject even more into the spotlight. In the context of a worldwide recession caused by excessive credit expansion [21] central elements of corporate governance, such as executive remuneration; internal control; risk management; the board of directors; independent nonexecutive directors; and shareholders’ role are nowadays being reconsidered and closely analyzed. Our paper focuses on accounting, traders and remuneration issues. Regardless of the roots we nowadays find at the bottom of recent turbulent times, be them caused by greed, naivety and/or incorrect assessment of risk exposures, highly fragile global governance structures have been uncovered. Analyzing recent events makes us conclude upon the necessity of learning from the lessons being offered through recent turbulent times.


Neural Network based Classification of Car Seat Fabrics
R. Furferi, L. Governi, Y. Volpe

Abstract: Car seat fabrics are uniquely fashioned textiles. A number of them is branded by a sponged-like appearance, characterized by spots and slightly discoloured areas. Their surface anisotropy is considered to be a relevant aesthetic feature since it has a strong impact on customer perceived quality. A first-rate car seat fabric requires a ―small? quantity of spots and discoloured areas while fabrics characterized either by a large number or by a low number of spots, are considered to be of lower quality. Therefore, car seat fabric quality grading is a relevant issue to be dealt with downstream to the production line. Nowadays, sponged-like fabric grading is performed by human experts by means of manual inspection and classification; though this manual classification proves to be effective in fabric grading, the process is subjective and its results may vary depending on the operator skills. Accordingly, the definition of a method for the automatic and objective grading of sponged-like fabrics is necessary. The present work aims to provide a computer-based tool capable of classifying sponged-like fabrics, as closely as possible to classifications performed by skilled operators. Such a tool, composed by an appositely devised machine vision system, is capable of extracting a number of numerical parameters characterizing the fabric veins and discoloured areas. Such parameters are, then, used for training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with the aim of classifying the fabrics in terms of quality. Finally, a comparison between the ANN-based classification and the one provided by fabric inspectors is performed. The proposed method, tested on a validation set composed by 65 sponged-like fabrics, proves to be able to classify the fabrics into the correct quality class in 93.8% of the cases, with respect to the selection provided by human operators.


Identifying an Innovative Su-Field Modeling Design Processes
Chang-Tzuoh Wu

Abstract: TRIZ is the Russian acronymic synonym of (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving). It is a systematic method for providing valid suggestions to meet the requirements of inventive steps. Su-Field analytic method, deduced from TRIZ method, is one of the inventive problem solving tools that can be used to analyze and improve the efficacy of the technological system. By possessing a symbolic system and transformation rules, the Su-Field analysis model can assist designers to diagnose and solve most design problems. This study proposes an innovative design and problem-solving process, based on Su-Field modeling method integrated with extension of matter-element. This research tries to integrating “extension of matter-element“ with the Su-Field modeling procedure to improve the efficiency and extent of concept evolutions. We make use of extensibility of matter-element to exchange the descriptions of design problems and solutions into creative fields. The concrete result includes:
1. Evaluate the differences and benefits between Su-Field modeling procedure and matter-element modeling procedure.
2. Assess possibility and advantage to combine construction of symbolic system in Su-Field model and the transformation and extension of matter-elements.
3. Introducing concept extension of matter-element into symbolic developments to derive out more creative solutions.
4. An innovative design case, stapleless stapler, successfully demonstrates that the proposed design process is feasible and efficient.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 4, Volume 5, 2011)


Geodesic-based Skeleton Smoothing
Porawat Visutsak and Korakot Prachumrak

Abstract: Skeleton is at the main interest of 3D character animation. The most common techniques for skeleton computing are based on the Reeb graph and the shortest path finding. Using only the shortest path algorithms for extracting the critical points and constructing the Reeb graph over the surface of the model may generate unwanted skeleton joints. In this paper, we present a new approach to compute the skeleton of the 3D meshed model in a Riemannian space, based on Blum’s Medial Axis Transform and geodesic distance algorithm. We gain the benefit of geodesic distance functions and parameterization that allow for efficient handling of topological changes of dynamics curves and surfaces. Thus, our approach can provide the robustness against any changes of a rotation and/or a translation of the 3D mesh model. We are able to generate one-voxel thick, graph-like skeleton. Han and Poston’s Chord-to-point Distance Accumulation then be applied for adjusting the locations of consecutive points along the skeleton. The smoothed skeleton is split in order to create segments and joints corresponding to its shape. The new skeleton can be regenerated later on. Therefore, the new skeleton produced from our method can capture the essential shape characteristics in a compact form, while preserving the meaningful anatomical information of the 3D character models. The demonstration of the approach with several examples is also provided.


A Closed-form Expression for an Abrasive Waterjet Cutting Model for Ceramic Materials
Adel A. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract: The abrasive waterjet cutting technique is a controlled erosive process in which the impact of high velocity water and abrasives cause cutting of the target material. Advanced engineering ceramics materials have been used in many applications. Cutting of such materials by abrasive waterjet is becoming the recent cutting technique. In the present study, an elastic-plastic erosion model was adopted to develop an abrasive waterjet model for cutting brittlematerials. As a result, a closed-form cutting model based on fracture mechanics was derived and introduced. The suggested model predicts the maximum depth of cut of the target material as a function of the fracture toughness and hardness, as well as process parameters. The maximum depth of cut predicted by the suggested model was compared with published experimental results for AD99.5 ceramic material. The effect of process parameters on the maximum depth of cut for the AD99.5 ceramic material is also studied and compared with experimental work. The comparison reveals that there is a good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results, where the difference between the predicted and experimental values of the maximum depth of cut was found to take an average value of 3.9%. The predicted depth of cut of the present model for 7 different ceramic materials was also compared with that by a previous model, where the two models were found to predict the same maximum depth of cut within an average value of 4%.


A Novel and Precise Sixth-Order Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations
F. Soleymani

Abstract: This study presents a novel and robust three-step sixthorder iterative scheme for solving nonlinear equations. The contributed without memory method includes two evaluations of the function and two evaluations of the first derivative per iteration which implies 1.565 as its efficiency index. Its theoretical proof is furnished to show the error equation. The most important merits of the novel method are as follows. First in numerical problems, the developed scheme mostly performs better or equal in contrast with the optimal eighth-order methods, such as [7] when the initial guesses are not so close to the sought zeros. Second, its convergence radius is more than the convergence radii of the optimal eighth-order methods. Third, its (extended) computational (operational) index is better in comparison with optimal eighth-order methods. That is, besides the high accuracy and bigger convergence radius in numerical examples for not so close starting points; our method has less computational complexity as well.


Construction and Manipulation of Virtual Continuum Object Using Visco-Elasto-Plastic Tetrahedron Elements for Haptic System
Hidetoshi Wakamatsu, Satoru Honma

Abstract: Some basic training is required in advance from the viewpoint of human ethics and safety in medical practices. Thus, haptic and force display system is, in particular, available for such purpose despite requiring some simple mathematical models in order to realize various kinds of necessary environment. Our mathematical models of mass, viscosity, elasticity and plasticity are confirmed to represent the various deformations of materials including their destruction. We propose the method for description of arbitral-complicated forms of virtual organs and/or tools, introducing lattice planes for the construction and simple handling of virtual objects. Then, we mathematically describe the mutual interaction of virtual objects to clarify their dynamical features. In consequence, we describe the new methods of kinetic process of contact and collision with calculation of generating moments, which provide the basic application of our methods to medical techniques.


Financial Health and Risk in the Tourism Sector in Colombia
F. Juarez

Abstract: They were applied a multivariate model of health, and a risk factors analysis within an epidemiological model to the financial statements. The sample was composed of the companies in the tourism sector in Colombia, the financial variables of cash flow, profit and loss and equity ownership were used as health indicators. Scores on these indicators were normalized and used for grouping the companies into two groups (healthy and diseased) by a hierarchical cluster. They were also estimated cutoff points in other different variables on the financial statements related to the groups obtained, by optimal binning. Finally, the odds ratio and relative risk, to determine the association between the presence or absence of disease risk and financial health of companies, were obtained. This showed the existence of different variables in the financial statements, which can divide the companies into healthy and diseased, as the risk factors.


Different Approaches in Parallelization of the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Milos Subotic, Milan Tuba, Nadezda Stanarevic

Abstract: Parallel processing is gaining popularity due to the low cost of multi-core processors. In this paper we propose three different approaches in parallelization of standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. ABC algorithm was successfully used on many optimization problems, unconstrained and constrained. Our three approaches are independent parallel runs and two variations of multiple swarms parallelization. By using independent parallel runs method we succeeded in achieving faster execution of algorithm since multicore processors can be better utilized. By using multiple swarms technics with some modifications we also obtained better results than the original ABC algorithm. Different types of communications among swarms are proposed and examined. These methods of communication between swarms improved results and allowed adjustments of different ratios between exploration and exploitation. Set of eleven standard benchmark functions was used to test execution speed and quality of results improvements.


Stabilization of an Inverted Pendulum System via State-PI Feedback
Witchupong Wiboonjaroen, Sarawut Sujitjorn

Abstract: State feedback technique through a gain matrix has been a well-known method for pole assignment of a linear system. The technique could encounter a difficulty in eliminating the steady-state errors remained in some states. Introducing an integral element to work with the gain can effectively eliminate the errors. State-PI feedback is proposed by this article for pole placement of a delay-free linear time invariant system. The proposed method yields simple gain formulae. The article presents the derivation of the design formulae, the design steps and some simple numerical examples. The method is applied to stabilize an inherently unstable pneumatically actuated inverted pendulum. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for disturbance dampening and stabilizing the system. Comparison with the results obtained from applying Ackermann’s formula is also presented.


Solving the Vaguely Defined Assignment Problems
Miha Moskon

Abstract: Assignment problems are defined with two sets of inputs, i.e. set of resources and set of demands. Assignment of each resource to each demand has its own cost. Exactly one resource has to be assigned to each of the demands in such way, that maximal cost of the assignment is minimal when comparing to other assignments. Hungarian algorithm (also known as Kuhn-Munkres algorithm) is able to find an optimal solution of assignment problems in polynomial time, but is only able to solve assignment problems with precisely defined demands and resources. This presents a major problem in many real-life scenarios while the nature of these problems is such that inputs are commonly defined only vaguely (i.e. fuzzily). In order to solve them, their precise formalization is needed. Formalization of their properties is normally far from being a straightforward procedure and can present large costs in the meaning of time and money. Fuzzy logic on the other hand successfully copes with the processing of imprecise data. The article presents an extension of the Hungarian algorithm with the introduction of fuzzy logic methods – fuzzy Hungarian algorithm. Vaguely defined resources and demands can be easily described with fuzzy values which present an input to fuzzy Hungarian algorithm. The extended version of the algorithm is therefore able to cope with vaguely defined assignment problems, can be used more efficiently (i.e. with no further formalization of vaguely defined terms) and in a wider scope of assignment problems than the basic approach. Basic version of the Hungarian algorithm which was firstly presented by Harold Kuhn is presented in this article. Its extension with fuzzy logic methods is described and its usage on an example of vaguely defined assignment problem is demonstrated. Its benefits were also justified by the comparison of the results between the basic version of Hungarian algorithm and the fuzzy version of Hungarian algorithm on the same problem.


Solution of Eddy Current Testing Problems for Multilayer Tubes with Varying Properties
Valentina Koliskina, Inta Volodko

Abstract: Analytical solution for the change in impedance of a coil located inside or outside a multilayer conducting tube is obtained in the present paper. The electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of conducting cylindrical layers of the tube are assumed to be power functions of the radial coordinate. The change in impedance is expressed in terms of improper integral containing Bessel functions. Other analytical solutions are suggested in the paper. Three examples are discussed in detail: (a) a coil inside an infinite cylindrical layer, (b) a coil inside a two-layer tube, and (c) a coil outside a two-layer tube.


Utilization of Simple Real-time Operating system on 8-bit Microcontroller
J. Dolinay, V. Vasek, P. Dostalek

Abstract: The paper deals with small real-time operating system developed at our institute together with an application which uses this system and thus provides verification of this system in a portable data acquisition unit. The system, named RTMON is used mainly as a teaching aid for lessons of microcontroller programming. It makes it possible for students to write applications in C language with several concurrently running processes in a simple way. However, it can be used also in practical applications, which is demonstrated by the data acquisition unit described in this paper. The system is implemented for 8-bit microcontrollers with the HC(S)08 core made by Freescale and for Atmel AVR Mega8 microcontrollers.


Towards More Accurate Classification of Instances in Minor Classes
Hyontai Sug

Abstract: In the task of data mining using decision trees, the classification accuracy for minor classes is usually poorer than that of major classes, because decision trees are built to optimize accuracy throughout the available data set and the number of instances belonging to minor classes is relatively rare. So the instances in minor classes are treated less importantly in classification. This paper suggests a method based on progressive over-sampling with respect to minor classes to generate more accurate decision trees for the minor classes for the case that we need more accurate classification for the minor classes. Experiments were done with two representative decision tree algorithms, C4.5 and CART, and two data sets, „adult? and „internet ads?, and showed the validity of the method.


A Subclass of Quasi Self Adjoint Lubrication Equations: Conservations Laws
M. L. Gandarias, M. S. Bruzon

Abstract: In [20] a general theorem on conservation laws for arbitrary differential equation has been proved. This new theorem is based on the concept of adjoint equations for nonlinear equations. The notion of self-adjoint equations and quasi self adjoint has been also extended to non-linear equations. In this paper we consider a generalized fourth-order nonlinear partial differential equation which arises in modelling the dynamics of thin liquid lms. We use the free software MAXIMA program symmgrp2009.max derived by W. Heremann to calculate the determining equations for the classical symmetries of the modi ed lubrication equation. We determine the subclasses of this equations which are self-adjoint and quasi-self adjoint and we nd conservation laws for some of these partial differential equations without classical Lagrangians.


Economic Harm of Promoting Photovoltaics
Lubos Smrcka

Abstract: This paper looks at the developments in the area of generation of solar electricity in the Czech Republic and the increase in the volume of electricity produced in the last five years. Drawing on critical investigations and analyses of available data, it shows that the reality is fundamentally different from the goals set out by the government when advocating and promoting photovoltaics. It has transpired that photovoltaics does not deliver the economic and systemic benefits often attributed to it, which constitute the theoretical rationale for photovoltaic subsidies. On the contrary, there has been mounting evidence proving that promotion of photovoltaics and other ‘renewable’ sources inevitably entails significant economic difficulties, refuting popular claims that ‘renewable sources’ are a solution of economic and environmental challenges of the modern era. It turns out that massive support of sustainable energy sources introduces to the energy market rapidly increasing volumes of ‘expensive electricity’, which has to be sold at high rates, thus significantly damaging popular attitude towards ‘sustainable sources’ as they are rightfully considered a direct cause of rising electricity prices. In addition, higher energy prices have a negative impact on the competitiveness of manufacturing and other industries, including the services sector. Moreover, subsidies into ‘renewable sources’ undoubtedly contribute to a build-up of inflation pressures. Finally, the paper provides two correlation analyses, the first one assessing the development of the cost of sustainable energy subsidies and amount of renewable electricity generated between 2004 and 2001, and the second one evaluating the additional cost of sustainable energy sources and the cost of reducing emissions by one tonne of CO2 equivalent.


Collaborative Commerce Model Using Shared Product Taxonomy
Sang Hyun Choi, Kwan Hee Han, Gun Hoon Lim

Abstract: In this paper, we present a similar product matching algorithm for the collaborative global sales and delivery model that share the product taxonomy table and have exchangeable products information. The collaborative companies can integrate their business processes for sales and delivery using the shared product taxonomy table. To implement the business model, a product matching algorithm is suggested to compose the shared product taxonomy table. Using the algorithm we can get specification values of two companies’ products within a same category and find matching products with the similar utility values. The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to find the utility range of products in a product class of the companies and register them as exchangeable similar products. The collaborative global sales and delivery process is implemented by collectively classifying shared products of trading partners into similar product sub-classes based on their specification values. This model helps local companies to perform a collaborative strategy of performing vicarious delivery transaction for ordered goods at another area.


Drug Resistant and Wild-type Strains Interaction: Investigating Effects of Conversion Delays for Possible Control Strategies
Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Yongwimon Lenbury, Nardtida Tumrasvin

Abstract: Drug resistance arises when a drug such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic loses its effectiveness in curing a disease or health condition. The increasing threat of drug resistance is compromising medical care worldwide. To provide deeper understanding of possible measures to avoid the endemicity of drug resistant strains, many models have been proposed and analyzed on the dynamics of co-circulating wild-type and drug resistant viruses. We aim to add to these works by considering a model which incorporates the effects of delay in the evolution of resistant strain, as well as the role of the immune response and the target cells availability on the suppression of the peak load of resistant virus. The model is analyzed to discover possible impacts of delays on the system’s dynamic behaviour, persistence of the two strains, and the global stability. Oscillatory behaviour and the role of delays as possible control parameters are also investigated.


Modeling and Analysis of the Signal Transduction Process with Delays Involving G Protein Coupled Receptors as a Drug Target
Warunee Sarika, Yongwimon Lenbury, Wanwarat Anlamlert

Abstract: Mathematical modeling has played a significant role in modern biology and pharmacology and has become a powerful tool for examining GPCR pathways. Modeling can be used to validate hypothesized mechanisms, and identify relevant data. More importantly, it can suggest new drug targets, designs of experiments, and new explanations for observed phenomena. G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of cell membrane receptors which are subject to being targeted by an estimated 50% of current pharmaceuticals. Thus, better understanding of GPCRs and the signal transduction pathways they mediate will lead to new drug targets. Signal transduction is the process by which a cell recognizes and extracellular signal and converts that signal into an intracellular response. Subjected to transient stimuli, biological systems can exhibit early responses and/or late responses. In this study, we use mathematical modelling and analysis to study dynamical mechanisms of biological memory and delayed response to external stimuli. A delay model of signaling pathways involving G-proteins is analyzed to show that the model admits positive solutions and is uniformly persistent. Global stability of the system is shown to be attainable under certain conditions on the system’s parametric values. It is found that the delays I ? in response to inhibition and R ? in G protein mediated response to external stimuli of the receptors do not appear to impact on the persistent and stability characteristics of this system.


ANFIS and Neural Network for Modeling and Prediction of Ship Squat in Shallow Waters
K. Salmalian, M. Soleimani

Abstract: Squat is defined as the increase of draught of vessel due to its forward movement in shallow water. In this paper the squat parameter is established for Series-60 hull forms vessels in different depths via experimental methods and afterward diverse numerical methods are utilized to model squat. So, some facilities for the ship movement testing in shallow waters are organized. A series of models of the vessel is manufactured and numerous tests are performed attentively. In the present work, capability of the Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in modeling and predicting squat parameter for ships in shallow waters is demonstrated well. In addition, It is also extracted the mathematical relations between dimensionless squat ( ) and significant variables namely, block coefficient (CB), dimensionless distance between the seabed and ship floor ( ) and hydraulic Froude Number . Finally, the obtained results of ANFIS modeling are compared with those of a multiple linear regression and GMDH-type neural network. The consequences confirm that the ANFIS-based squat has higher predictability function than other employed methods.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 5, Volume 5, 2011)


Multimedia Services in Asterisk based on VoiceXML
M. Voznak, L. Kapicak, J. Zdralek, P. Nevlud, J. Plucar

Abstract: The paper deals with multimedia services that cooperate with the Asterisk, as the communication server. Asterisk supports many services and we focused on the services that are not supported by native Asterisk. These services include recording and playback of video files, SOAP protocol support, VoiceXML and user location information. We put together all these services and created a comprehensive system. Its primary roles are performed by Asterisk. Our system enables users to save recorded video files directly to the server. Subsequently, they can replay their own videos or someone else’ files. Video files or IP cameras are easily selected by dialling a specific number. A video transmission similar to a video call is then automatically established. In our solution, the management provided by a web services server that uses SOAP protocol. User applications can use this SOAP interface to connect to Asterisk. The project is aimed in particular at users equipped with mobile end-user devices; certain services have been explicitly designed for these users. Transmission in mobile networks is limited in terms of transmission rates and latency. We defined limits for transmitting video streams in mobile networks.


Dimensionality Reduction in a Database Related with Viticulture Crops using Wrapper Techniques
R. Fernandez-Martinez, J. Fernandez-Ceniceros, A. Sanz-Garcia, R. Lostado-Lorza, F.J. Martinez-De-Pison-Ascacibar

Abstract: Recent advance in environmental monitoring technologies allows that every day, major amount of agricultural productions have a support to be controlled better. Coverall, thanks to manufacturing advances of new sensors, which allow realizing acquisition of physical variables with almost no limitation. This entails the existence of great amount of stored data, distributed in different variables that make really complicated work with them. In these circumstances, the problem arises at the time of building models when it works with a large number of variables. In order to solve it, feature selection methods are used to reduce this large number, improving building, training and validation models processes based on machine learning techniques. The methods used due to their satisfactory results, in the practical case of several viticulture crops, have been wrappers methods.


Neural Network Regression Based on Falsity Input
Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Somkid Amornsamankul

Abstract: In general, only the truth input is used to train neural network. This paper applies both truth and falsity input, which is the complement of the truth input, to train neural network to solve regression problems. Four neural networks are created. The first two networks are trained using the truth input to predict the truth and falsity outputs based on the truth and falsity targets, respectively. The last two are trained using the falsity input to predict the truth and falsity outputs as well. In order to add more diversity, ensemble of neural networks is applied. Each component in the ensemble contains four types of neural networks created based on our proposed techniques. Aggregation techniques are proposed to provide more accuracy results. Three classical benchmark data sets from the UCI machine learning repository are used in our experiments. These data sets are housing, concrete compressive strength, and computer hardware. It is found that the four proposed networks improve the prediction performance when compared to backpropagation neural network and complementary neural networks.


Automatic Optimization Computational Method for Unconventional S.W.A.T.H. Ships Resistance
Stefano Brizzolara, Giuliano Vernengo

Abstract: The paper illustrates the main theoretical and computational aspects of an automatic computer based procedure for the parametric shape optimization of a particular unconventional hull typology: that for a catamaran S.W.A.T.H. ship. The goal of the integrated computational procedure is to find the best shape of the submerged hulls of a new U.S.V. (Unmanned Surface Vehicle) S.W.A.T.H. (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) vessel, in terms of minimum wave pattern resistance. After dealing with the theoretical aspects the papers presents the numerical aspects of the main software module of the automatic procedure, which integrates a parametric generation routine for innovative and unconventional S.W.A.T.H. (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) vessel geometry, a multi-objective, globally convergent and constrained, optimization algorithm and a Computational Fluid Dynamic (C.F.D.) solver. The integrated process is able to find the best shape of the submerged hull of the vessel, subject to the total displaced volume constraint. The hydrodynamic computation is carried out by means of a free surface potential flow method and it is addressed to find the value of wave resistance of each hull variant. Results of the application of the described computational procedure are presented for two optimization cases and the obtained best shapes are compared with a conventional one, featuring a typical torpedo-shaped body, proving the effectiveness of the method in reducing the resistance by a considerable extent, in the order of 40 percent.


Improving Scheduling Methodologies in a Hot-Dip Galvanizing Line Combining Non-Linear Projectors and Clustering
Andres Sanz Garcia, Francisco J. Martinez de Pison Ascacibar, Ruben Lostado Lorza, Roberto Fernandez Martinez, Julio Fernandez Ceniceros

Abstract: An improving methodology for the scheduling coils of a Hot Dip Galvanizing Line (HDGL) is presented. This method uses a non-linear projector which has been selected from various techniques to generate a coil map from the most significant parameters of the coils database: process variables, chemical composition of steel, measurements, etc. The created bidimensional map helps experts to decide which are the more fitting groups showing the distances between all coils. After that, the expert can select with an end-user application one group and identify other coils that can complicate the scheduling purposes. Finally, the methodology uses hierarchical clustering to obtain a list of effective sequences of coils. A decrease of the number of shutdowns and irregular heat treatments failures can be obtained by using this scheduling method.


Accounting Harmonization Measurement: Case of Emerging CEE Countries
Jiri Strouhal, Carmen Bonaci, Razvan Mustata, Lehte Alver, Jaan Alver, Arturs Praulins

Abstract: The adoption of IFRS is supported in many countries inside and outside the European Union because it may improve the quality and comparability of financial reporting. Although the national standards are based on IFRS, they are not identical. The purpose of the paper is to compare national accounting standards of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia and Romania with IFRS, look at approaches of these countries to aspects of financial reporting, and analyze differences and similarities using Jaccard’s association coefficients as a general tool.


Berio's Interpretation and Integration of Beckett's The Unnamable in Sinfonia
Felix Constantin Goldbach, Ilia Bilbie Georgescu

Abstract: This literature and music approximation is a contribution to Luciano Berio's Sinfonia for eight voices and orchestra understanding in relation with Samuel Beckett's novel The Unnamable. The content expounds how Berio use The Unnamable in his Sinfonia, how is this integrated and transformed in relation with other quotations from diffent arts like music: Beethoven, Berg, Mahler, Stravinsky, Debussy, Schonberg, Ravel, Berlioz, Hindemith, etc., Berio's article Meditation on a twelve-tone Horse, Paul Valery's poem Le cimetiere marin, Joyce's Ulysses novel, mythology from Claude Levi-Strauss Le cru et le cuit, various programs from Mahler's Second Symphony, Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique, Stravisnky's “Danse de la terre” from Sacre du Prientemps, Berg's Wozzeck, etc., vocal techniques to “musicalise” Beckett's text and slogans from the 1968 French and American riots. There is also presented the The Unnamable as a different typed of musicality, and also modified and exposed as form of music. There is also the illustation of Berio's quotations choices, demostrated throught the analysis. It is evidenced which are the reasons that Berio uses Beckett's text, what is his purpose quotating The Unnamable and how he integrates, harmonizes and interrelates it with the rest of the quotations applied in Sinfonia. Considering the dimension and the object of this paper, this labour would be only an approximation to the purpose mentiond above. The tasks are to compare The Unnamable and its meanings with Berio's music, quotations, programs and all other referencies that submerge in this versatil process of fusion.


GIS and Image Processing
Dana Klimesova, Eva Ocelikova

Abstract: The paper discusses the contribution of image processing techniques to improve cognitive processes, acquire vector data and support decision making. Also the problem of knowledge management is addressed and the different ways of knowledge integration is discussed. The paper is focused on the possibility to support our decisions using GIS and knowledge database in combination with raster oriented advanced methods to acquire, analyze and evaluate data. The satellite data can bring new aspects into landscape evaluation including temporal point of view and understanding various contexts.


The Romanian Employee Motivation: An Empirical Analysis of Herzberg Model
Costel Casuneanu

Abstract: The paper aims to apply Herzberg’s two-factor theory to employee motivation in the Romanian companies. The proposed theory model was tested using data from 402 employees. The main purpose of the study is to determine empirically the motivator-hygiene factors that have a significant impact on the overall level of Romanian employee job satisfaction, using the technique of principal components analysis, in order to build a multinomial logistic regression model for the prediction of the job satisfaction behavior based on the component scores. The results show that a motivation-hygiene theory with three principal components (achievement, company policy and administration and interpersonal relationships) best explains the process of motivating employees. The study also indicates that achievement and the company policy have a significant impact on the overall level of employee job satisfaction, suggesting that managers need to focus more on these factors to better motivate employees.


The Romanian Employee Motivation System: An Empirical Analysis
Costel Casuneanu

Abstract: The paper aims to analyze the main characteristics of employee motivation system in the Romanian companies using data collected from 402 individual employees. The results of the study reveal the fact that, in the present situation of economic crisis, a lot of Romanian people search for a job who offers them an income and job security. Therefore, the job stability occupies the first place in employee preferences followed by job type and wage offer. The vocational development and the job enrichment are also important for the Romanian employees. The results of the study do confirm the assumption that money is not everything in terms of work motivation, suggesting that managers need to focus more on non-financial incentives to better motivate employees. The Romanian employee looks both measly motivated and demotivated. The role of non-financial motivation is not yet wholly understood by the Romanian employers, stipulating a term of 5 years, in which the non-financial motivation will become a current practice in Romania.


Unemployment Rate and U. S. Shadow Economy: An Analysis based on Spline Models
Adriana AnaMaria Alexandru

Abstract: The paper aims to investigate the relationship between unemployment rate and shadow economy with USA data using spline models. The shadow economy is estimated as percentage of official GDP, using MIMIC model. The size of the shadow economy as % of official GDP is estimated using a MIMIC model with four causal variables (taxes on corporate income, contributions for government social insurance, unemployment rate and self-employment) and two indicators (index of real GDP and civilian labour force participation rate).The size of the shadow economy (SE) is estimated to be decreasing over the last two decades. In order to evaluate the nature of the relationship between the two variables, we have estimated cubic B-spline, natural cubic B-spline and smoothing models.Using an F-test, we compare the smoothing spline to a global linear fit and the results indicate a sufficiently linear relationship. Finally, we have compared the local polynomial models with the spline model; the smoothing spline model closely matches the linearity between the size of the shadow economy and the unemployment rate. We extend the classical Okun law, in order to estimate the relationship between growth rate of official economy, unemployment rate and the size of the shadow economy. The results reveal a significant direct relationship between shadow economy and the unemployment rate and an indirect relation between shadow economy and growth of official sector.


Modelling of Fuzzy-Based Controler for a Typical Gas Absorber System
Mohamed MAS Mahmoud

Abstract: This paper presents the research efforts that has been carried out on control of gas absorbers/gas reactors. Also new approach to fuzzy control design for a gas absorber system has been introduced. The approach incorporates a linear state-estimation to generate the internal knowledge-base that stores input-output pairs. This collection of pairs is then utilized to build a feedback fuzzy controller. The closed-loop fuzzy control system is guaranteed to be asymptotically stable while manipulating its time response. Simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the gas absorber system performance.


Mathematical Models for Decision-Making about ISO 9001 and/or ISO 14001 under Risk and Fuzziness
Martin Flegl, Helena Brozova

Abstract: Quality decision-making is currently one of the most important managerial activities of each enterprise. Every day decisions differ only by their importance and complexity. Companies are facing strong competitive environment on their markets and they meet with problems based on uncertainty or fuzziness of the information during decision-making processes. If companies want to make their decision precise they must find the way how to work with this uncertainty. Rapidly growing and changing development generates significant pressure on the companies. This pressure is based on never ending competitiveness and challenges. Companies can gain stronger competitive position by implementation of the ISO norms 9001 and the ISO 14001. ISO certification in quality and environmental management has grown noticeably in several last years. ISO certification is becoming more and more obvious than just an exceptional. Number of certified organizations growth rapidly in last two decades. The evolution in the Czech Republic copied the rapid evolution and in the last years Czech Republic reached leading position in ISO implementations of quality and environment. The key element of ability how to make quality decision is to find the way how to work with uncertainty, how to express or use obtained knowledge and information. Crossing the border between certainty and uncertainty, this moves our decisions on higher level and gives us the key competitive advantage. In our contribution we will demonstrate the application of decision-making model based on fuzzy information. Fuzzy decision model (game against nature) will be used for the choice of the best decision for the following real problem: Management has to decide if implement ISO 9001 (Quality management system) and/or implement ISO 14001 (Environmental Management Systems). Finding out if customers are oriented towards the ISO 9001 or the ISO 14001 is based on the progress of number of ertified companies. Model contains fuzzy states of nature and payoff of possible alternatives.


Model and Computer Simulation of Partial Discharge Patterns in Natural Liquid Insulation for High Voltage Application
Suwarno, Heri Sutikno

Abstract: Electric power is widely used worldwide due to its superior characteristics. The superior characteristics such as easy for generating, transmitting and distributing as well as utilizing the electric power caused the demand of the electric power increased steadily. For transmitting a large amount of electric energy a power system is needed. The high efficiency of the system is obtained by applying high voltage system. In a high voltage system several key equipments such as transformers, insulators, generators play important roles. High voltage transformers is a key equipment and widely used in electric power systems. To withstand high electric field, insulation is most important part. In general a high voltage transformer has solid insulation in the form of paper and liquid insulation in the form of oil. Oil insulation is important component in the transformers. During operating condition, the oil serves as electrical insulation to separate between life parts and with ground and acts as coolant in transformers. For normal operation, the integrity of the oil insulation is important factor of the transformer. In particular condition an excessive electric field may occur and partial discharges may occur in the oil insulation which may degrade the performance of the insulation. The occurrence of the partial discharge (PD) is also an indication of insulation abnormality. There are 3 kinds of oil insulations. They are mineral, synthetic and natural oils. Mineral oils is widely used since long time ago. However, due to the availability of the oil and environmental effects of the mineral oil, the natural oil is being popular. The oil is organic bases and has a high bio-degradability. This paper reports the measurement, modeling and simulation of partial discharges in natural oil. The oil used was BIOTEMP. The partial discharges were generated using needle-plane electrode system under sinusoidal voltage. The needle plane electrode is able to simulate a very high electric field. Partial discharge measurement was conducted using phase-resolved measurement system which able to measure the PD magnitude (q), phase of PD occurrence (φ)as well as PD number (n). The task was done using a digital oscilloscope combined with a personal computer. The analysis of the PD data was conducted by utilizing φ-q-n and φ-n pattern. The experimental results showed that PD took place at around the peak of the applied voltage. Phase-resolved analysis indicated that PD magnitude as well as PD occurrence were strongly dependent on the instantaneous applied voltage. Based on the experimental results, a PD model in natural oil was proposed based on the Whitehead PD equivalent circuit. The model was used to simulate PD in the oil. The simulation was able to generate φ-q-n and φ-n patterns similar to those obtained from the measurement.


A Rule and Template Based Stemming Algorithm for Arabic Language
Tengku Mohd T. Sembok, Belal Mustafa Abu Ata and Zainab Abu Bakar

Abstract: Stemming is defined as the conflation of all variations of specific words to a single form called the root or stem. Stemming plays a vital role in natural language processing and understanding. As in other languages, there is a need for an effective stemming algorithm for Arabic words. Arabic is a language having a rich and complex morphological word structures and rules. An Arabic stemming algorithm based on morphological rules has been developed, and to enhance its effectiveness, a dictionary of root words is used to determine the right stems. The Arabic stemming algorithm developed by Al-Omari is studied and a new algorithm is proposed to enhance the performance. The improvements obtained relate to the order in which the dictionary is looked-up and the order in which the morphological rules are applied.


A Relativistic Theory of the Tensional Psychological State
Alin Gilbert Sumedrea

Abstract: Psychological functionality is governed by the satisfaction of a major desideratum: the perpetuation and/or the progress of the human species. The psychological dynamics, as tensional dynamics, must be reported to the above mentioned desideratum which determines essential behaviour. At the level of science the essential has repeatable valences. In psychology the repeatable ensures the physical and psychological existence of the individual, whereas the unrepeatable contributes to the progress of the person. The theory presented in the paper starts from the hypothesis that the dynamics of the psychological measures – which determines a psychological space topology – is influenced by the tensional consistency [12]. The purpose of this approach consists in the identifying of those stable structures – of the type of constants – which explain the mechanisms of psychological functionality. Emphasis is laid on the indentifying of the specific constants of the unconscious instance. The mathematical results prove a similar functionality of the conscious instance which suggests the existence of the identical processes aimed at the maintaining of the tensional equilibrium. The identified constants – the time necessary for the activation of a psychological pulsion, the psychological experience and the processing time of the stimulus – represent the psychological coordinates in which the actions of conscious and unconscious nature are realized.


Building Fuzzy-Logic Ontology for Political Decision-Makers
Sameera Al Shayji, Nahla El Zant El Kadhi

Abstract: Many applications have been developed in various government departments, aimed at providing and enhancing delivery of services to citizens, businesses, and organizations. However, little work has been done in building a knowledge base on ontologies that facilitate communication between stakeholders and that identify the processes and describe the data of these applications. This paper focuses on developing prototype architecture for intelligent decision support systems that can help top political decision-makers. The system is intended to be used to strengthen bilateral economic relationships between nations. Typically, decisions are influenced by certain factors and variables that are based on heterogeneous and vague information. A commons language is thus needed to describe such information, which requires human knowledge for interpretation. In this research, we propose to use an ontology to integrate vague information from the political and investment domains. The process will begin with the extraction of key concepts and relationships between sets of information, and proceed to integrate fuzzy logic with ontology. The ontology includes information about important concepts in each domain. We will present a case study that contains clear concepts for the political and investment domains, the Object Paradigm ontology (OP) for each concept will be presented in order to capture a high level of knowledge to facilitate the work of decision-makers in the decision-making process of the political field. To build our ontology, we will use the Protege-OWL editor. In this paper we will present the Ontology for the domain of bilateral economic relationships and demonstrate how using this Ontology we can obtain more suitable solution to solve the uncertainty and reasoning problems in this intelligent decision support system. The intended users are the top political decision-makers.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 6, Volume 5, 2011)


Offline Continuous Adaptation of Templates for Signature Identification
Monica Carfagni, Lapo Governi, Matteo Nunziati

Abstract: Automatic on-line signature identification is a procedure which allows a machine to identify a subject among a cohort of individuals by using only the subject's signature. The following paper deals with features and models required in order to allow a machine to learn and discriminate people on the basis of such a biometric trait. The proposed solution presents a neural network based framework for template adaptation which has demonstrated to improve the resilience of a system, when it has to face with forgeries, that is, fake signatures which are used in order to attack the system and grant unauthorized access to services. The proposed framework provides an improved security level of 35% with respect to non adapted systems.


Parametric and Unstructured Approach to Uncertainty Modelling and Robust Stability Analysis
Radek Matusu, Roman Prokop, Libor Pekar

Abstract: The paper deals with comparison of two principal approaches to uncertainty modelling and related robust stability analyses for a system with uncertain time-delay. A paper bleaching rocess, used as a testing plant, is described first as a system with parametric uncertainty and then in the form of unstructured multiplicative uncertainty model. The robust stability or instability of closed control loop with appropriate uncertain model of the controlled system and selected controller is verified and obtained results are compared. Moreover, the issue of conservatism in uncertainty description and in subsequent robust stability analysis is also discussed.


Fair Value Accounting: Political Obstacles?
Jiri Strouhal, Carmen Bonaci, Nicolae Pasca, Jirina Boksova

Abstract: Paper discusses accounting for financial instruments as well as their fair value, documenting how they tend to create obstacles in terms of the worldwide globalization process. More precisely, we focus on analyzing the amendment to IAS 39 for reclassifications of financial assets. Two objectives are being followed: to consider the amendment and its implications from the standard setting point of view and to afterwards quantify its effect on the EU companies. The first objective is reached by concluding that the amendment significantly altered IASB’s credibility, while the second failed in completely convincing us about the economic grounding of the amendment.


Admissibility Conditions and Asymptotic Behavior of Strongly Regular Graphs
Vasco Moco Mano, Luis Antonio de Almeida Vieira

Abstract: We consider a strongly regular graph, G, with adjacency matrix A, and associate a three dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra to A. Then, by considering convergent series of Hadamard powers of the idempotents of the unique complete system of orthogonal idempotents of the Euclidean Jordan algebra associated to A, we establish new admissibility conditions for the existence of strongly regular graphs. Finally, we extract some asymptotic conclusions about the spectrum of G.


The System of Population Protection by Sheltering from the Perspective of Municipalities
Jakub Rak, Lucie Jurikova, Milan Adamek

Abstract: This contribution analyses the ways of provision, planning and management of the population protection by sheltering from the consequences of mass destruction weapons in the territory of the municipalities with extended powers. The main objective of the paper is to introduce “standards” for the improvised shelter design, to describe the individual parts of the shelter together with its processing. Further, the paper clarifies the practical utilisation of theoretical knowledge and its employment within the state administration. The conclusion of the article is devoted to the significant aspects of the improvised shelters and especially their protective characteristics from the perspective of the protection from radioactive emissions, which considerably influenced the proposed tool for support and management of the population sheltering.


Systematic Modeling Process of System Behavior
Radek Silhavy, Petr Silhavy, Zdenka Prokopova

Abstract: In this articles we focus on the system behavioral modeling. We discuss systematic modeling approach for the system modeling. For the proposed modeling approach, the system engineering techniques are adopted. The role of the SysML basic principles and diagrams is discussed.


Clustered Requirements in System Engineering Project Estimation
Radek Silhavy, Petr Silhavy, Zdenka Prokopova

Abstract: The requirements engineering is mandatory phase which all development process start with. Mistakes in requirements elicitation therefore take very important role in a project success. In these article requirements elicitation methods are described in context of the system development and finally the clustered requirements are used for project estimation and the generic requirements engineering process is described.


Liquidity of Czech Commercial Banks and its Determinants
Pavla Vodova

Abstract: As liquidity problems of some banks during global financial crisis re-emphasised, liquidity is very important for functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to identify determinants of liquidity of Czech commercial banks. The data cover the period from 2001 to 2009. The results of panel data regression analysis showed that there is a positive link between bank liquidity and capital adequacy, share of non-performing loans and interest rates on loans and on interbank transaction. We have found negative influence of inflation rate, business cycle and financial crisis on liquidity. According to our findings, the relation between size of banks and their liquidity is ambiguous.


Active Tremor Control in 4-DOFs Biodynamic Hand Model
A. As’Arry, M. Z. Md. Zain, M. Mailah, M. Hussein, Z. M. Yusop

Abstract: This paper exhibits the performance of the active vibration method in suppressing human hand tremor. The Active Force Control (AFC) and classic Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller are proposed to control the linear electromagnet actuator and applied onto a four Degree-of-Freedoms (4-DOFs) biodynamic model of the human hand to investigate the performance of the controller. The PD controller was designed by using heuristic and optimization method. The Signal Constraint block available in Simulink Response Optimization Toolbox was employed as an optimization technique. Compared to the heuristic method, this proves to be a far more time and energy efficient approach to obtain satisfactory results. Findings show that the combination of AFC and classic PD controller provides a significant improvement in reducing tremor error. The simulation work could be used as the initial stage to study and develop an anti tremor device.


Software Application for Solving of Nonstationary Temperature Fields in a Plane Plate
D. Janacova, H. Charvatova, K. Kolomaznik, V. Vasek, P. Mokrejs

Abstract: In this paper we present software application that we programmed for study of heat transfer problems that is a part of education of subject Process engineering taught at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin. The application we use as a teaching aid for calculation and visualization of temperature distribution in the plane plate body during its heating or cooling and for calculation of economical costs of the process and accompanying main operating costs. Calculation accuracy of our application enables it to be used for real engineering computing.


Artificial Neural Networks in Artificial Time Series Prediction Benchmark
David Samek, David Manas

Abstract: The work is aimed to research of predicting abilities of artificial neural networks. The characteristic samples of artificial neural network types were selected to be compared in numerous simulations, while influences of key parameters are studied. The tested artificial networks are as follows: multilayered feed-forward neural network, recurrent Elman neural network, adaptive linear network and radial basis function neural network.


Computer Simulation of Washing Processes
D. Janacova, H. Charvatova, K. Kolomaznik, V. Vasek, P. Mokrejs, R. Drga

Abstract: The paper contents the optimization of the washing processes which are characterized by large consumption of washing liquid and electrical energy mainly. For this reason is very important deal with them. For the optimization process of washing it is possible to set up an access of the indirect modeling that is based on make-up of mathematical models coming out of study of the physical operation mechanism. The process is diffusion character it is characterized by the value of diffusion effective coefficient and so called structure power of the removing item to the solid material. The mentioned parameters belong to input data that are important for the automatic control of washing process.


Preview of Methods and Tools for Operating Data Analysis
Zdenka Prokopova, Petr Silhavy, Radek Silhavy

Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to present a preview of methods and tools for operating or business data analysis with regards to availability of final users. The objective of analytical methods and tools is obtaining necessary and useful information from collected data and consequently utilizing them for active control and decision making. The paper outlines an overview about contemporary state of art and trends in the field of data analysis.


Platform for Teaching Embedded Programming
J. Dolinay, P. Dostalek, V. Vasek, P. Vrba

Abstract: This article describes platform for school courses of programming embedded applications. It integrates several devices on one stand together with supporting software libraries and it is intended to provide easy-to-use platform for lessons. The devices included in the platform are microcontroller development kit, panel PC with Advantech I/O modules and several models of real-world systems. The platform should make it easier for the students to concentrate on the programming problems by providing documented and unified interface between the control system and controlled model of a technological process.


Factual and Mathematical Analysis of Impacts of the Economic Crisis on Tourism in the Czech Republic
Lubos Smrcka, Marketa Arltova, Jaroslav Schonfeld

Abstract: The Czech Republic is a showcase example of a very open and essentially very liberal economy, especially in terms of its relations with other countries. While industrial production, with manufacturing in particular, remains the key economic segment, tourism and services associated with it have their significance as well. As a state outside the Euro Area, the Czech Republic is faced with currency (CZK) fluctuations vis-a-vis the major foreign currencies, including the euro and U.S. dollar, with the importance of the euro being by far the highest in tourism. Using statistical time series, the present work analyses the development of tourism in the Czech Republic, uprooting the general belief that the crisis in the tourism industry came as a result of the global economic crisis (2008-2010). Based on mathematical analysis and identification of correlations between statistical time series, it has become apparent that the crisis had hit the travel industry before the global economic recession and came as the direct result of the strengthening of the CZK compared to the major foreign currencies, particularly the euro and U.S. dollar. A factual and mathematical analysis is performed, examining the relationship between the key data on consumption concerning local and foreign visitors. It has become apparent that the crisis curve applying to local visitors lags behind the curve applying to foreign visitors, with the time shift being equal to difference in the period where the strengthening of the Czech currency adversely affected the spending of foreign tourists and the period where the income of local residents was negatively impacted by the global crisis.


Effect of Moisture Transfer on Heat Energy Storage in Simple Layer Walls: Case of a Vegetal Fibre Material
C. Maalouf, A. D. Tran Le, M. Lachi, E. Wurtz, T. H. Mai

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research that looks for to identify the effects of moisture transfer on thermal inertia and for different materials through the case of a simple layer wall under internal periodical conditions. To study moisture transfer in materials, we used a coupled heat and moisture transfer model in which moisture transport is made through liquid and vapour phases. The liquid phase is supposed to move by capillarity whereas the vapour phase diffuses under vapour partial pressure gradient. For the numerical approach, a simulation model was developed and implemented in the program oriented object SPARK. Simulations were used to study the effect of moisture transfer on heat energy storage in simple layer walls and mainly for hemp concrete which is a green material with low environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis identifies the most important parameters.


Resilience as Main Part of Protection of Critical Infrastructure
Ludek Lukas, Martin Hromada

Abstract: Protection of critical infrastructure is a relatively new branch of application of management functions by state. The amendment of Act No. 240/2000 Coll. on crisis management has established the duty of Czech republic state's and private's owners of selected objects and systems to ensure the protection of elements of critical infrastructure. Implementation of the taken measures is done in the present time. Quantitative evaluation of taken security and other measures to should be part of this process in the future. This paper will talk basic problems and approaches of resilience of elements and system of critical infrastructure elements. The current approach of the Czech Republic to protect critical infrastructure is based on the approach of the European Union. Its aim is to provide for the elements of critical infrastructure protection.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 7, Volume 5, 2011)


A Modified Common Set of Weights Method to Complete Ranking DMUs
A. Payan, F. Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, A. A. Noora, M. Khodabakhshi

Abstract: Liu and Peng (Computers & Operations Research, 35[18], 1624-1637, 2008) presented a method for obtaining a common set of weights in data envelopment analysis (DEA) and they also provided a system for ranking decision making units (DMUs) using common set of weights. Their method has two main problems. At first, their presented model may have alternative optimal solutions (alternative common set of weights). Alternative optimal solutions may lead to different ranks for each DMU. Second, all criteria for ranking, by their suggested system, may be identical for at least two DMUs and so these DMUs will have the same rank. Therefore, there is no full ranking for DMUs using the suggested method. The aim of this paper is surveying these shortcomings and presenting methods to overcome them. This paper suggests a method to obtain unique common set of weights which can be applied for all methods used linear programs for acquiring common set of weights. Moreover, by definition bad benchmark against benchmark defined by Liu and Peng, a system for full ranking DMUs is proposed. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the proposed method.


Modelling of Energy Absorption in Square Cross-Section Aluminum Energy Absorbers by Hybrid ANFIS Networks
K. Salmalian, M. Soleimani

Abstract: One of the most common types of energy absorbers is thin-walled structures with square cross-sections. These absorbers have extensive applications in energy absorption mechanisms because they have great capacity for the energy absorption. In this paper, researchers have done scores of analyses on square cross-section aluminum structures in order to extract formulas with appropriate precisions, which can calculate the rate of absorption in these absorbers without performing numerous practical experiments. The results obtained from the experiments in this research are employed to represent a mathematical model based on Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) networks. Genetic algorithm (GA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) are deployed for the optimal design of both Gaussian membership functions of antecedents and the vector of linear coefficients of consequents in such networks, respectively. The aim of such modelling is to show how the value of absorbed energy varies with the variation of important parameters namely, width of section, thickness and height of column. It is demonstrated that SVD can be effectively used to optimally find the vector of linear coefficients of conclusion parts in ANFIS models and their Gaussian membership functions in premise parts are determined by GA.


Application of Fractional Order Calculus to Control Theory
Radek Matusu

Abstract: The principal goal of this paper is to introduce the fundamentals of the Fractional Order Calculus (FOC), outline its possible application to the field of analysis and synthesis of control systems, and present several existing Matlab toolboxes related to FOC. The basic theoretical concepts of FOC are followed by methodologies for potential fractional order systems description and their stability investigation. Furthermore, the paper offers brief overview of the fractional order controllers which can be found in the scientific literature and highlights the benefits of the fractional approach in comparison with the classical integer one. On top of that, the Matlab toolboxes, useful for the practical design and analyses connected with fractional order control, are also discussed in the paper.


Multiple Model Modeling and Predictive Control of the pH Neutralization Process
J. Novak, P. Chalupa, V. Bobal

Abstract: The requirement for improved efficiency and safety induce the need for sophisticated control systems. Model predictive control represents such control method which makes explicit use of a model of the process to obtain the control signal. The performance of control algorithm depends on the quality of the derived model. A possible approach is to decompose the nonlinear dynamics into multiple linear models and switch or interpolate them based on the current operating conditions. Multiple models structure for modeling and control allow the transfer of many methods from the linear control theory to the nonlinear systems. The process operations are partitioned into several operating regions and within each region, a local linear model is developed to approximate the process. To save on computational load, a linear model is obtained by interpolating these linear models at each sample point and then obtained model is used in a Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) framework. The manipulated variable adjustments are computed through optimization at each sampling interval. The proposed identification and control method is illustrated by the simulation study on a nonlinear process.


A Novel Principle for Relay-Based Autotuning
Roman Prokop, Jiri Korbel, Ondrej Liska

Abstract: This paper presents a new simple principle for aperiodic tuning of SISO controllers used in autotuning schemes. Autotuners represent a combination of relay feedback identification and some control design method. In this contribution, models with up to three parameters are estimated by means of a single asymmetrical relay experiment. Then a stable low order transfer function is identified. Subsequently, the controller is analytically derived from general solutions of Diophantine equations in the ring of proper and stable rational functions RPS. This approach enables to define a scalar positive parameter through a pole-placement root of the characteristic closed loop equation. A first order identification yields a PI-like controllers while a second order identification generates PID ones. The analytical simple rule is derived for aperiodic control response and the scalar tuning parameter m>0 is then tuned according to identified time constant of an approximated transfer function.


Robust Control of Unstable Systems: Algebraic Approach Using Sensitivity Functions
Frantisek Gazdos, Petr Dostal, Jiri Marholt

Abstract: This contribution proposes a methodology for robust control of unstable systems. For this purpose the algebraic approach using polynomials is utilized together with tuning some of the closed loop poles using loop sensitivity functions. The control design method is illustrated on the stabilization task of the magnetic levitation system. Complete procedure from derivation of a linearized model to controller design and tuning is described in detail. Finally the methodology proves useful for both stabilization in different operating points and output/load disturbance attenuation.


Quasi Real-Time Monitoring of Epoxy Resin Crosslinking via Raman Microscopy
Hana Vaskova, Vojtech Kresalek

Abstract: Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful analytical tool providing detailed and specific information at a molecular level. This benefit together with rapidity and other features of the method yields an advantage of quasi real time monitoring and measuring the structure changes dynamics. There is no doubt that Raman spectroscopy can be ranked among powerful and useful research and analytical methods applicable across the sciences and also industrial and manufacturing branches. The focus of this paper is in the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy for the process of epoxy resin crosslinking monitoring what involves identification localisation of the principal chemical bonds localisation of epoxy resin in Raman spectra. A mathematical model for a storage temperature of epoxy resin pre-pregs prediction was also proposed.


A Powerful Tool for Material Identification: Raman Spectroscopy
Hana Vaskova

Abstract: In present time different analytical methods with specific limitations serves for material identification. Raman spectroscopy is one of the most essential laser spectroscopic methods. In principle, Raman spectroscopy has the potential to answer a number of questions pertaining to chemical details of molecular structure what makes this technique definitely proper for material identification. Raman spectroscopy has recently proved progressive benefits and become a powerful research tool which finds assertion in almost all sciences and a wide range of technical and industrial branches. Doubtless advantages as non-destructiveness, contactless measurements, rapidity or no demand for sample preparation makes Raman spectroscopy attractive, convenient and effective. In the light of these facts, the popularity of Raman spectroscopy is still growing in analytical laboratories all over the world. Although the fundamental principle of this method is known almost one hundred years, extensive potentialities which Raman spectroscopy offers are finally able due to a technical advancement and novel engineering solution of the recent years. This paper briefly introduces the principle of the method, highlights its advantages, discusses drawbacks and compares its possibilities with infrared spectroscopy. Great applicability of Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated in the paper, other currently examined applications as determination of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium or epoxy resin crosslinking monitoring are also presented.


A Stability Test for Control Systems with Delays Based on the Nyquist Criterion
Libor Pekar, Roman Prokop, Radek Matusu

Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to revise and extend results about stability and stabilization of a retarded quasipolynomial and systems obtained using the Mikhaylov criterion in our papers earlier. Not only retarded linear time-invariant time-delay systems (LTI-TDS) are considered in this paper; neutral as well as distributed-delay systems are the matter of the research. A LTI-TDS system of retarded type is said to be asymptotically stable if all its poles rest in the open left half plane. Asymptotic stability of neutral systems described by its spectrum is not sufficient to express the notion of stability at whole since neutral LTI-TDS are sensitive to infinitesimal delay changes. This yields the concept of so called strong stability involving this fact. Moreover, stability can not be studied using the characteristic quasipolynomial when distributed delays in either input-output or internal relation appear in a model. The contribution transforms the formulation of the Mikhaylov criterion (the argument principle) into the language of the Nyquist criterion for the open loop of a control system. The classical simple feedback loop is considered. Illustrative examples are presented to clarify the results.


Modeling and Microcontroller Control of Raw Hide Soaking in Tannery Industry
P. Dolezel, V. Vasek , D. Janacova, K. Kolomaznik, M. Zalesak

Abstract: The paper deals with utilization of Ethernet interface of microcontroller MC9S12NE64 in automatic control of hide soaking process. Microcontrollers are widely used in small or medium size technological processes. Microcontroller is usable for controlling the process described in this paper. The presented algorithm was developed to optimize the soaking process and prevent structural damage of hides that occurs while the hide is sunk and washed in plain water. Such damage is caused by large osmotic pressure that tears the fine structure of the hide. The algorithm was fully implemented into the microcontroller which controls the whole process. The Ethernet interface was used for interconnection with a computer. Web server is also part of the microcontroller so that the whole application is saved in the microcontroller`s flash memory. The computer only requires installation of a common web browser to provide successful communication with the microcontroller.


Modelling and Simulation of the Order Realization in the Serial Production System
Robert Bucki, Bronislav Chramcov

Abstract: The paper highlights the problem of mathematical modelling of the sample logistic production system where production stands are arranged in series. The production stands are equipped with tools which are used during the production process. If a tool is completely worn out, it needs to be replaced or regenerated. The problem consists in determining the best order realization sequence in order to minimize the total production time. The idea of time scaling by means of the simulation method is proposed in order to determine the best possible order realization time. Heuristic algorithms are used to control the production process. The criteria are given to either maximize the production output or minimize the lost flow capacity of the production stands or minimize the tool replacement time. A possibility of simulation of such production systems is outlined.


The Use of Peak Functions in Heat Load Modeling of District Heating System
Erik Kral, Lubomir Vasek, Viliam Dolinay, Petr Capek

Abstract: This paper describes the use of peak functions in the heat load modeling of district heating system. Heat load is approximated by the sum of time dependent and temperature dependent components. The temperature dependent component is approximated using sum of two peak functions and temperature dependent component is approximated using generalized logistic function. The model parameters are estimated using Particle Swarm Algorithm.


Measures for Critical Infrastructure Protection
Ludek Lukas, Lubos Necesal

Abstract: Methematical models and methods are applied across different scientific fields. Including the issues of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) which has come forward in the interest of EU in the last decade. In order to understand the broader connections and the present state of CIP, the article speaks of the contemporary process of marking and identification ECI and entities which are (or should be) included in this process – specifically in Czech Republic. The main aim of the article is to introduce the measures for the critical infrastructure protection. These measures often use a mathematical apparatus, namely in the field of determining threats, evaluation of risks and forming of exceptional events etc. The purpose of the article is not only to list the mathematical models, tools or methods used but to introduce the issues of critical infrastructure protection and open areas, in which these models, tools and methods can be used.


OCR Systems Based on Convolutional Neocognitron Network
Palka Jan, Palka Jiri, Navratil Milan

Abstract: This paper deals with the recognition of handwritten text. It is mainly discussing improving nowadays OCR systems. In detail is this article focused on the possibilities of implementing the neocognitron network in this improvement. Next part deals with the problems of document processing, recognition of individual characters and subsequent search for whole words against the dictionary. Main goal of this work is to invent new principles in the field of processing hand written text especially focused on text with language specifics like diacritics.


Pole Placement Controller with Compensator Adapted to Semi-Batch Reactor Process
Novosad David, Lubomir Macku

Abstract: This paper deals with the modelling and control of semi-batch reactor used for chromium sludge regeneration process. A comparison of three process control approaches is presented. Usual PID controller without online identification (OI) and adaptive PID controller were adapted to semi-batch rector process in our previous studies. In this study the two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) controller is developed for the same reactor control.


Examinations and Algorithms to Help Find a Cause of Vertigo
Pivnickova L., Vasek V., Dolinay V.

Abstract: Vertigo is very common type of dizziness. There are several sophisticated methods which help to find a cause of vertigo. Many of them were described in the last century or even earlier. These methods still have their place in modern medicine, but the introduction of modern computer technology can make their implementation in many ways to refine and improve. Posturography is one of a non-invasive medical technique used to evaluate vertigo. Traditional static posturography has several results, such as charts describing speed, direction, harmony of patient’s tilts, but for the medical studies and formation of norms are more sufficient numerical outputs, which we are going to deal with in this paper. This articles deals with numerical methods of calculation in evaluation of static posturography. Some evaluations have in the past been defined, but still some significant signs remain hidden in charts or worse, in raw data. This paper show traditional numeric approaches and try to point the new one, focused on lateral deviation and refining current options. The proposed algorithms need to be verified by the practical experience now and found the rate of its usability.


Assembling a Formula for Current Transferring by Using a Summary Graph and Two-Graph
Bohumil Brtnik

Abstract: This paper deals with the symbolic solution of the switched current circuits. As is described, the full graph method of the solution can be used for finding relationships expressing current transfer, too. The summa MC-graph is constructed using two-graphs method in two-phase switching. By comparing the matrix form with results of the Mason’s formula are derived relations for current transfers in all phases. There are discussed various options described transistor memory cells - with loss and lossless transistors and normal transistor current mirror. Evaluation of the graph is simplified if we consider the lossless transistors or if the y21-parameter of one transistor is alpha multiple of second ones.


Innovative Waveform Generator Designs for Ultrasound Therapy Machine Using programmable FPGA Approaches
Lai Khin Wee, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: The current ultrasound therapy machines are implementing continuous waveform, which in fact, is not an optimum technique for therapy treatment process. Apparently, pulse waveform appearing as a more effectively way of signal generation in terms of its power consumption, low cost hardware and short timing used. In order to overcome these drawbacks of conventional therapy machines, we proposed a programmable pulse generator for pulse waveform production with high frequency more than 1MHz through Cyclone 2 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) development board. The generator is developed with maximum controllable 10 number of burst and clock frequency 50MHz. Register Transfer Level designs with Very-High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding are also implemented throughout this project. Pin assignment was used to assign the pin connection in FPGA for linkage of input and output data of FPGA. The result of generated waveforms were observed using oscilloscope. Based on the findings, the developed programmable FPGA is able to produce high frequency signal effectively and accurately.


    Paper Title, Authors, Abstract (Issue 8, Volume 5, 2011)


Comparative Analysis of the Hydraulic Parameters of Steady Water Flow in a Looped Pipe Network
Madalina Stanescu, Anca Constantin, Claudiu St. Nitescu, Lucica Rosu, Adrian Mihai Dobre

Abstract: The present paper presents the comparative analysis of the hydraulic parameters, respectively flow rate and pressure, determined on a physical model and also calculated by the use of the automatic program for steady flow, RIMIS. The physical model was developed by the authors for the study of motion in a water distribution looped network. The comparative analysis aims the validation of the RIMIS program created by the authors. The experimental results are destined for the analysis of the steady motion, as a reference for transitory motion in a ring type pipe network, for possible operating situations.


Unsteady Flow in a Looped Water Distribution Network with Two Sources of Disturbance
Anca Constantin, Madalina Stanescu, Claudiu St. Nitescu

Abstract: Numerical simulation and experimental laboratory measurements were developed in order to study the unsteady flow of water in a single loop distribution network. Transient movement results as a hydraulic system response to sudden valve maneuvers in a water supply network. Investigation on pressure variation was carried out on a representative loop, hydraulically similar to a real water single loop network aiming to correlate the extreme pressure values, frequency, and damping coefficient to the consumers’ water demand and valves maneuver pattern. Theoretical and experimental results reveal the same extreme pressure values, but the laboratory recorded oscillations have a lower frequency and an increased damping ratio than the simulated ones.Numerical simulation and experimental laboratory measurements were developed in order to study the unsteady flow of water in a single loop distribution network. Transient movement results as a hydraulic system response to sudden valve maneuvers in a water supply network. Investigation on pressure variation was carried out on a representative loop, hydraulically similar to a real water single loop network aiming to correlate the extreme pressure values, frequency, and damping coefficient to the consumers’ water demand and valves maneuver pattern. Theoretical and experimental results reveal the same extreme pressure values, but the laboratory recorded oscillations have a lower frequency and an increased damping ratio than the simulated ones.


Hydraulic Study on Pumping Stations Equipped with Air Chamber Mounted Next to the Pump
Claudiu Stefan Nitescu, Anca Constantin, Madalina Stanescu

Abstract: Surge tank and air chamber are the most used devices to protect a pumping installation from either cavitation or excessive pressure during water hammer. These devices transform the water rapid variable movement into a slow oscillatory one. The choice of the optimal protection solution should rely not only on hydraulic, but also on technical and economic calculation. Numerical simulation of the water transient movement reveals the most effective protection method from technical view pint, for the water pumping station SRP 4 Seimeni, Constanta county.


Investment Activities of Czech Companies by Means of Foreign Direct Investment and Their Development
Eva Hamplova, Jaroslav Kacetl, Jaroslav Kovarnik

Abstract: This article deals with investment activities of Czech companies done by means of foreign direct investment (FDI). It focuses on the development of foreign direct investment in the period 2000-2010, compares this type of investment on the international level and subsequently evaluates the foreign direct investment abroad effects on the Czech Republic's balance of payment. One of the most significant facts involved in investing abroad by means of foreign direct investment abroad is a choice of particular economic activities and destinations. This article summarises trends and the development of economic activities and territorial stimuli that Czech companies take into account when establishing or buying companies or their parts, when reinvesting profits or making lending transactions to subsidiaries, associated companies or branches outside the Czech Republic.


The Use of Multidimensional Models to Increase the Efficiency of Management Support Systems
Mihaela Muntean, Ana-Ramona Bologa, Razvan Bologa, Alexandra Florea

Abstract: Business Intelligence enables universities to measure, monitor and manage their performance more effectively. The paper presents a framework for developing a business intelligence solution for universities. This framework could be applied in universities in order for them asses their current business intelligence implementation level and even identify the requirements to be met for reaching a desired business intelligence level. The paper identifies six Business Intelligence maturity levels. Each level is described by the following elements: top management involvement, user training, information quality, metrics, information infrastructure and Business Intelligence technology. For the case of the Academy of Economic Studies from Bucharest it has been studied the possibility of reaching a higher business intelligence maturity level by implementing a multi dimensional analysis model for providing a better information support for university management decision making.


Frequent Pattern Discovery with Constraint Logic Programming
Nittaya Kerdprasop, Kittisak Kerdprasop

Abstract: Constraint logic programming is a declarative programming style combining the features of logic programming and constraint propagation to solve combinatorial and optimization problems such as resource allocation, scheduling, and routing. We consider the problem of mining frequent patterns within a setting of constraint logic programming approach. Frequent patterns are patterns such as sets of features or items in transactions that appear frequently. Such patterns can reveal associations, correlations, and many other interesting relationships hidden in a dataset. Constraints can play an important role in improving the performance of mining algorithms. The problem of constraint-based pattern mining can be formulated as the discovery of all patterns in a given dataset that satisfy the specified constraints. We present implementation of problem modeling and solving with respect to pattern mining in knowledge discovery in databases.


Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis of EU Project Implementation Benefits for the Impacted Micro-Region
Jiri Krupka, Romana Provaznikova, Jozef Svejcar

Abstract: The objective of this contribution is to analyze, by means of a case study, any potential benefits of a project financed from the European Union - European Regional Development Fund implementation on the selected Czech Republic micro region. The contribution of the project can be assessed according to multiple sustainable development criteria. These criteria cover the following areas: economic, environmental and social. The solved problem is formulated as a problem of multiple criteria decision analysis. The three level method analytic hierarchy process is used. The algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB. The decision tree analysis was applied for this problem, too.


Effect of Calcitonin on Bone Formation and Resorption: Mathematical Modeling Approach
Chontita Rattanakul, Sahattaya Rattanamongkonkul

Abstract: We study the effect of calcitonin on bone formation and resorption mathematically by developing a system of nonlinear differential equations to describe the process. The model accounts for the concentration of calcitonin above the basal level, the number of active osteoclastic cells and the number of the active osteoblastic cells. We then applied the singular perturbation to our model in order to obtain the conditions on the system parameters for which the various kinds of dynamic behavior can be occurred. Computer simulations are also carried out to support our theoretical predictions. The results show that a periodic behavior can be expected corresponding to the pulsatile secretion pattern of calcitonin observed clinically in normal individuals.


Possibilities of Analysis of Selected Sustainable Development Regional Indicators
Jiri Krupka, Pavel Jirava, Jan Mandys, Filip Mezera, Miloslava Kasparova

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyse the defined group of indicators from the selected priority axis of the Strategy of the sustainable development of the Czech Republic. The methods of regression analysis and also Saaty’s matrix are used for this analysis. Interpretation of trend by means of linear and quadratic regression is discussed for the selected region and also for the region’s individual parts. The results of the analysis could be used in the process of planning in the local politics on the regional level.


The Population Protection by Sheltering – A Design of the Chosen Shelters under the Auspices of a Municipality
Lucie Jurikova, Jakub Rak, Milan Adamek

Abstract: This contribution outlines one of the possible safeguard methods of the chosen shelter. It emphasises the knowledge of the basic parameters of the shelter together with all necessary information for protective element calculations. For clarification and ease of understanding of the proposed design the modifications are presented by means of AutoCad software. Furthermore, the article clarifies a possible cooperation within the framework of the municipality with extended powers, namely through the provision of material supplies necessary for design work. The material is to be provided by a chosen company in order to improve the protective characteristics of the shelters in the event of danger. The main objective is to point out the resulting utilisation of designing and further modifications stated in a Standard by the employees of the public sector. In conclusion the article explains the utilisation of AutoCad software and visual display in 3D which simplifies coordination and heightens the efficiency in case of extraordinary or emergency situations.


A Mathematical Model of Bone Remodeling Process: Effects of Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D
Chontita Rattanakul, Sahattaya Rattanamongkonkul, Wannapa Kunpasuruang, Sittipong Ruktamatakul, Saowaros Srisuk

Abstract: Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D play an important role in calcium homeostasis as well as in bone remodeling process. We propose here a system of nonlinear differential equations to describe bone remodeling process accounted for the concentrations of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, the number of active osteoclasts and the number of active osteoblasts. We then utilize the singular perturbation technique to analyze our model in order to obtain the delineating conditions on the system parameters for which the different kinds of dynamic behavior can be occurred. The model is then investigated numerically. The theoretical and numerical results show that a periodic behavior which corresponds to the pulsatile pattern observed clinically in the levels of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D can be expected from our model.


Simulation of Surface Flows on a Droplet in an Oscillating Pressure Field
Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract: The surface flows on a droplet in an oscillating pressure field are simulated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian and level set coupled method. Detailed transient flow fields in and around the droplet are calculated by performing parallel computations, and the flow phenomena in a thin layer around the droplet surface are discussed. The recirculation flow region is found to be formed at the top and bottom stagnation points on the droplet surface. It is also found that the oscillating flow with a phase shift appears in the thin layer along the droplet surface.


Exponential Stability and Stabilization of T-S System for Synchronous Machine without Damper
Ouaaline Najat, Elalami Noureddine

Abstract: This paper presents the stability analysis via quadratic function of synchronous machine without damper. First, The non linear mathematical model for the proposed synchronous machine adopted in this work is described by T-S continuous fuzzy models. Next, the stability conditions are derived using Lyapunov functional approach. Then a stabilization approach for a system through control law for T-S fuzzy control based on PDC design is studied. The asymptotic and exponential stabilization are considered with the maximization of the convergence rate. The stability conditions of the closed loop multiple models are expressed in linear matrix inequalities (LMI) form. To optimize the degree of stability, a formulation in term of generalized eigenvalues problem (GEVP) is proposed. Simulation results show the utility of the stability analysis based on LMIs proposed in this paper.


Fuzzy Output Control for an Exploited Polynomial Fish Population Model
Achraf Ait Kaddour, El Houssine El Mazoudi, Noureddine Elalami

Abstract: In this paper the stage-structured population model with nonlinear cannibalism terms is studied. Our approach utilizes a certain type of fuzzy systems that are based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models to approximate nonlinear systems. We construct a fuzzy feedback control that permits to stabilize the system around the nontrivial equilibrium. The effort is used as a control term, the age classes as a states and the quantity of captured fish per unit of effort as a measured output. In order to stabilize the stock states around the references equilibrium, this means biologically the sustainability of the fish stock, the output feedback controller based on the T-S state observer is adopted, rather than the state feedback. We formulate an observer and a controller to stabilize globally exponentially the closed loop Takagi Sugeno (T-S) model. The continuous non-linear model is first represented by a T-S model. Next, we develop a technique for designing a dynamic output feedback control law which globally stabilizes this fuzzy system model. All the procedures are based on the linear matrix inequality approach. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are demonstrated with a practical example. It is shown by numerical simulations that the control law investigated permits the stability of the system around the positive equilibrium point.


Characteristic Impedances Calculations in Arteries with Atherosclerosis Using MAPLE
Davinson Castano Cano

Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases cause deaths every year. For that reason it is important to model these diseases and the troubles that they can cause into the human body, particularly the arteries, in the cardiovascular field. As an effort for achieving the understanding of the phenomena, an electric analogue representation of the arteries and blood flow has been made, where the key part is the characteristic impedance. We present the calculations made for obtaining the characteristic impedances in different cases. The Navier-Stokes in cylindrical coordinates is used with the boundary condition, representing Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, with a special interest in Atherosclerosis disease. Laplace transform is used as a classical method for solving the differential equation. The power of the computer algebra system is shown through this work.


Disturbance Rejection of Nonlinear Servo System by Self-tuning Control
V. Bobal, P. Chalupa, P. Dostal, J. Novak

Abstract: This paper copes with a design of a control for a nonlinear servomotor. Rejection disturbance algorithm is incorporated into the controller. A control based on polynomial approach is used as a suitable strategy for a rejection of the measurable disturbance. The regression output error models are used in the identification part. The parameter estimates of the process and disturbance models were computed using the least squares method extended by an adaptive directional forgetting. The controller synthesis is based on polynomial theory – pole assignment method. The designed controller was applied to a laboratory servo system Amira DR300 in real-time conditions.


E-model Modification for Case of Cascade Codecs Arrangement
Miroslav Voznak

Abstract: Speech quality assessment is one of the key matters of voice services and every provider should ensure adequate connection quality to end users. Speech quality has to be measured by a trusted method and results have to correlate with intelligibility and clarity of the speech, as perceived by the listener. It can be achieved by subjective methods but in real life we must rely on objective measurements based on reliable models. One of them is E-model that we can consider as mainly adopted method in IP telephony. This method is based on evaluation of transmission path impairments influencing speech signal, especially delays and packet losses. These parameters which are common in IP network can affect dramatically speech quality. In this article, a new modification of E-model, that takes into consideration the cascade codecs arrangement, is presented. The proposed a correction function improves the current computational non-intrusive approach that is described in recommendation ITU-T G.107, so-called E-model.


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